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it — 


THE 


ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 


ELEVENTH EDITION 


nRST 

•dition. 


1768— 1771. 

SECOND 

„ 

1* 

ten 

1777-1784. 

THIRD 


, 

•t 

dghtttn 

1788— X797. 

FOURTH 


n 

n 

twenty t> 

x8oi— 1810. 

nFTH 


9 

n 

twenty „ 

18x5—1817. 

SIXTH 


• 

n 

twenty 

1833—1824. 

SEVENTH 


» 

M 

twenty-on* «, 

1830—1842. 

EIGHTH 


» 

If 

twenty-two if 

1853— 186a 

NINTH 


1 

'»» 

twenty-uTe i« 

187s— X889. 

TENTH 


»l 






tn 


xgoa— X903. 


ELEVENTH 


poblished in twenty-oint Tolnmee, X9X»— IQII* 


THE 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH EDITION 


VOLUME XXII 
POLL to REEVES 


NEW YORK 
THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY 

1911 


fie 


Copyright, in the United Sutes of America, 191 1, 

l>y 

The Encyclopaedia BriUanica Company. 


INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 


A.CO. 
A.G. 

A. IX 
iLiiW.l 

A. KG.* 

A. KB. 

A.a. 

A-Bk 

A.xa. 


A.K 


AiKmsn BoomNBON, D.D., D.C.L. 

Profcnor of Canon Lnw at the Catholic Univerrity of I^rii. Honorary Canon of 
Pitfia. Editor of the Caium sl t Comkmponin. 

AtBiKT Cbaslis Lewb GorrBOV Guemthzr, M^-^M.D.. Pb.D., F.R.S. f 

Keeper of Zoological Depactment, Brituh Museum, 1879-1S95. Cold Medalfiat. J 
Royal Society, 1878. Author of CataSopus 0/ Colubriut Snakes^ BairacMat] 
SJumHa and Fitkumlkt British Museum; &c I 

Rxv Akthvi Cusbman McGirmT, M.A., Ph D., D D r 

Profcoor of Cbuich Hiatory, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of 1 
^*^'^jf CkrisHamty in tki Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historic Eeeksia 
of *^ ' 


{f^ 


Bm9 {inparO. 


Author of RestonHmt ^ tke 


Awrai DoBSON, LL.D., D C.L. 

See the biographical article: Dobson. Hbnbt Austin. 

AxiBUi DB WiNT Foots. 

Superintendent of North Star Mining Company, California. 

Rbv. Aitrzd Eenist Gaivie, M.A., D.D- 

Principal of New College. Hampetead. Member of the Boaid of Theology and 
the Board of PhOoeophy, London Univerrity. Author of Studies in the turner Ufe 
ef Jesus; dtc 

A. E. HOVGBTOIf.' 

Formetly Conei p oodent of the Slaudard in Spain. 
Bourbous im Spam. 

AsiBUB EvKEBTT Srifley, M.A., D Sc., F.R.S. 

Master of Christ's College. Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge Univenity. 
Joint-editor of the CamSrUfji Natural Bistory, 

Hajob Auruk. Gbqeob Fbbdbeick GBirriTia (d. 1008). 

H.M. lanector of Prison^ 1878-18961. Author 01 The Chnmeles ef 'Newgate; 
SecratM ef the Prison House; Ac. 

AooiF Haikack, Pb.D. 

See the biogiaphical article: Habhacx, Aoolp. 

Rev. Aiexamdee James Gbxeve, M.A., B.D. 

ffio f e ssor of New Testament and Choich History, Yorkshire United Independent 
College, Brulfofd. Sometime Registrar of Madras Univerrity. and Member cl 
Mysore Educational Service. 

Amdbew Lano. 

See the biogrmphicil article: Lamo. Anoebw. 

Aiexamdee McAviay, M.A. . 

Professor of Mathematics and Physics^ Univerrity of Tasmania. Author of Uliiity 
0/ Quaienrious tn Physics; te. 

Agues Muexbl Ciay (Mn Edward Wilde). 

Formetly Rerident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall. Oxford. JointHinthor of Sourees 
ef Bammn History, tjj-^ B.C. 


AUEED Nbwtow, F.R.S. 

See the Uogiaphical article: Nbwton, Alpbbdi 


{in part). 


Prior, mtSMW. 


PneumaHc. 


FrotflMt {in parC. 

FraMUnff; 
Prlmittv* 


PoltofgiMt PrmBttlitM; 
FvyehiSBl BMsareb. 


(in part). 


PrttliMOls; Qgafl; Qwiil: 
Bin (m parO; 
Bbvbd; BbsoiUII; 


■ A ooaplcte list, sbownig 


lBsdwii«. 
an individual contriboton, appears in the final volume. 


A. a. 

A.8.P^P. 

A. 8. Wo. 

A.T.H. 
iLWL* 

K* W« F0» 

A.W.R. 
B.B.iL 

C.B.W. 

C.F.A. 
CO. Ob. 

C.HL 
C.H.Bk 

C.H.T.* 
C.R.B. 

C.T.J. 
D.B.aa. 

D.C.B. 
D.D.A. 

aF.T. 
D.O.E1 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


Aetbur Shadwell, M.A.. M.D., LL.D. 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of Tkt Londam Water- 
Sn^7\ Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperanu and UfjMation, 

Andiew Seth Princle-Pattison. M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of Logic and Meuphvsics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, lOil. Fellow of the British Acaidemy. 
Author of Man*s Place in Ike Cosmos; The FkHosophkal Radicals \ &c 

Arthur Sktth Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Keeper of Geology. Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of 
the Gedogical Society of London. 

Arthur Twinxnc Hadley. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Haolby, Arthur Twining. 

Aneurin Williams, M.A. 

Darrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International 
Co-operative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 191a Author of Tnenty<igkt Years 
eS Co-partnership at Cutse; Stc 

Alfred Wh-liam Pollard, M.A. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 
London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books 
and BibUograpkica, Joint-editor of the library. Chief Editor of the " Globe " 
Ckaucer, 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encydcpaedia ej tke 
Laws ejEngfand. 

Braman Blanchard Adams. 

Associate Editor of the Railway Ags Caaette, New York. 

Charles BiMONT, D.Lttt. 

See the biographical article: BiMONT, C 

C. E. Webber, C.B., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. (1848-iQ.^, 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Served in Indian Mutiny, 1857-1860; Egyptian 
Expedition, 188a: Ac. Founder (with late Sir Francis Bolton) and PasiPresident 
of the Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formeriy Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal 


Fusiliers;. Author < 


r Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 


Charles George Crump, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. PubUc Reoocd Office, London. Editor of 
Landor's Works; &c 

Charles Hiatt. 

Author of Picture Posters ; Ac 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assisunt Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member 
of the American Historical Association. 

Crawford Howell Toy, A.M^LL.D. 

See the biographkal article': Toy, Crawford Howell. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modem History in the Univeraty of Birmingham. Formeriy Fellow 
of Merton Cdlege. Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Priaeman, Oxford, 1880. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. JVuthor of 
Henry Ike Nang^tor; Tke Dawn of Modem Geograpkyi &c 

Charles T. Jacobx. 

Managing Partner of the Chiswick Press, London. Author of PrwiHngi Ac 
Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. 

Prctfessor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford. Conn. 

Author of DetdopmetU ef Mudim Theology, funstrudence and Constitutional 

Theory; Selections jrom Ibn Kkaldun; ReHgious Attitude and lafe in Islam ; &c. 

Demetrius Charles Boulger. 

Author of England and Russia m Central Asia; History oj Qama; L^e of Gordon; 
India in tke tgtk Century ; History of Belgium ; &c 

Rev. Daniel Dulany Addison, D.D. 

Rector of All Saints* Church, BrooUine, Mass. Examinine Chaplain to Bidiop of 
Massachusetts. Secretary.CathedralChapterof Diocese of Massachusetts. Author 
of Tke Episcopalians, Ac. 

Donald Francis Tovey 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising Tke Classical Concerto, Tke 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other claMJcwl works. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fdlow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and ' 
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905: Assiut. 1906-1907. Director. British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Expk)ration FuikI, 1899. 


PrndtutioiL 
Pytbagons (In part). 

PtttodMtyfBk 
RaUwajrs: Economics. 
Fnilt^harlBC. 

Polyglott. 

Proelamatloii. 

Bli^wijrs: Accident Statistics. 

OttkhenL 

RRlIways: Ugkt Railways (in 
part). 

BiVBDiia: BattU of 1512. 
RMord. 


PorgRtonr. 
FMyerbi^ Book oL 

Polo, Mine (m part), 
Ptotomy {in part); 
Pytluas (m part). 

Prlntbig. 


ProtwtuU EplMop«l Chnreh. 


PrognunniB Haslc 


Pterift. 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES vii 

DlH. David Hamhay. ronllnnii. «*#♦!> Af* 

Fonneriy Britiah Vice-Consul at Baicdona. Author of Skort History pf Ikt Royal i STu^ ai. utTm!. 
Naoyilifo^EmiUoCastdariac -^ LBaW«fc, to Wilier. 

a H. a. DmaKTZKLD Hbiay Scott, M.A., PB.D., LL.D., F.ILS. f 

Preadent of the Ltmiean Society. Professor of Bouny. Royal College of Science, ^ 
London, 1885-1892. Author of StnciMral Botany; Studies im Fossil Botany; Ac L 

D. W. T- D'Abcy Wemtworth Thoicpson, C.B., M.A. f 

Professor of Natural History. University CoUese, Dundee. British Ddecate. 1 
Bering Sea Fisheries and other Conferences. Author of ^ (7toMafy^Gr«dk5irrf«:| 
At. I 

B. A. J. E. Altsed ToifES. 

Author of Old Bndisk Geld Plate-, Old Ckureh PlaU ^tkelOeef Man; Old SUeer , 
Sacramental Vessds ol Foreipi Protestant Ciurches in England: JUustrated Catalotue ' 
of Leopold de Rotksckild's CoUeetiom tf Old PlaU; A Private Catalogue ef tke Royal 
Plate at Windsor Castle; Ac 

B. A. M» Edwasd Altizd Minchxk, M.A.» F.Z.S. f Polfp; 

Professor of Prototoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of J pfotoiA 
Merton CoUcse, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, | «^.^.'^_ 
UnivcnitySuege. London. • IftOlOM*. 


Edwin Bale, R.I. 

Art Director,' \. ■ ■■>* 1 ■ i» v^wiuimn^, >««»• ivkcmt^;* «M «4^ «%wjBi 

in Water Colours Hon. Sec, Aiidsts* Copyright Committee. 


Art^birector.-Caasdl A Cdmpany, Ltd-^M^mber of the Koyal Institute of Rdntert ^ 


B. Bl; EuiEST Baixek. MA. 

FeUow and Lecturer in Modenf History, St John's College, (Moid. Fomeriy < 
Fellov and Tutor of Merton Colkge. Craven Scholar, 1695. 


Of ADtSoeh; 
RajmnDd of ToqIoom; 
Baymimd of TMpoB; 
Baimgu o( Chitllloii 


B. Bl K. Edwabd B. Ellznoton. i 

Founder and Chief Engineer of the General Hydraulic Bower Ca, Ltd. Author of 1 
Contributions to Proceedings of Institutions of Civil Engiaeera and of Mechanical I HydrmUie, 
Engineeia. 

B. G.BL RiGBT Rev. Edwasd Cutrbekt Bdtiex, M.A., O.S.B., Lrrr.D. f 1 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of *' The Lausiac Hislofy of Pidladhia'W ! 
la Cambridge Texts ond-Stndies. {* 

B. Gb EmiUMD G0S8B, LL.D., D.C.L. / pnOotmi Pkoaa. 

See the Uogiaphial article: Go9SB,EDifimD. ^wwogw, nw*. 

B* Gia Eiiziz Gaicse, M.Im8t.E.E. • r w^^ »•«.«»•!_ 

Managiiy blrefctor of British Electric Tiactioo Ca, Ltd. Author of JfouMf ^ J ™™?*' ^' ^"'••jw (m 
EleeMcaUndertttkings; Ac \ fort)- 

& Gr. Bimest AsiHin Gaxdnex. M.A. f — 

See the biographical article: GAKO(fBi,PBBCT. -^ROfflMl. 

B. & CL Bixest George Coexe, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.(EdiD.), M.Sc.. M.IJf scb.E. f 

Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the City and Guilds of London Technical J M-n^ 
CoDeee. Author of various papers in Transactions of the Royal Soeietiea of London, 1 '^'"o* 
Edinburgh and Canada; Ac I 

BLH.BL 
B.J.J. 


Sot Edwasd Heebest BuNBintT, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1805). f ^onp^ (w forih 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunda, 1847-1852. Author of A History efAmient Geography; < Ptolmj (m parOl 
Ac [ TytbmB (in part), 

{■ 


Ediiumd Janes James. A.M.^ Pb.D.. LL.D. 

President of the University of Illinoia; President of American Economic Aasocia- J pntmtMiaL. 
tkm. Author of History oj American Tariff Legislation, and Essays and Mono- ^ ''v<^"*"^ 
graphs on Economic, Financial, Political and Educational subjecta 


E. 0*8. EuxABETH CNexll, M.A. (Mrs H. O. CNeiU). j Pkobentoqr; Plobttr 
"" "" " \\ 


Portugal: LUtralmo. 


Fonneriy Univcnity FcUow and Jones FcUow of the Univcnity of Maachcater. \ Prior; Ploeiliator. 

BL ft. Edoax Pbestaob. 

Special Lecturer in Porttmuese Literature in the Unlveraty of Manchester. 
Ejcaminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, Ac. 
Commendador, Portuguese Order of S Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon ' 
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society ; Ac Editor of UUers ef 
e Portngnoso Nuni Aauan's Ckroniele tjf Gninoa; Ac 

B, Bb. EufBST RuTBESTOBO. F.R.S., D.Sc, LL.D., Pb.D. f 

Langworthy Professor of Physics, Univenitv of Manchester. Nobd Price for < RadlOHWUiny. 
ChMiatry, 1908. Author of Radio-^cHoity; Kadio-cctioe Tran^ormations; Ac { 

B. B» BL Edwyx Robext Bevam, MA. f 

New College^ Chrfoid. Atxthordi Tke House qfSeUncns; Jerusalom under tke Higfti 
Priests. [ 

F.€LCL Fwi>EtTrg Comtwallis Cowybease, M.A., D.Th. r 

Fellow of the Britiah Academy. Fonneriy FeUow of University College, Oxford. J 
Editor of Tke Ancient Armenian Texts ef AristoOe. Authorof If yf*, if agic audi 


VUl 

F.o.a.a. 

F.Dr. 
F.D.A. 

F.B.W. 

F.CLP.* 
F. H. D.* 

F.J.H.B. 

F.K.* 
F.UO. 

P.P. 

F.R.G. 
F.Wa. 
F.W.B.* 

F.Y.I. 

CiLGr. 

O.CW. 

0.0.8. 
O.J.A. 
O.J.T. 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


Author of lUMfcs^ like -^ 


FnoiNAND Cannxno Scott Scbillex, M.A., D.Sa 

Fdlow and Tutor of Coiput Christi CoUisge. (Moid. 

Fbakcis M. D. Dbukmond. 

FXawk Dawson Adams, Ph.D.. D^., F.G5., F.R.S. 

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Lo^n Profcoor of Geology. McGUl 
Untventt)r, Montreal; President of Canadian Mining Institute. Author of Papen 
dealing with problems of Metamorphism, Ac, also Researches on Experimenul 
Geokgyj&e. 

Rev. Fk£deuck Eowaxd Waubn, M.A., F.S.A. 

Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds, and Honorary Canon of Ely. Fellow of 
St John's CoUqje. Oxford, 1865-1882. Author oS The Old Catholic RUual done tnto 
English and compared with the Comsponding Qfices in the Roman amd Old German 
Manuals; The Uturgy and RUual of ike CelHc Cknreh; Ac. 

Frank Geoige Pope. 

Lecturer on'Qiemistfyt East London CoU^go (Univenity of London). 

Feank Haxgh 1)ixon, Pb.D., A.m. 

Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover. N.H.. Member of the 
National Waterways Commiision. Author 01 5telc Jtatfrootf Cpn^raf. 

Hon. Fee de ei ck Jakes Hamilton Merbill, Pb.D., F.G.S.(America), M. 
American Inst.M.E., &c. 
Consulting Geologist and Mininc Engineer. State Geologist of New York.' 
1899-1904. Author of ReporU of New Jeney and New York Gcologfcal Surveys; 
Ac 

Fbenand Ebnopfp. 

See the biographical article: Kbnopff. F. E. J. M. 

FkANds Llewellyn Gkitfith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology. Oxford Univernty. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and 
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Expbrstion Fund. Fellow of Imperial 
German Archae o log i cal Institute. Author of Stories of the Htgfi Priests of Memphis ; 
Ac 

FkANds Manley Lowe. 

Major R.A. (retired). Member of the Staff of Sir W. G. Armstreng. Whitworth 

i Co.. Ltd., Elswick Works. Assisunt-Soperintendent of Experiments. Shoebury- 

Author of articles in the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery 


{imparO, 


(m part), 
Charlotts ~ 


Pttyer, Book of CoBunon. 


PniliL 

RaOwtfs: Amerieast Railway 
LegislaHcn, 


QaariTfof. 


PWtidi. J. F. 


A Co.. Ltd., 
ness. 1898-1003. 
Institution; Ac. 


{in part). 


FEank Podmoes, M.A. (d. 1910). 1 

Pembroke College. Oafoid. Author of Simdies in Psychical Resoareh; Modem \ 

Fbank R. Cana. 

Author of 50111* Africa from the Great Trth to the Union. 

Fbancis Watt, M.A. 

Barrister-«t-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law'i Iwater JCooiik 

Fbedesice WauAM Rudlee, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator aild Librarian of the MuseAro of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 
President of the Geok}gisu' Assodatwn, 1887-1889. 

FkANas Ysmo Eogewoeth, M.A., D.C.L. « 

Professor of Political Economy in the University of Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, and of King's College, London. Editor of the Bcomomtc Journal. . 
Author of MathemaHeal Psychics, and numerous papers 00 the Calculus of Proba- 
bilitiea in the Philosophical Maiooine; Ac 

Geoece Abbabam Geieeson, C.I.E., Pr.D., D.Litt. 

Indian Civil Service. 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898- 
1903. Gold Medallist. Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vke-President of the Royal . 
Asiatk Society. Formerly Felk)w of Calcutu univenity. Author of nk^IanfiMfM 
€f India; 9ac 

Geoece Charles Williamson, Litt.D. 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life ef Richard 
Cosway, R.A.: George Eneleheart: Portrait Drawings; Ac Editor of New Editk>n ^ 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engraoers. 

ROBEBT GeOEFBEY ElUS. 

Peteriiouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at'Law. Inner Temple. Joint-editor of £iifltx&< 
ReporU. Author oi Peerois Lam and History. 
Geoece Gbeooby Sierra, M.A. 

Professor of English Literttyre. Queen*i 
Days 0/ Jama Jr.; The Transition Period; 


{iM parti 


Prtt t8f 
, Fynpt. 


ProbiMllly. 


Prskrltt 


i University. Belfast. Author of The 
specimens cfMiddU Scots; Ac. 


Gboboe Johnston Allman, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.. D.Sc. (1824-190^). 

Professor of Mathematics in Queen's College, Galway. and in Queen • Unlvervty of 
lx^i»t^* 1853^1893. .Author of Greeh Geometry from Thates toEnclid; Ac 

Gboboe Jambs Tubner. 
Bamstar^l 


S o cMt y . 


t-L«w, Liacofai's Inn. Editor of Sehct J^eas efOie Pamts for the Sddea 


, {jut part), 
^rtbagoni: GcMMiry. 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


ix 


6.Bk 

6.W.T. 
H.iLT. 

H.ffh 

H.F.P. 
H.K.B. 

H.O. 
H.B.L. 

H.1L 
H.T;A. 

H.w.c.a 

H.T. 
LA. 

J.A.B. 

J.iLn. 
LiLH. 

J. A. a. 
i.s.a.« 


Snt Gborok Rezd, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: RsiD, Sir Gboegb. 

Geokoe SAiNTSBirsY, LL.D.. D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Saxntsbury. Gborce E. B. 

Rsv. GsoTiTHES Wheeler Tbatchee. M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College. Sydney. N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Teitament History at Mansfield Collie, Oxford. 

Horatio Arthur Yorke, C.B. 

Lieut.-Colonel, R.E. (retired). Chief Inspectine Officer of RailirKyB, Board of 
Trade. Served in Afghan War, 1879-18^; Nile Expedition, 1884-1885. 

Sot Henry DRxnoiOND Wolftv G.C.B., G.C.k.G. (Z830-Z908). 

Ambasaador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Madrid, 1893-1900. M.P. for 
Christchurch, 1874-1880; for Pbrtsmonth, 1880-1885. Author of A Lift of 
Napoleon at Elba; Ac 

Hbkri Frantz. 

Art Critic, GaMOtto des beaux orli , Paris. 

Hams Friedrich Gaoow. F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the Univenity of Cambridge. Author 
of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural Htstory; &c. 

Hekry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: Peluaji, H. F. 

Hugh Munro Ross. 

Formeriy Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. 
SuppUmnU. Author id Britisk RaOways, 

Henry Newton Dickson, M.A-, D.Sc, F.R.S.(Edin.5, F.R.G.S. 

Professor of Geography at University College. Reading. Formeriy Vice-President, , 
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford University. 
Author of Meteorohgy; EUmeuts of Weather and Climate; Ac 

Hermann Oeisner, M.A., Ph.D. 

Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in the University ci Oxford. Mem- ^ 
ber of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Pronugal Litera- ' 
tan; Ac 

TBe Rev. Henry Richards Luard, M.A., D.D. (1835-1801). 

Resistrary of the University of Cambridge. 1863-1891. rormerly Fellow, Bursar 
and Lecturer at Trinity College. Honorary Fellow of King's College. London. 
Editor of the Anuales MonasHci; the Histona of Matthew Firis and other works 
for the ** Rolls '* Series. 

Henry Tdoeicann. 

London Editor of the Nieuwe RMerdamteke CouranL Author of a Dutch biography, 

and various pamphlets and travel works, including Via Flushing, 
Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews. 

Professor of New Testament Exmsis, New College, London. Author of " The 

Commentary on Acts" in the Westminster New Testament; Handbooh on the' 

Apocryphal Boohs in the *' Century '* Bible. 
Henry Wiluam Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College. Oxford. Fellow of All Soub' College. Oxford. . 

1895-1902. Author of En^nd under the Normans and Angeoins; Charl^nagne. 


{Ptttnitiin. 

/QaliwnBtbtUi; 
II 

{ 
{ 


BaXtwufiiBritish Xailmay 
LegislaHon. 


PrlmroBs LMgQS. 

I Pavli dt CbRTamMB. 

Bmtttas; 
Rsttkimslri (»« part). 

•[polyUiis {in part). 


Editor of The Times Bngi ntt r in g • 


Riilwijrs: Introduction, Con' 
stntction, Rolling Stock. 


RsdSSft. 


ProYSttoal 
Modem. 


(« part). 


Henry Yule, K.C S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry. 


Polyeupf 
Presbyter. 


Ralph of CoggeslisO. 


Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formeriy President. Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short.' 
History of Jevish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ag(ts; Judaism; &c. 

Sn Tervoise Atbeistane Baines, C.S.L 

President, Royal Suttstical Society, 1909-1910. Census Commissioner under 
the Government of India. 1889-1893. Secretary to Royal Commission on Opium. 
1894-1895. Author of Official ReporU on Prooincial Administration -of Indian 
Cnsus Operations; Ac 

John A. Black. 

Press reader of the New Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (loth ed.J. 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 
The Gpdooef Building Siena. 

JOBN AomNCTON Symonds. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Symonds, John A. 

jOBM Edwin Sandys, M.A.. Litt.D.. LL.D. | 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, J 
Cambridge. FeUow of the British Academy. Author of A History ef Oasstcal^ 


' Polo, MSreo {in part); 
' , Firsster John; Ramiislo. 

Proselyto; Qsnltos; Qsro; 
Raba Ben Joseph Ben Qams 
Rsbbsh Btr Na^manl; 
Bspoport, SamasI; 


•[ Proof-nadlng {in part). 
Author of J Prs-Cambrlan. 

jpontanns, JotltBiis. 


POTMl {in pari). 


X 
J.F^K. 

J.O.C.iL 
J. 0. F. 
J. 0. Fir. 

J.O.K. 

J.0.8e. 
J. Ho. 

J.H.H. 
1.1a. 

1.U* 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


J.H.H. 
J.P.B. 

1. P. P. 

l.IL* 
J.S.F. 

J.S.IL 

J.T.Bt. 


Jakes FrracAUUCE-KEiXY, Lrrr.D., F.R.Hibt.S. 

Gilmour Profeawr of Spanish Lai^uafle and Literature, Livecpool Uaivenity. 
Norman McColl Lectarer, Cambridge University. Fellow <A the British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knisfat Commander of the Order of 
Alphonao XI I. Author of A History of Spamish LitentMre; &c. 

John Gvobge ClaK 'Andisson, M.A. 

Student. Censor and Tutor of Christ Church. Oxford. Formeily Fellow of Lincoln 
CoU^e. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prixeman, 1893. 

Sn Joshua Giuing Fitch, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Fitch. Sir Joshua Gikling. 

James George Frazes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool Univenity. Fellow of Trinity C<^lege. 
Cambridge. Fellow of the Bntish Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c 


Qii0?8doy 


{ 

{po|ytoeh]iie(MAin). 


(in part); 
I (m part); 
Pnetor (in part); 

• (m part); 
{in part). 


John Graham Rcrr, M.A., F.R.S. 

Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demon- 
strator in Animal Morphology in the Univernty of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridse, 189S-1904. Walaingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prixeman, 
Royal Society <rf Edinburgh, 1904. 

Soi James George Scott, R.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, 
The Upper Burma CaseUeer. 

JUniis Hashagen, Ph.D. i 

Privatdosent in Medieval and Modem History, University of Bonn. Author of-] 
Das'RheUUamd unter der Frantdsische HerrschaJIL \ 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Lrrr.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-189$. 


Bmj (m part). 


■■{ 


, „ Director 

of the Fitxwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South 
Kensington Museum. 1892-1896. Author of 7ac Eneraved Gems of Classical Times; 
IllumuiaUd Mauuscripis tu Cmtncal and Miediaeeal Times. 


Joseph Jacobs, Litt.D. 

Professor of Ei«lish Litei^ture in the Jewish Theological Semii 


Rftdlfttfon, TlMory of; 


; Ac. Author of Survey 


FntMloiiti. 


m the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 

Formeriy President of the Jewish Hbtorical Society m England. Corresponding . 
Member kA the Royal Acadiemy kA History, Madrid. Author of Jems of Angerin 
Eugfaud; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c 

Sn Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lucanan Professor of Mathematics in 
the Univernty. Secretary of the Koyal Society. Professor of Natural Philosophy, 
Queen's Coll«e. Galway, 1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter , and various 
memoirs on Mathematics and Physics.' 

Sn John Macdonell, C.B., LL.D. 

Master of the Supreme Court. Counsel to the Board of Trade and London Chamber 
of Commerce. Formerly Quain Professor of Comparative Law, University College. 
London. Editor of SlaU Trials : Citil Judicial StaHstics; ' ' ' 
of Political Economy; The Land Question; Stc 

John Malcolm Mitchell. i 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London J 
College (University of London). Jomt-editor of Grote's History of Greece. \ 

Jean Paul HippolyTe Emmanuel AoHiMAR Esmein. 

Professor <rf Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours iUmentaire ^histoire du droit 
fran^is; &c. 

John Peroval Postgate, M.A., Lrrr.D. 

Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. ' 
Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poelarum LaHnorum ; Ac ^ 

John Randall. r 

Formeriy Secretary of the London Association of Correcton <A the Press. Sub- J Proor-f^Jiiw (im Awi) 
editor of the Athenaeum and Notes and Queries. 1 "^* WMM» k«« FOfi;. 


Ponpoiiisidt PItfit)» 
PMm, Rleliaid. 

fpMfeet; 

I Provost (w Pratue). 

ftoptrttBi» Stitok 


John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formeriy Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- 
burgh UniverBity. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

James Smith Reid, M.A.. LL.D., Lrrr.D. | 

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College. J 
Cambridge. Browne's and Chancellor's Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero's 1 
Academia^ De Amicitia; Stc I 

John Thomas Bealby. I 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical J 
Jlagasine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 


{Porphyry; Pomlet; 
Pyroxsnits; 
Qnartslts; Qvarti-Porphyiy. 

QnintlUtik 


Pdtov {in part); 
{in part). 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


XI 


I.T.Qr. 


JLW.* 
J.W.G. 

K.G.J. 
K.S. 


L.J.I. 

LWr. 
I..W.VV-H. 


■.ftBh. 

■.■.T. 

■.0.B.& 

■.W.T. 

acw. 

F.A.K 


Jakes Tkoubsidgk Csitceell. 

London Correspondent of the AuxtnJasian PttSloraUsU* Rentm, North Queendand 
Herald;- Ac. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Author of Polynesian 
Labcur w Qnemsland; Guide Queensland; &c 

Jakes Wzxxiaks, D.C.L., LL.D. 

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the Univenity of OzfoixL Fellow of Lincoln 
Colleger Author -of Wills and Snecession; &c 

Jakes Waso, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Ward, James. 

John Walter Gregory, D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Profeuor of Geolosy at the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and 
Minenlosy at the University of Melbourne, 190Q-1904. Author of The Dead Heart 


Kimgsley Garland Jatne. 

Sometime SchoUr of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Author of Vasco da Gasna and his Successors. 


Kathleen Scblesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio ef Musical Archaeology, 
Orchestra* 


Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. 


Author of The Instruments pf the 


Count hUriow, Lrrr.D. (Ozon.), D.Ph. (Prague). F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, Kii^ of Bohemia. Hon. Member 
of the Ro^ Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. 
Author of Bohemia: a Historical SheUh; The Historians of Bohemia (llchester 
Lecture, Oxford, 1904)': The Idfe and Times of John Hus; &c 

Louis Bell, Pr.D. 

Consulting Engineer, Boston, U.S.A. Chief Engineer, Electric Power Trans- 
mission [Apartment. General Electric Co., Boston. Formerly Editor of Electrical 
World, New York. Author of Electric Power Transmission; Ac 

Leonard Jakes Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar <A 
Sidney Sussex College. Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineral- 
opcaf Maeesine, 

Lewis Wright. 

Author of The Practical Poultry Keeper; The New Booh 0/ Poultry; Ac 


L. W. Vernon-Harcourt (d. 
Barrister-at-Law. 


Masgaiet Bryant. 


Author <d Hu Grace the Steward and the Trial ^ Peers. 


FormeHy Fellow of ♦' ^ Royal 
in Cambridge Naturae distory; 


BfARcns Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Professor of Zoology, University College. Cork. 
University of Ireland. Author of " Protozoa ' 
and papers for various scientific journals. 

Sn Manceertee Merwanjee Bhownaggree. R.C.I.E. 

Felk>w of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal.Green. 1895-1906. Author 
of History of the Constitution of the East India Company; 80c 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. 

Fdlow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. 
Joint«author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

Maxdolian Otto Biskarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London Univenity. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham 
University,- 1905-1908. 

NOXKAN MXean, M.A. 

Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambrid^ University. Fellow And Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's 
College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the laigpr Cambridge Se^ue^nL 

Northcote Whitridge Thokas, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 
Socift^ d'Anthropologie de Pkris. Author 01 Thought Transference; Kittship and 
Marriage in Australia ; &c 

Rev. Owen Charles Whitebouse, M.A., D.D. 

Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew. Cheshunt College, Cambridge. 
Formeriy Principal and Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Theology m the Countess 
of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt. Author of Primer of Hebrew Antiquities ; &c. 

Ouus Magnus Frieorich Henrict, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the 
City and GuOda of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent 
Pipires; Ac 

Psxnce Peter Alexetvitch Kropotxzn. 

- See the bugiaphical article: Kropoxkj.v. Prince P. A. 


History, 


Ptwerlptlon (tn part) 


Geology 


Portuftl: Ceopaphy mid 
History. 

PoHUBtn PwlftUvs OrgtBj 
Positive Organ; Ftoltafy; 
Baekstt; BaTanasInn; 
Rsbih; Bebeo; 

Reeordsr {music)'. 


Fngot. 


Electrical. 

ProQstlts; Pynrgjrits; 
Pyroluslts; Pyromorphlts; 
^nrhotlts; Quarti; Realgsr. 

Poultiy and PonttqMuniliiC 

ot] 


Pops, Alsiander (mi part^, 

Protaomyia; 
RaiUolarla. 


Readymonoyf 
Sir CowasP 

Polyeratis; 
Pnnlo Walk 

RabhUi. 


{PsyckeiogyX 


Priest {in part); 
Prophet (w part). 


Projeetion. 

[Poltava {in part); 

Pskov {in part): 
[ Badoxn {in part). 


Jdi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

P. C. T. Pbzuf Chesney Yorke, M.A. r pitbiia. vmtem Hm *m«\. 

Magdalen College, (MorL Edkm <4 Uttm €(f Primus Eliaabetk tf En^and. \^ji^o^L^ 

P. G. Peict Gaedker, Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A. f Polydltos: FB|y|liotiii: 

See the biographical article : Gardkbs, Percy. \ pmit«|fls. 

P. QL Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lxn.D. 

Fellow and Classical Leetuier of Emmanuel College, Cambridi. 

Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly SecreUry of the CamI 

Society. 
P. G. K. Paul George Konody. f 

Art Critic of the Observer and the DaUy if ail. Formeriy Editor of the Artisl. < Potttr, FiaL 

Author ol The Art qf Walter CraneiVelasqiUM^Lif* and Work; &c I 

P. G. T. Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D. / Qutiniioiii (isi ^an) 

See the biographical article: Tait, Peter Guthrie. I '<""™»" ^•" f^f- 

P.M. Paul Meyer. fProvuiQRl Uagiian; 

See the biographical article: Meyer, Paul Hyacintbb. I PnvMiad UftHttiin {in part) 

P. H0G. Prxxrosb McComnell, F.G.S. f 

Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Parmer; v Ra^lHf. 


dge. and University J ^, , 
imbridge Philological | ^» 


Ac 

V.^0 

Regius Professor of Hebrew. Cambridge, and Caoon of Ely. Formeriy Fellow and J 


R. H. K. Rev. Robert Hatch Kenmett, M.A., D J>. f 

«-_-.._ «_* « u_v r- u_.j J r- « «„ «. 1.-^... J I 


Regius Professor 01 Hebrew. Cambndge. and caoon 01 Ely. Formeriy Fellow and J pteimi. Book of (im am«i 
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, Queens' College, and Univeraity Lecturer in ] ' ^ * P*^^' 

Aramaic Author cl A Short Aeeaunt of ike Hebrew Tenses; Jnanr rani:iies;&c. I 


((nparO; 


Rabbit (m pari); 
Rat; RaftiL 

RaOimys: Getural Slaiisties 
ond Ftfiflffffff? OrifutiMaiHoMm 

PmMh. 

Poniatowdd. JoMtfh A.; 


Potoekl, Ignaty; 
Potooki. Staoislaw P.; 
ProkopoYloh; PogaelMv; 
Rak4^; Railn. 


R. L P. Recinalo Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

R. J. H. Ronald John McNeill, M.A. , 

Christ Church. Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formeriy Editor of the 51 James's' 
Catettet London. 

R. L.* RiCBARn Lydekeer, F.R.S., FXS., F.G^S. 

Member of the Staff- of the Geological Survey of India, 1874- 1M2. Author of. 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reputes and Birds in the BriHsk Museum ; The Deer 
^ all Lands; Ac 

R. Ho. Ray Morris, M.A. 

Formeriy Managing Editor, RaOway Age CaatUe, New York. Author of RaOreod 

Administratian. 
R. H. L. Robert Murray Leslie. M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P. 

Senior Physician, Pnnce of Wales s General Hos|»tal, London. Lecturer on 

Medicine. London Post-Graduate College. Author of CUnieal Types ef Pmm- 

R. H. W. R.. Mortimer Wheeler. 

R. H. B. Robert Nbbet Bain (d. 1009). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Seandinama: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, iKij-zgoo; The PirU Romanes, 
i6i3-i7ay, Saeonie Europe: the PoUHcal Hilary of Poland and Russia from 146Q 
to 17^', &C. 

R. Po. Ren£ PouPARom, D.-is-L. 

Secretary of the Ecole dee Chartea. Honorary Librarian at the BibliothAquc j I 

Nationafe, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les CaroUngiens; Recueil | Qulinqr, Capltolaqr OL 

R. P. 8. R. PHENi Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formeriy Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy. London. Paat «^. 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College. ' rVML 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Feigusson's 
History of Architeciure. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c 

R. R. H. Robert Ranulf Marett, M.A. f 

Reader in Sodal Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of Exeter < Pnmr. 
College. Author ci The Threshold of Religion, [ ^ 

R. 8. a Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Lmr. „ ^ f PompeU: Oscan ImcrifUmu; 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J pnABMta (in ^art)- 
Formeriy Professor of Utin in University College. Cardiff; and Fellow of GonvUle 1 i^TJ!!;J« ^ '^ * 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author U The 2 talU Dialects. tPla«tuttU. 

St a Viscount St Cyres. J Quesnel, Puaotar; 

See the biographical article: Iddesleicb, ist Earl op. \ QuittlHlL 

8. F. H. Sidney Frederic Harmer, 1>.Sc.. F.R.S., F.Z.S. ^ r ^ ^ 

Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Departments, British Museum. Fellow, J Poqrioa; 
formeriy Tutor and Lecturer, King's College, Cambridge. Joint-editor oiThe] Ptaiobraiiehla. 
Catnbridg^ Natural History. L 

tt G. a. St Georce Tackson Mivart, M.D., F.R.S. f p«## u«>,fc^ (^^ *a^. 

See the biographical article : Mivart, St George Jaceson. \ """'"^ ^ ^"^ '^'" 

8. R. 0. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L. f p|M|ii, WIDiBBI «ii Porth 

See the biographical article: Gardiner. & R. \ "9"^ •"•— « \^ r- 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES xui 


T.Wfc 

W.A.B.G. 

W.A.I.. 

W.A.P. 

W.Bk 

W.B.P. 

w.E.a 

w.p.a 

W.& 


Pomp«a (m part); 
Fomposa; Fomptiiw Uanhes; 
PopUto, Via; Portus; 
Pottnniia, Via; 

{U part); 
Via; 
PoteoU; FyrgI; 
.Raveima (m part), 

QoMiiilaiid: Ctograpky and 
Statistics. 


TMtU TsanAa Asbbv. M.A., D.Lirr. 

Diiector of Brituh School of Archaeology at Rome. Formeriy Scholar of Christ 
Oiufch. Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman. 1906. Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Tlu Classical Topo' 
ffapky 0/ the Ramau Campagna, 

T. A. CL TSMOIBY AucusnNE Cogbiam, I.S.O. 

Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 
1886-1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of WeaUh 
and Progrtss cf Ntw South Wales; Staiisttcal Account of Australia and New Zealand; 
Ac 

{Post and Postal I 
POand (in ^art)- 

T. Bl. Six Thoicas Barciay. r privmtaar* 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. I nliir. «/ 
Author of PrebUms ^ International Practice and Diplomacy; Ac. M.P. for 1 "^' ^^'* 
Blackburn, 191a j^ »^. - --..-" 

T. F. Dl THOMAS F. Dale, M.A. 

Queen's College. Oxford. Steward and Member of the Council of the Polo and \ Polo, 
Ridii« Pbny Society. Author of Polo, Past and Present; Ac. 


Blackburn. 191a I Raid; BobeDIOD. 

{■ 

T.H. TtaOMAS HooonN, D.C.L., LiTT.p. /Havaima «« ahh^ 

See the biogiaphJcal article: HoocnN. Thomas. \ «*W"» ^»» f^i- 

T. H. H.* Sir Thomas HuNCERroRO Holdich. K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. f 

Superintendent. Frontier Surveys, India. 1893-1898. Gold Medallist. R.G.S.. J /|n«M. 
London. 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries 0/ tJu Kint's 1 ^^*^- 
Award: India; Tibet. I 

T. L. H. Sdi TbomAs Little Heath, K.C.B., Sc.D. f 

Asatstant-Secretary to the Treasury. London. Fellow of Triifity College. Cambridge. 
Author of ApoUomus 0/ P«rfa; Treatise on Conic Sections; The Thirteen Boohs of 
E mi iiFf Element f; Ac. 


T. 8iL Thomas Seocombe, M.A. 

BaUlol Collen. Oxford 

Univerrity 01 London. ^ __ _. 

DieHonary ^ National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; Ac 


Ballloi Coileprbiford. Lecturer in History. East London and Birkbeck Colleges, J n^.^ Haup* 
Univerrity 5 ^London. ^ Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, iSBj. Assistant _ Editor^of | "^"» «■«#• 


TtaOMAS WOODHOUSE. / 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technkral College, Dundee. (. 
Rsv. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. f 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's _ ^ ^ . . 
Coll«e. Umpeter. 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphin^-. The Range oj\ Ragats; Bambert 
the Todi; Guide to Grindehoald; Guide to Switwerland: The Alps in Nature and 
in History; Ac Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; Ac ^ 

WitxiAM Albscamder Lindsay, K.C. M.A^ J.P., D.L., F.S.A. f ^ . 

Windsor Herald. Bencher of the Middle Temple. Peerage Counsel. Author of TTbei Pneedenoe (m ^l). 

Royal Hamtehald, 1837*1897 : && L 
Walter Alboh Phillips, M.A. f «. 

Formeriy Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, < ™m; 

Qxfocd. Author of Jr0derȣiif0^; Ac. t Provost (m part), 

Wiuelm Backer, Ph.D. f 

Piofeasor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest Knight of the Iron Crown, i BabU. 
AathotdDiaAgiadaderTantiaiteniiK' [ 

WiLUAM Barclay Parsons. C.E., LL.D. fiuii-.... /«/,- T7whn» n^n 

Formeriy Chief Engineer. Rapid Transit Coriimission. New York. Advisory J WW^WJ'*- 'ntra-Urban Rati. 

Engineer, Royal Commission on London Traffic. Author of Trach; Turnouts; Ac. [. Via>r. 
WiLUAM Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.CE. 

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London 

Institute Central Technical College. South Kensington. Formeriy University 

Demonstrator in the Engincerinv Department. Cambridge. Author of The 

Balancing of Engjinu; Vahes and Yahe-Gear Mechanism; Ac 

WiLUAM FEILOEN CrAIES, M.A. r o„._*._ «.«|««. r^nrf Aff- 

Barrister-at-Uw. Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Uw, King's College. \ S""* . 5««on». C0»" «» 
Undon. Editor of Aichbold's CftMiiMi Pteufing (ajrd edition). [ ROGOgillsaxiOO. 


Powor Traosmissloii: Intra- 

ductory and Mechanical; 
Rallwajps: Locomotive Power. 


WnLiAM Garnbtt, M.A., D.C.L. 

Educatbnal Adviser to the London County Council. Formeriy Fellow and 
Lecturer of St John's College. Cambridge. Principal and Professor 01 Mathematics. . 
Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics 
Ac* 


Polytoeliiilo (iff part). 


W. B. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. f Ponaptno {in part); 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. \ Rabbit (m ^0. 

W. B. Ih WiuJAM H. Lang. M.6.. D.Sc. . J ptMrUanhvla. 

Barker Profc«or of Cryptogamic Botany. Umvenity of Manchester. \ -^wiiwifiv— 


xiv 


INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 


W.L.G. 


W.H. 


W. H. F. P. 


W.O.B. 


W.R.H. 


W.ILS. 


W. W. P.* 


WiLUAM Law-son Grant, M.A. 


W.Y. 


L.M«ta> A^n«Ti>wn v«.nt^«, «««.«•. f PfIiics Edwu^ Isluid; 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston. Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in J on«iMu>« p,n,»«j-j, tSm a^»A. 
Colonial HistoiyatjDxfoKiymvereity. Editor of .4 c/*o/^ pll!k!«.' r-ifT ^ 


Scries) : Canadian CoHstUutional DcodopmaU (in collabcratioo). 

William Minto, M.A., LL.D. 

Sec the biographical article: MiNTO, William. 

William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D. 
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. F. 

Ven. Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, M.A. 

Archdeacon of Birmingham. Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884- 
1891. Principal of Leeds Clergy School. 1691-1900. Author of The Mystery oj tkt 
Cross. 

WaLiAM Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910). 

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia', 
Slavonic Literature; &c. 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. 


[QttBbee: Cilj, 


{p^mmld. 


(m part). 


Pnyen tor tlie Dead. 


PushkliL 


Priest (m part); 
ProphBt {in part); 
Psalms, Book of {in part): 
(m part). 


William Wards Fowler, M.A. \ 

Fdlow of Lincoln College. Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, J PonUfsz. 
Edinburgh University, 190S. Author of The City-State oJ the Creeks and Romans; 1 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. [ 

Rbv. Wiluam Young. f 

Minister, Higher Broughton Presbyterian Church. Manchester, 1877-1901. and 'f PnsbytariMllSIIL 
Association Secretary for the Religious Tract Society in the North of England. t 


PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 


PoOlnattoiL 

Potentiometer. 

Prussie Acid. 

Quinine. 

Polygon. 

Prerogative. 

PubUe Healtli. 

QuinoUne. 

Polyhedron. 

Press Laws. 

Publishing. 

Quinones. 

Polynesia. 

Primrose. 

Puffin. 

Radium. 

Pomesnnate. 

Prlmulaceae. 

PugUiSIXL 

Rainbow. 

Pomerania. 


Pump. 


Pontoon. 

Principal and Agent. 

Punjab. 

Rare Earths. 

Poor Law. 

Probate. 

Pyrazoles. 

Raspberry. 

Poptar. 

Procession. 

I^nees. 

Rationalism. 

Porto RIeo. 

Proctor. 

Pyridine. 

Ravenna. Exarchate oL 

Portoguese Guinea. 

ProhibiUon. 

Pyrones. 

Real Property. 

Potassium. 

Protestant 

Quarantine. 

Red River. 

Potato. 

. Prussia. 




ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 

ELEVENTH EDITION 

VOLUME XXII 


VOLL, itTictly the head, fai men or animab. Skeat connects 
the word with O. Swed. kotte (initial p and ib being interchange- 
able) andconsiden a Celtic origin probable; cf. Iriih eoU, Welah 
€ai, peak, summit. " Poll ** b chiefly used in various aensea 
derrred from that of a unit in an enumeration of persons or 
thin^ e^. poU-Uz {q.v.), or "challenge to the poQs" bi the case 
of a jury Iq.v.). The most familiar derivative uses are those 
connected with voting at parliamentary or other elections; 
thus " to poll " is to vote or to secure a number of votes, and 
" the poD." the voting, the number of votes cast, or the time 
dozing whkh votmg takes place. The verb "to poll" also 
means to dip or shear the top of anything, hence " polled " of 
hornless cattle, or " deed-poll " (».e. a deed with smooth or 
nnindented edges, as distinguished from an "indenture")* 
A tree which has been "polled," or cut back dose hi order to 
induce it to make short bushy growth, is called a " pollard." 

At the universityof Cambridfe, a " paun " degree is known as 
a " pon-degree." Thb is generally explained as from the Creek 
«{ s«XM, the many, the common people. 

POLLACK (Gadus pcBackius), a fish of the family Cadidatt 
abundant on rocky coasts of northern Europe, and extending as 
far south as the western parts of the Mediterranean, where, 
however, it is much scarcer and does not attain to the same size 
as in its real northern home. In Scotland and some parts of 
Ireland it b called lythe. It is distinguished from other spedcs 
of the genus Gadus by its tong pointed snout, which is twice 
as long as the eye, with projecting lower jaw, and without a 
bart>d at the chhi. The vent is bdow the anterior half of the 
first dorsal fin. A black spot above the base of the pectoral 
fin B another distinguishing mark. Although pollack are wdl- 
fiavonred fish, and smaller individuals (from is to x6 in.) 
ezceOent eating, they do not form any considerable artlde of 
trade, and are not preserved, the majority being consumed by 
tlie captors. ^ledmcns of is lb are common, but the spedcs 
is said to atuin occasionally as much as sa lb in weight. ^See 
abo CoAtnsH.) 

FOLLAIUOLO, the popular name of the brothers Antonio and 
Pfero di Jacobo Bend, Florentines who oontril^uted much to 
Italian art in the 15th century. They wero called Pollaiuok> 
because their father was a poulterer. The nickname was also 
cKtended to Sinaone, the nephew of Antonio. 

AxTomo (1429-1498) distinguished himself as a sculptor, 
jeweUer, painter and engraver, and did valuable service in 
perfectiaf the art of enameUittg. His painting exhibits an excess 


of brutality, of which the diancteristics can be studied in the 
" Saint Sebastian," painted in 147s. and now in the National 
Gallery, London. A " St Christopher and the Infant Christ " 
is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. But it waa as a 
sculptor and metal-worker that he achieved his greatest suc- 
cesses. The exact ascription of his works is doubtful, as his 
brother Piero did mudi in collaboration with him. The museum 
of Florence contains the bronae group " Hercules strangling 
Cacus " and the terra-cotU bust " The Young Warrior "; and 
in the South Kenshigton Museum, London, is a bas-relief 
representing a contest between naked men. In 1489 Antonio 
took up his residence in Rome, where he executed the tomb of 
Sixtus IV. (r493), ^ composition in which he again manifested the 
quality of exaggeration in the anatomical features of the figures. 
In 1496 he went to Florence in order to put the finishing touches 
to the work already begun in the sacristy of Santo Spirito. He 
died in 1498, having just finished his mausoleum of Inno- 
cent Vm., and waa buried in the church of San Pietro in 
^cula, whoe a monument was raised to him near that of 
his brother. 

PIKB.0 (1441-X496) waa a painter, and his prindpal works 
were his "Coronation of the Virgin," an altar-piece painted 
in X483, in the chour of the cathedral at San Gimignano; his 
" Three Saints," an altar-piece, and " Prudence " are both at 
the UfiSzi Gallery. 

SmoNK (14S7-X508), nephew of Antonio PoUaiuolo, a cde- 
brated architect, waa bom m Florence and went to Rome in 
X484; there he entered his unde's studio and studied architecture. 
On his return to Florence he was entrusted with the completion 
of the Strozzi palace begun by Benedetto de Maiano, and the 
cornice on the facade has earned him lasting fame. His highly 
coloured accounts of Rome earned for him the nickname of U 
Crottaca (chronicler). About 1498 he built the church of San 
Francesco at Monte and the vestibule of the sacristy of Santo 
Spirito. In collaboration with Guiliano da Sangallo he designed 
the great hall in the Pabzzo Vecchio. He was a dose friend 
and adherent of Savonarola. 

See also Maud Cruttwdl, Antonio PcUaiuolo (1907). 

POLLAX {Coriiomu PcOan), the name given to a spedcs of 
the Salmonoid genus Coregonut (whitefish) which hss been found 
in the luge and deep loughs of Ireland only. A full account of 
the fish by iu first describer, W. Thompson, may be found hi his 
Nakavl History oflrekuid, Iv. x68. 


POLLARD— POLLINATION 


POLLARD, EDWARD ALEBRT (iSaS-iSya), American 
joumaltat, wu bom in Nebon county, Virginia, on the a 7th of 
February x8a8. He graduated at the university of Virginia in 
1849, studied law at the College of William and -Mary, and in 
Baltimore (where he was admitted to the bar), and was engaged 
in newspaper work in California tmtil 1855. In 1857-1861 he 
was clerk of the judidaiy committee of the National House of 
Representatives. By 1859 he had become an outspoken 
Secessionist, and during the Civil War he was one of the principal 
editors of the Richmond Examiner^ which supported the Con- 
federacy but was hostile to President Jefferson Davis. In 1864 
Pollard sailed for England, but the vessel on which he sailed 
was captured as a blockade runner, and he was confined in Fort 
Warren in Boston Harbour from the a9th of May until the xath 
of August, when 'he was paroled. In December he was placed 
in dose confinement at Fort Monroe by order of Secrelary 
Stanton, but was soon again paroled by General B. F. Butler, 
and in January proceeded to Richmond to be exchanged there 
for Albert D. Richardson (1833-1869), a well-known corre- 
spondent of the New York Tribime, who, however, had escaped 
before Pollard Arrived. In Z867-X869 Pollard edited a weekly 
paper at Richmond, and he conducted the PdUical Pampkkt 
there during the presidential campaign of z868. 

His publications include Black Diamonds Gathered in the Datkiy 
Homes of ike South (i8m). in which he advocated a reopening of 
the fliave trade; The SouOiem History of tJu War {^ yclie.-, Firtt 


Year 1^ the War, with B. M. DeWitt, i86a; Second Year of the War, 
1864; Third Year of the War, 1864); Observations in the North: 
Eithi Months in Prison and on Parole (1865) ; The Lost Cause (1866) ; 
Lee and His Lieutenants (1867) { The Lost Cause Regained (1868), 
a southern view of, reconstruction ur^iu the necessity of white 
supremacy; The Life of Jefferson Dams (1869), an arraignment of 
the Confederate president; and The Virguua Tourist (1870}. 

POLLBMTIA (mod. PoOeuMo), an ancient town of Liguria, 
Italy, xo m. to the north of Augusta Bagiennorum, on the left 
bank of the Tanarus (mod. Tanaro). Its position on the road 
from Augusta Taurinorum to the coast at Vada Sabatia, at the 
point of divergence of a road to Hasta (Aati) gave it military 
importance. Dedmus Brutus managed to occupy it an hour 
before Mark Antony in 43 8.C.; and it was here that Stilicho 
on the a9th of March 403 fought the battle with Alaric 
which though undedded led the Goths to evacuate Italy. 
The place was famous for its brown wool, and for its pottery. 
Considerable remains of andent buildings, an amphitheatre, a 
theatre and a temple still exist. The so-called temple of Diana 
is more probably a tomb. 

See G. Franchi-Pont in AtH ddT aceademia di Tomio (1805- 
1808), p. 321 aqq. 

POLLINATIOll, in botany, the transference of the pollen from 
the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a 
flower. The great variety in the form, colour and scent of 
flowers (see Flowes) is intimately associated with pollination 
whi^ is effected by aid of wind, insects and other agendes. 
Pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower — 
self-pollination (or aittogamy)tOt to the stigma of another flower 
on the same plant or another plant of the same species— cross- 
pollination (or allogamy). Effective pollination may also occur 
between flowers of different spedes, or occasionally, as in the 
case of several on^ds, of different genera— this is known as 
hybridization. 

The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the 
distribution of the stamens and pistil. In the case of unisexual 
flowers, whether monoedous, that is, with staminate and pistillate 
flowers on one and the same plant, such as many of our native 
trees— oak, beech, birch, alder, &c., or dioedous with staminate 
«nd pistillate flowers on different plants, as in wiUows and pop- 
lars, cross pollination only is possible. In bisexual or herma- 
phrodite flowers, that is, those in which both stamens and pistil 
are present, though adf-poUination might seem the obvious 
course, this is often prevented or hindeied by various arrange- 
ments whidi favour cross-pollination. Thus the anthers and 
stigmas in any given flpwer are often mature at different times; 
this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first 


pointed out by Sprengd, may be so well marked thst the stigma 
has ceased to be receptive before the anthers open, or the anthers 
have withered before the stigma becomes receptive, when cross- 
pollination only is possible, or the stages of maturity in the two 
organs are not so distinct, when self-pollination becomes possible 
later on. The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous 
according as anthers or stigmas mature fiist. The term 
homogamy b applied to the simultaneous maturity of stigma and 
anthers. Spontaneous self-pollination is rendered impossible 
in some homogamous flowers in consequence of the relative 
position of the anthers and stigma — ^this condition has been 
termed herhogamy. Flowers in which the relative position of 
the organs dlows of spontaneous self-pollination may be all 
alike as regards length of style and stamens {homomorphy or 
homostyly), or differ in this respect (heteromorpky) the styles 



% ^ 



(Fran Stflbborgv'B £«M«eft ^ B«lnitk, by poiofailoa of Gwur Fhchcr.) 
Fig. I.— Long-Styled, L, and short-ttyled, K, flowers of Primula 
sinensis, 

C, Level of stigma; S, level of anther*; P, N, pollen grains and 
stigmatic papillae of long-styled form ; p, n, ditto of short-styled form. 

jind stamens being of different lengths in different flowers 
{heterostyly) or the stamens only are of different lengths {heler- 
anthery). Flowers which are dosed at the time of maturity of 
anthers and stigmas ate termed deistogamous. 

Sdf-pollination is effected in very various ways. In the 
simplest case the anthers are dose to the stigmas, covering these 
with pollen when they open; this occurs in a number of small 
annual plants, also in Narcissus, Crocus, kc In snowdrop and 
other pendulous flowers the anthers form a cone around the style 
and the pollen falls on to the underlying stigmas, or in erea 
flowers the pollen may fall on to the stigmas which lie directly 
beneath the opening anthers (e.g. Narthecium). In very many 
cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature 
or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or 
corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated move- 
ments of two or more parts. For instance, in many flowers 
the filaments are at first directed outwards so that self-pollina- 
tion is not possible, but later incline towards the stigmas. and 
pollinate them {e.g. numerous Saxifragaceae, Crudferae and 
others), or the style, which first projects beyond the anthers, 
shortens later on so that the anthers come into contact with the 
stigmas {e.g. species of Cactaceae), or the style bends so that the 
stigma is brought within the range of the pollen {e.g. spedes of 
Oenothera, EpUobium,m(»t Malvaceae, &c.). In Mirabilis JaUpa 
and others the filaments ^d style finally become intertwined, 
so that pollen is brought in oontaa with the stigma. Self- 
pollination frequently becomes possible towards the end of the 
life of a flower which during its earlier stages has been capable 
only of cross-pollination. This is associated with the fact, so 
ably demonstrated by Darwin, that, at any rate in a 
large number of cases, cross-pollination yidds better results, as 
measured by the number of seeds produced and the strength of 
the offspring, than self-pollination; the latter is, however, 
preferable to absence of pollination. In many cases pollen has 
no effect on the stigma of the same flower,, the plants are self- 
sterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective {pre-patent) 
than pollen from the same flower; but in a very Urge number oif 
cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference 


POLLINATION 


bvtveen the cfiecU ol external poUen and that from the same 


Cross-pollination may ocoir between two flowers on the same 
plant (ioiouogamy) or between flowers on distinct planU 
ixenoiamy). The former, which is a somewhat less favourable 
mrthod than the latter, is effected by airocurrents, insect 
tgeacy, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in 
neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositac, 
flowers are closely aowded, or by the fall of the poUen from a 



CTi— Dwiili A»t Perns < Pimm by ptrnM y m ) 

Fic. 7. — Diagram of the flowers of the three forms of Lylkrum 
salieana in tKir natural poaition, with the petals and calyx 
mnoved on the near side. 

The dotted lines with the arrow riiow the dft^tions in which 
sat be carried to each stigma to ensure full fertility. 


higher on to the stigmas of a lower flower. Anton Kemer has 
shown that crowded inflorescences such as those of Compositae 
and Umbelliferae are especially adapted for geitonogamy. 
Xenogamy is of course the only possible method in didinous 
plants; it is also the usual method in monodinous plants, owing 
to the fact that stamens and carpels often mature at different 
times {dkkogamy)t the plants being proterandrous or protero- 
gynotts. Even in homogamous flowers cross-pollination is in a 
large proportion of cases the effective method, at any rate at 
first, owing to the relative position of anther and stigma or the 
fact that the plant is self-sterile. 

The subject of heterostyly was investigated by Darwin (see 
bis F^rms of Flowers) and later by Hildebrand. In the case of a 
dimorphic flower, such as Primula, four modes of pollination 
are possible, two distinguished by Darwin as legitimate, between 
anthers and stigmas on corresponding levels, and two so-called 
illegitimate unions, between anthers and stigmas at different 
leveb (d. fig. i). In a trimorphtc flower such as Lylkrum 
iolicaria there are six possible legitimate unions and twelve 
ilkgitinMie (see fig. 3). Experiment showed that legitimate 
unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate. 



Flo. 3. — Cleistogamous 


Many plants produce, in addition to ordinary open flowers, 
so-called cleistogamous flowers, which remain permanently 
closed but which notwithstanding 
produce fruit; in these the corolla is 
inconspicuous or absent and the pollen 
grows from the anther on to the 
stigma of the same flower. Spedes of 
Viola (see fig. 3), Oxalis autosella 
(wood sorrd) and Lamium ,amplcxi- 
caule are commonly occurring in- 
stances. The cleistogamous flowers 
are developed before or after the 
normal open flowers at seasons less 
favourable' for aoss-pollmation. In 
some cases flowers, which open under 
normal circumstances, remain dosed 
owing to tmfavourable circumstances, 
and self-pollination occurs aa in a 
typical cleistogamous flower— these flower "of Viola sytoatka. 
have been 'distinguished aa pseudo- i. flower 
ckUtogamou, I».une« occur to Ji^S'^S.'.^S 
water plants, where flowers, are un-a, anther; s, pistil; 
able to reach the surface (e.g, Alisma tt, style; w, stigmatic 
ftatanst water :buttercup, &c.) or ■"^•ce. 
where flowers remain closed in dull or cold weather. 

Systems of classification of flowers according to the agency by 
which pollination is effected have been proposed by Ddpino. 
H. MQIler and other workers on the subject. Knuth suggests 
the following, which is a modification of the systems proposed by 
Ddpino and MQIler. 

A. WaUr-poUinated plants^ HydrophSae, A small group which is 

subdivided thus. — 

a. PoUinated under Ike, water; e.g. Najas where the pollen grains 

are rather heavierthan water, and ainldng down are caught 
by the stigmas of the cxtrcmdy simple female flowers. 

b. PoUtnation on the surface, a more frequent occurrence than 

(a). In these the pollen floats on the surface and reaches 
the stigmas of the female flowere as in CalUtricke, Ruppia, 
Zostera, Blodea, In Vallisneria (fig. 4) the male floweit 
become detached and float on the surface .of the water; 
the anthen are thus brought in contact with the stigmas 
of the female flowers. 

B. Wind-poainated plants, AnemophOae.— In these the pollen 

grains are smooth and light so as to be easily blown about, 
and are produced in great quantity; the stigmas are brush- 
like or feathery^and usually long and protrudmg so as readily 
to catch the pdlcn. As no means of attraction are required 
the flowers are inconspkruous and without scent or necur. 
The male inflorescence is often a pendulous catkin, as in haxd 
and many native English trees (fig. 5); or the anthers are 
loosely fixed on long thread-like filamenu as in grasses (fig. 6). 



Fig. 4.— Vallisneria spiralis. 

A, female flower; s, stiemaa 

B, male flo*« •> i before; 2, after ^neading of the petala A 
male flower h.r floated alongside a female and one of its 
anthers, which have opened to set free the pollen, is in contact 
with a stigma, a, anther. 

C. Animal-pollinated plants, Zoidiopkilae, are subdivided accordiiHg 

to the kind of am'roal by agency of which pollination is 

effected, thus. — 

a. Bat-potltnated, Ckiropteropjtilae.—A Freycinetia, native of 

lava, and a species of Baukinia in Trimdad are visited by 

oats whkh transfer the poUen. 


POLLINATION 


Bird-^oUinaUd, OmiOb^MM.— Humming-birds and lioney- 
■uclcers are agents of pollination in certain tropical plants; 
they visit the generally lai]^ and br^htly-coloured flowers 
dther for the honey which is secreted in considerable 

rintity or for the insects which have been attracted by 
honey (fig. ?)• 



Fig. 5. — Catkin 
Floi 


Fig. 6. — Grass Flower show- 
of Male 4ng pendulous anthers and pro- 
iwers of Haxd. truding hairy stigmas. 

Snail or slug-pMinated flawerSt Malaco^ilae.-'ln small 
flowers which are crowded at the same level or in flat 
flowers in which the stigmas and anthers project but little, 
slugs or snails creeping over their surface may transfer to 
the stigma the pollen which clin|^ to the slimy foot. Such 
a transfer has been described in various Aroids, Rokdta 
japmtica (Liliaceae). and other plants. 



(Fiom • dfMHi« In tb« Boualal Cdhry at tb« British yoMWD.) 

Fic. 7. — Flower of Datura $ani»in€a visited by humming-bird 
Docima^ci tnsifenu. 

d. Insed-poUinaUd, EnUmopkiUu, a very 
laive class characterized by tticky 
poUen grains, the surface of which bears 
spines, wartsor other projections (ng. 8) 
which facilitate adhesion to some part 
of the insect's body, and a relatively 
small stigma with a sticky surface. 
The flowers have an attractive floral 
envelope, are scented and often contain 



Fig. 8.— I. anther; 2, 
pollen grain of Hollyhock 


(Althaea rosea) enlarged. 
The pollen grain bears 
numerous spines, the 
dark spots indk:ate thin 
places in the outer walL 


honey or a large amount of pollen; 
by these means the insect is enticed 
to visit it. The form, colour and 
scent of the flower vary widely, 
according to the class of insect whose 


aid b sought, and there are also numerous devices for pro- 
tecting tbie pdlcn and nectar from rain and dew or 
from the visits of those insects which would not serve 
the purpose of pollen-transference (unbidden guests).^ The 
following subdivisions have been suggested 

A. PoUen PUmtrs. — ^These offer only pollen to their visitors, 

as species of anemone, poppy, rose, tulio, &c. They 
are simple in structure and regular in form, and the 
generally abundant pollen is usuafly freely exposed. 

B. Nutar rlowers. — ^Theae contain nectai and include the 

following groups: — . 

1. Flowers with exposed nectar , readily visible and accessible 

to all visitors. These are very simple, open and gener- 
ally regular flowers, white, greenish-yellow or yellow 
in colour and are chiefly visited by insects with a 
short proboscis, such as short-longuea wasps and flies, 
also beetles and more rarely bees. Examples are 
Umbelliferae as a family, saxifrages, holly, Acer, 
Rhamnust Euonymus, EupkorHa, &c. 

2, Flowers with nectar pf^Hy concealed and viable only in 

bright sunshine. The generally regular flowers are 
completely open only in bright sunshine, dosine up 
into cups at other times. Such are most Cruciierae, 
buttercups, king-cup (jCaltka), PotentiUa. White and 
yellow colours predominate and insects with a pro- 
boscis of medium length are the common pollinating 
agents, such as short-tongued bees. 
5. Flowers with nectar concealed by pouches, hairs. &c. 
Regular flowers predominate, e.^. Ceraniutn, Cardamine 
pratensis, mallows, Rubus, Oxalu, Epilobium, &c., but 
many species show more or less well-marked median 
symn ' • • «. 

OK., i 

Long-tongued insects such as the honey-bee are the 
most frequent visitors. 

4. Social flowers, whose nectar is concealed as in (3). but the 

flowers are grouped in heads which render them 
strikingly conspicuous, and several flowers can be simul- 
taneously pollinated. Such are Compositae as a class, 
also Scaoiosa, Armeria (sea-pink) and others. 

5. Hymenopterid flowers, which fall into the following groups; 

Bee-flowers proper, humble-bee flowers requiring a 
longer proboscis to reach the n«lar, wasp-flowers such 
as fig-wort (S^rophnlaria nodosa) and ichneumon 
flowers such as tway-blade {lAstera ovata). 

The shapes and colours are extremely varied ; bilater- 
ally symmetrical forms are most frequent with red. 
blue or violet colours. Such are Papilionaceous 
flowers, Violaccae, many Labiatac, Scrophulariaccae 
and others. Many are .highly specialized so that 
pollination can be effected by a few species only. 
Examples of more "Pccial mechanisms are illustrated 
by Salvia {fig. o). The long connective of the single 
stamen b hinged to the short filament and has a shorter 
arm ending in a blunt process and a longer arm bearing 
a half-antner. A large bee in probing for honey comes 
in contact with the end of the short arm of the lever 
and causes the longer arm to descend and the pollen 
is deposited on the back of the insect (fig. o. i). In a 
later stage (fig. 9, 2) the style elongates and the forked 
stigma occupies the same position as the anther in 
fig. 9. I. 


mmet^ (zygomorphism) as Euphrasia, Orchis, thyme, 
c, and red. blue and violet are the usual colours. 



(FtamSmAurt^ttjMmHaBmmtk.hf 
Fig. 9.— Pollination 

I, Flower visited by a humble- 
bee, showing the projection of 
the curved connective bearing 
the anther from the helmet- 
shaped upper lip and the depo- 
sitbn of the pollen on the back 
of the humble-bee. 

1, Older flower, with connective 
drawn back, and elongated style. 


pcfmhrioB of Gustav Fadicf.) 
of SaMa pratensis. 

4, The staminal apparatus at 
rest, with connective enclosed 
within the upper iip. 

3, The same, when disturbed 
by the entrance of the proboscis 
01 the bee in the direction of the 
arrow;/, filament; c. connective; 
s, the obstructing half of th« 
anther. 


* See A. Kemer, PlasOs and Omr Unbidden CuesU. 


POLLIO 


Bfoom tlwre is an explodve machanbin ; the 

ure of the insect visitor on the keel of the corolla 

causes a sudden release of the stamens and the scatter* 

in^ of a cloud of poUcn over its body. 

6*Leptd9tUrid flcwers, visited chiefly by Lepidoptera, 

which are aible to reach the nccur concealed in deep. 

narrow tubes or spurs by means 

of their long slender proboscis. 

Such are: (a) Butterfly-flowers, 

usually red in colour, as 

Moth-flowers, white or whitish, 
as honeysuckle (Lonicaa 
periclvmenum). 
7. f/y jlowers, chiefly visited by 
Diptera, and including very 
different types:— 

a. Nauseous flowers, dull and 
yellowish and dark purple in 
colour .and often spotted, with 
a smell attractive to carrion 
flies and dung flics, i.g, species 
of Saxi/raga, 

b. Pitfall flowers such as Asarum, 
Aristolochia and Arum macu- 
latum, when the insect is 
caught and detained until 
pollination b effected (flg. 
10). 

c. Pinch-trap flowers, as in the 
family Aaclepiadaceae, where 
the proboscis, claw or bristle 
of the insect is caught in the 
clip to whkh the pairs of 
poilinia are attached. Bees, 
wasps and larger insects serve 
as pollinating agents 



Fig. ia~Spadix of Arum 
macalclum from whkh the 
ereater part of the spathe has 
wen cut away. 

P, Kstillate. 1, staminate 
flowers: A, sterile flowers form- 
ing a circlet of stiff hairs closing 
the mouth of the chamber 
formed by the lower part of 
the spathe. 



Fw. II.— <;raaB of Rununs (Panmsia palutlris). 

t. One at the scales which form the coronet in the flower, enlarged. 



the rotate corolla. 
c, The upper lip. 

s, The two stamenSk 
n, The stigma. 


d. Deceptive flowers such as Pamassia, where the conspicuous 

coronet of glistening yellow balls suggests a plentiful 
supply of nectar drops (fig. ii). 

e. Hoverfly flowers, small flowers which are beautifully coloured 

with radiating streaks pointing to a sharply-defined 
centre in which is the nectar, as m Veronica chamaedrys 
(fig. 12). 
LiTBRATURS.— Joseph GottHcb Kdlreuter > (d. 1806) was the first 

to study the pollination of flowers and to draw attention to the 

necessity of inaect visits in many cases; he 

Eave a clear account of cross- pollination 
V insect aid. He was followed by Christian 
Konrad Sprengcl, whose work Das entdeckte 
Cefuimnus der Natur im Bau und in der 
BefrMcktung der Btumen (Berlin, 1793), 
contains a description of floral adaptations 
to insect visits in nearly 500 species of 
plants. Sprengel came very near to 
appreciatmg the meaning of cross-pollina- 
tion in the life of plants when he states 
that " it seems that Nature is unwilling 
that any flower should be fertilized by its 
own pollen." In 1799 an Englishman, ff""« Vlii»'« Tat M tf 
Thomas Andrew Knight, after experiments _ «•«»>. by P«nnJ-*«»-> 
on the cross-fertilization of cultivated '*°- "- — flower of 
plants, formulated the conclusion that no veronica, 

plant fertilizes itself through many genera- k. Calyx, 
tions. Sprengel's work, whkh nad been u, u, u, The three lobes 
almost forgotten, was taken up again by of the lower lip of 
Charles Darwin, who concluded that no 
organic being can fertilize itself through 
an unlimited number of generations; but 
a cross with other individuals is occasion- 
ally—perhaps at very long intervals — indis- 
pensable. Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertiliza- 
tion of orchids gave powerful support to this statement. The 
study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called " pollina- 
tion, of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other 
workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the 
brothers Fritz and Hermann MQIler. Hermann Mailer's work on 
The Fertilization of Hewers by Insects and their Ruiprocal Adapta- 
tions (1873). followed by subsequent works on the same lines, brought 
together a great number of observations on floral mechanisms and 
their relation to insect-visits. M tiller also suggested a modiflcation 
of the Knight-Darwin law, whk:h had left unexplained the numer- 
ous instances of continued successful self-pollination, and restated 
it on these terms: " Whenever offspring resulting from crossing 
comes into serious conflkt with offspnng resulting from self- 
fertilization, the former is vurtorious. Only where there b no 
such struggle for existence docs sclf-fcrtilization often prove satis- 
factory for many generations." An increasing number of workers 
in this field of plant biology in England, on tne Continent and in 
America has produced a great mass of observations, whkh have 
recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work. 
Handbook of flower PoUtnation, an English translation of whkh 
has been published (1908} by the Clarendon Press. 

POLLIO. GAIUS ASINIUS (76 b.c.-a.d. 5; according to some, 
75 B.C.-A.D. 4), Roman orator, poet and historian. In 54 he 
impeached unsuccessfully C. Porcius Cato, who in his tribunate 
(56) had acted as the tool of the triumvirs. In the civil war 
between Caesar and Pompey PoUio sided with Caesar, was 
present at the battle of Pharsalus (48), and commanded against 
Sextus Pompeius in Spain, where he was at the time of Caesar's 
assassination. He subsequently threw in his lot with M. 
Antonius. In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, 
who entrusted PoUio with the administration of Gallia Trans- 
padana. In superintending the distribution of the Mantuan 
territory amongst the veterans, he used his influence to save 
from confiscation the property of the poet VirgiL In 40 he 
helped to arrange the peace of Brundisium by which- Octavian 
(Atigustus) and Antonius were for a time reconciled. In the 
same year PoUio entered upon his consubhip, which had been 
promised him in 43. It was at this time that Virgil addressed 
the famous fourth eclogue to him. Next year PoUio conducted 
a successful campaign against the Parthini, an lUyrian people 
who adhered to Brutus, and celebrated a triumph on the 3Sth 
of October. The eighth eclogue of VirgU waft addressed to 
PoUio whUe engaged in thb campaign. From the spoils of the 
war he constructed the first pubUc Ubrary at Rome, in the 
Atrium LibertaUs, also erected by him (Pliny, Nat. hist. xxxv. 
xo), which he adorned with statues of the most celebrated 

^Vorldufige Nachrickt ton einieen das Ceschlecht der Pftanten 
betreffenden Versuchen und BeobacMungen, 3. 4. 6 (Leipzig, 17161). 


POLLNITZ— POLL-TAX 


authors, both Greek and Roman. Thenceforward he withdrew 
from active life and devoted himself to literature. He seems to 
have maintained to a certain degree an attitude of independence, 
it not of opposition, towards Augustus. He died in his villa at 
Tusculum, regriEted and csLcemed by all. 

Pollio was a. distini^uiiihcd oritor; hli ipe^hes showircf In;;e'iij|ty 
and care, but were marred by an adecicd arch^ifim tQuiiiLillin, 
Inst. X. I, ll.li; ScnftTJ, Ep. lOO), He wmLe tragedl^ at^j. v-Ukh 
Virgil {Eel. viti. lo) di-^l^red to tie worthy of Sophocles, and m prose 
history of the civil wars of his time tram ihfi firsi tritimvirjitc (60) 
down to the dfath of Cicero ^4j) or liwr. This history, in the 
composition of which Pohio recei'^wi ant^i^ince from thcgMmrruirian 
AteiuB PractesLSius. wu ii»cd as an auihoriiy by Ttut^rch md 
Appian (Horace, Odes, iL it Tacirii*H Annaii, Iv. jjJ^ As a lUcMry 
critic Pollio wjts very *evere4 He ccfl*L»ncd Sdiluit (Sucionius, 
Gram. 10)^ and Ciocrg (Quidtltiiin, Imt. xii. t» J^J and pfou-^scd 
to detect in Liv^'a »tyle^ certain provLncLalL^mji of his niti^t.' J'jL«lua 
(Quintilian, I S, 56^ viiL i, j); he :ittackMi tht QmmfnrLir;rb of 
Julius Caesar, aecu&m« their author q( tarclc^ncsa and cr^-.lulUy, 
if not of delibenite lahtFicatiDn tSuet. Caviar, 56) . PoUio ^^.i-^ the 

first Roman jmrlifir whm ri-,-itif3 Ki^ uriiiiii^^ [n .in nii,"tlfnrT ..! |iis 

friends, a pr ne. 

The theory tw^,. .;_* ^..u ->.._. ^ ^j*. j.. — .vj 4.;/;.j..-m, 

one of the supplements to Caesar's Commenlarii, has met with little 
support. Alf his writings are lost except a few fragmenta of his 
speeches (H. Meyer, Orat. rom. frai., 1842}, and three letters 
addressed to Cice^ {Ad. Fam. x. 31-13). 

See Plutarch, Caesar, Pompey; Veil. Pat ii. 36, 63. 73,_76; 
Florus iv. 13, 11; Dio Cassius idv. 10, xlviiL 15: Apptan, BeU. 
civ. : V. Gardthausen, Augustus und seine Zeit (1891). 1. ; P. Groebe, in 
Pauly-WisMwa's Realencyclopddie (1896), ii. pt. 2 ; TeufTel-Schwaben, 
Hist. oJRotnan Literature (Eng. trans.), 1 33i ; M. Schanz, Geschichte 
der rSmiscken Litteratur, pt. 2, p. 30 (2nd ed., 1899); Cicero, Letters, 
ed. Tyrrell and Purser, vL introd. p. 80. 

POLUmZ, KARL LUDWIO, Freihesx von (1693-X775), 
German adventurer and writer, was bom at Issum on the asth 
of February 1692. His father, Wilhclm Ludwig von PdUnitz 
(d. 1693) » was in the military service of the elector of Branden- 
burg, and much of his son's youth was passed at the electoral 
court in Berlin. Ht was a man of restless and adventurous 
disposition, unscrupulous even for the age in which he lived, 
visited many of the European courts, and served as a soldier in 
Austria, Italy and Spain. Returning to Berlin in 1735 ^^ 
obtained a position in the household of King Frederick.William I. 
and afterwards in that. of F;-eidcrick the Great, with whom he 
appears to have been a great favourite; and he died in Berlin on 
the 33rd of June 1775. 

PfiUnitz's Mimoires (Li^, 1734), wSlch wer« tran^Ucfd into 
German (Frankfort, 1735), aivc inteTntin^ glimpscf of h'a Mfe^ and 
the people whom he met, but ihey am vt^ry untruitwortUv, He 
also wrote Nouveaux mimoires f Amsterdam. 1757): Eiai airij-/ de 
la cow de Saxe sous le rhpu d'Aagujtt JIL (Frankfortn tlii'. der. 
trans., Breslau, 1736); and M^'r:oirts pour sersir A i'hulcit^ des 
ouatres demiers souverainsde la mciam. ii Bnin^nioK/f, puLiN hed 
by F. L. Bninn (Beriin, 1791? <itr. tnn^. Dpriin, 17C)[). Per- 
haps his roost popular works Arc La Saie i^^te fAmfiTirdim, 
1734). an account of the private life of Au^uaiuB the StroRR, 1 1, tor 
of Saxony and king of Poland; and HisUtue secrtu tk Ut Jju^ujje 
d*Hanovre, ipouse de Georges L (London, 1732). There is an 
English translation of the Mimoires (London, 1 738-1 739). See 
P. von Pdllnitz, StammtaMn der Familie von PdUnitz (Beriin, 
1894); and J. G. Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen PolUih, pt.-iv. 
(Ldpaig, 1870). 

POLLOCK, the name of an English family which has con- 
tributed many important members to the legal and other profes- 
sions. David Pollock, who was the son of a Scotsman and built 
up a prosperous business in London as a saddler, had three distin- 
guished sons: Sir David Pollock. (1780-1847), chief justice of 
Bombay; Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock, Bart. (1783-1870), 
chief baron of the exchequer; and Sir George Pollock, Bart, 
(i 786-1873), field-marshal Of these the more famous were 
the two last. Field Marshal Sir George Pollock, who rendered 
valuable military service in India, and especially in Afghanistan 
in X 841-1843, ended his days as constable of the Tower of London, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey; his baronetcy, created in 
1873, descended to his son Frederick (d. 1874), who assumed 
the name of Montagu-Pollock, and so to his heirs. Chief Baron 
Sir J. Frederick Pollock, who had been senior wrangler at Cam- 
bridge, and became F.R.S. in x8i6, was raised to the bench in 
1844, and created a baronet in 1866. He was twice married 


and had eight sons and ten daughters, his numerons descendants 
being prominent in many fields. The chief baron's eldnt son. 
Sir William Frederick PoUock, 2nd Bart. (1815-1888), became a 
master of the Supreme Court (1846) and queen's remembrancer 
(1874), his eldest son. Sir Frederick Pollock, 3rd Bart. (b. 1845), 
being the well-known jurist and legal historian, fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Corpus professor of jurisprudence at 
Oxford (1883-1903), and the second son, Walter Henries Pollock 
(b. 1850), being a weU-known author and editor of the Saturday 
Review from 1883 to 1894. The chief baron's third son, George 
Frederick Pollock (b. xSaz), became a master of the Supreme 
Court in 1851, and succeeded his brother as queen's (king's) 
remembrancer in 1886; among his sons were Dr W. Rivers 
Pollock (185^x909), Ernest Murry Pollock, K.C. (b. x86i), 
and the Rt. Rev. Bertram Pollock (b. 1863), bishop of Norwich, 
and previously head master of Wellington College from 1893 till 
1910. The chief baron's fourth son. Sir Charles Edward Pollock 
(1833-1897), had a successful career at the bar and in X873 
became a judge, being the last survivor of the old barons of the 
exchequer; he was thrice married and had issue by each wife. 

POLLOK, ROBERT (1798-1837), Scottish poet, son of a small 
farmer, was born at North Moorbouse, Renfrewshire, on the 19th 
of October 1798. He was trained as a cabinet-maker and after- 
wards worked on his father's farm, but, having prepared himself 
for the university, he took his degree at Glasgow, and studied for 
the ministry of the United Secession Church. He pubUshed 
Tales of the Covenanters while he was a divinity student, and 
planned and completed a strongly Calvim'stic poem on the spiri- 
tual life and destiny of man. This was the Course of Time (1827), 
which passed through many editions and became a favourite 
in serious households in Scotland. It was written in blank 
verse, in ten books, in the poetic diction of the i8th century, but 
with abundance of enthusiasm, impassioned elevation of feeling 
and copious force of words and images. The poem at once 
became popular, but within six months of its publication, on the 
i8th of September 1837, its author died of consumption. 

P0LL0K8HAW8. a police burgh and burgh of barony of 
Renfrewshire, Scotland, on the White Cart, now virtually a 
suburb of Glasgow, with which it is connected by electric 
tramway and the Glasgow & South-Westem and Caledonian 
railways. Pop. (1901), iz,x83. It is named from the shows 
or woods (and is locally styled " the Shaws ") and the lands of 
Pollok, which have been held by the Maxwdls since the 13th 
century. The family is now called Stirling-Maxwell, the estate 
and baronetcy haVing devolved in 1865 upon Sir William 
Stirling of Keir, who then assumed the surname of Maxwell. 
Pollok House adjoins the town on the west. The staple indus- 
tries are cotton-spinning and weaving, silk-weaving, dyeing, 
bleaching, calico-printing and the manufacture of chenille and 
tapestry, besides paper mills, potteries and large engineering 
works. PoUokshaws was created a burgh of barony in 18x3, 
and is governed by a council and provost. About 2 m. south- 
west is the thriving town of Thornliebank (pop. 3453), which 
owes its existence to the cotton-works established towards the 
end of the iSth century. 

POLL-TAX, a tax levied on the individual, and not on 
property or on articles of merchandise, so-called from the old 
English poll, a head. Raised thus per capita, it is sometimes 
called a capitation tax. The most famous poll-tax in English 
history b the one levied in X380, which led to the revolt of the 
peasants under Wat Tyler in 1381, but the first instance of the 
kind was in 1377, when a tax of a groat a head was voted by both 
clergy and laity. In 1379 the tax was again levied, but on a 
graduated scale. John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, paid ten 
marks, and the scale descended from him to the peasants, who 
paid one groat each, every person over sixteen years of age being 
liable. In 1380 the tax was also graduated, but less steeply. 
For some years after the rising of 1381 money was only raised 
in this way from aliens, but in 15x3 a general poll tax was 
imposed. This, however, only produced about £50,000, instead 
of £160,000 as was expected, but a poll-tax levied in 1641 
resulted in a revenue of about £400,600. During the reign of 


POLLUX, JULIUS— POLO, MARCO 


Charles II. money was obtained in this way on several occasions, 
although in 1676-1677 especially there was a good deal of 
resentment against the tax. For some years after 1688 poll- 
taxes were a favourite means of raising money for the 
prosecutkm of the war with France. Sometimes a single 
payment was asked for the year; at other times quarterly 
payments were required. The poll-tax of 1697 included a 
wc«idy tax of one penny from all persons not receiving alms. 
In 1698 a quarterly poll-tax produced £321,597. Nothing 
was required from the poor, and those who were liable may be 
cfivided roughly into three daases. Persons worth less than £300 
paid one shilling; those worth £500, including the gentry and 
the professional classes, paid twenty shillings; while tradesmen 
and shopkeepers paid ten shillings. Non-jurors were charged 
double these rates. like previous poll-taxes, the tax of 1698 
did not inoduce as much as was anticipated, and it was the la^t 
of its kind in England. 

Many of the states of the United Sutes of America raise 
money by levying poll-taxes, or, as they are usually called, 
capitation taxes, the payment of this tax being a necessary 
preliminary to the exercise of the suffrage. 

See S Dowell. History of Taxation and Taxes in Engfand (1888), 
voL uL; and W. Stubby Constitutional History (1896}, voL iL 

POLLUX, JULIUS, of Naucratis in Egypt, Greek grammarian 
and sophist of the 2nd century a.d. He taught at Athens, 
where, according to Philostratus {Vil. Sopk.)^ he was appointed 
to the professorship of rhetoric by the emperor Commodus on 
account of his melodious voice. Suldas gives a list of his 
rfactDrical works, none of which has survived. Philostratus 
recognizes his natural abilities, but speaks of his rhetoric in very 
* moderate terms. PoUux is probably the person attacked by 
Lodan in the Lexiphanes and Teacher of Rhetoricians. In the 
Teacher oj Rhetoricians Lucian satirizes a worthless and ignorant 
person who gains a reputation as an orator by sheer effrontery ; the 
LexipkaneSt a satire upon the use of obscure and obsolete words, 
may conceivably have been directed against PoUux as the author 
of the OnomasUcon. This work, which we still possess, is a 
Greek dictionary in ten books, each dedicated to Commodus, 
and arranged not alphabetically but according to subject-matter. 
Though mainly a (tictionary of synonyms and phrases, chiefly 
intended to furnish the reader with the Attic names for indi- 
vidual things, it supplies much rare and valuable information on 
many points of classical antiquity. It also contains numerous 
fragments of writers now k>st. The chief authorities used were 
the kadcological works of Didymus, Tryphon, and Pamphilus; 
in the second book the extant treatise of Rufus of Ephesus 
On the Scenes of the Parts of the Human Body was specially 
consulted. 

The chief editions of the Onomcsticon are thooe of W. Dindorf 
(1824), with the notes of previous commentators. I. Bekker (1846), 
cootamiog the Greek text only, and Bethe (1900). There are mono> 
graphs 00 special portions of the vocabulary: by E. Rohde (on 
the thenricau terms. 1870;. and F. von Stojentin (on constitutional 
antiquities. 1 875). 

POLLUX* or PoLLUcrrE, a rare mineral, consisting of hydrous 
caesium and aluminium silicate, HsCsiAUCSiOj)^ Caesium 
oxide (Cs^) is present to the extent of 30-36 %, the 
amount varying somewhat owing to partial replacement by 
other alkalis, chiefly sodium. The mineral crystallizes in the 
cubic system. It is colourless and transparent, and has a 
vitreous lustre. There is no distinct cleavage and the fracture 
is oonchoidal. The hardness is 6} and the specific gravity 2-90. 
It occurs sparingly, together with the mineral " castor " (see 
Petaute), in cavities in the granite of the island of Elba, and 
with beryl in pegmatite veins at Rumford and Hebron in Maine. 

POLO, OASPAR OIL (?i 530-1 591), Spanish novelist and 
poet, was bom at Valencia about 1530. He is often confused 
with Gil Polo, professor of Greek at Valencia University between 
1566 and 1573; but this professor was not named Gaspar. He 
is also confused with his own son, Gaspar Gil Polo, the author 
of De origine et progressu juris romaui (161 5) and other 
legal treatises, who pleaded before the Cortes as late as 1626. 
A notary by prof^tiion. Polo was attached to the treasury 


commission which visited Valencia in 1571, became coadjutor to 
the chief accountant in 1572, went on a special mission to 
Barcelona m 1580, and died there in 1591. Timoneda, in the 
Sarao de amor (1561), alludes to him as a poet of repute; but of 
his miscellaneous verses only two conventional, eulogistic sonnets 
and a song survive. Polo finds a place in the history of the novel 
as the author of La Diana enamoradaf a continuation of Monte- 
mayor's Diana, and perhaps the most successful continuation 
ever written by another hand. Cervantes, punning on the 
writer's name, recommended that " the Diana enamorada should 
be guarded as carefuUy as though it were by Apollo himself "; 
the hjrperbole is not wholly, nor even mamly, ironicaL 

The book b one of the most agreeable of Spanish pastorals; 
interesting in inddent, written in fluent prose, and embellished 
with melodious poems, it was constantly reprinted, was imiuted 
by Cervantes in the Canto de Caliope, and was translated into 
ETngfish, French, (German and Latin. The English version of 
Bartholomew Young, published in 1598 but current in manu- 
script fifteen years earlier, is said to have suggested the Felismena 
episode in the Two Gentlemen of Verona; tne Latin version of 
Caspar Barth, entitled Erotodidascalus (Hanover, 1625), is a per- 
formance of uncommon merit as well as a bibliographical curioMty. 

POLO, MARCO (e. x 254-1324), the Venetian, greatest of 
medieval travellers. Venetian genealogies and traditions of 
uncertain value trace the Polo family to Sebenico in Dalmatia, 
and before the end of the nth centuiy one Domenico Polo is 
found in the great council of the republic (1094). But the 
ascertained line of the traveller begins only with his grandfather. 
Andrea Polo of S. Felice was the father of three sons, Marco, 
Nicolo and Maffeo, of whom the second was the father of the 
subject of this article. They were presumably ''noble," t.e. 
belonging to the families who had seats in the great council, 
and were enrolled in the Libro d' Oro; for we know that Marco 
the traveller is ofiidaUy so styled {nobUis vtr). The three 
brothers were engaged in commerce; the elder Marco, resident 
apparently m Constantinople and in the Crimea (especially at 
Sudak), suggests, by his celebrated will, a long business 
partnership with Nicolo and Maffeo. 

About X260, and even perhaps as early as 1250, we find Nicolo 
and Maffeo at Constantinople. Nicolo was married and had left 
his wife there. The two brothers went on a speculation to the 
Crimea, whence a succession of chances and openings carried 
them to the court of Barka Khan at Sarai, further north up to 
Bolghar (Kazan), and eventually across the steppes to Bokhara. 
Here they fell m with certain envoys who had been on a mission 
from the great Khan Kublai to his brother Hulagu in Persia, 
and by them were persuaded to make the journey to Cathay in 
their company. Under the heading China the circumstances 
are noticed which in the last half of the 13th century and first 
half of the 14th threw Asia open to Western travellers to a degree 
unknown before and since — until the 19th century. Thus began 
the medieval period of intercourse between China and catholic 
Europe. Kublai, when the Polos reached his court, was either 
at Cambaluc (Khanbaligh, the Khan's city), <.e. Peking, which he 
had just rebuilt, or at his summer scat at Shangtu in the country 
north of the Great Wall: It was the first time that the khan, a 
man full of energy and intelligence, had fallen in with European 
gentlemen. He was delighted with the Venetian brothers, 
listened eagerly to all they had to tell of the Latin world, and 
decided to send them back as his envoys to the pope, with letters 
requesting the despatch of a large body of educated men to 
instruct his people in Christianity and the liberal arts. With 
Kublai, as with his predecessors, religion was chiefly a political 
engine. Kublai, the first of his house to rise above the essential 
barbarism of the Mongols, had perhaps discerned that the 
Christian Church could afford the aid he desired in taming his 
countrymen. It was only when Rome had failed to meet his 
advance that he fell back upon Buddhism as his chief dvilizing 
instrument. 

The brothers arrived at Acre in April 1269. They learned 
that Clement IV. had died the year before, and no new pope had 
yet been chosen. So they took counsel with an eminent church- 
man, Tcdaldo, archdeacon of Litge and papal legate for the 


8 


POLO, MARCO 


whole realm of Egypt, and, being advised by him to wait 
patiently, went home to Venice, where they found that Nicolo't 
wife was dead, but had left a son Marco, now fifteen. The papal in- 
terregnum was the longest that had been known, at least since the 
dark ages. After the Polos had spent two years at home there was 
still no pope, and the brothers resolved on starting again for the 
East, taking young Marco with them.. At Acre they again saw 
Tedaido, and were furnished by him with letters to authenticate 
the causes that had hindered their mission. They had not yet left 
Lajazzo, Layas, or Ayas on the Cilician coast (then one of the 
chief points for the arrival and departure of the land trade of 
Asia), when they beard that Tedaido had been elected pope. 
They hastened back to Acre, and at last were able to execute 
Kublai's mission, and to obtain a papal reply. But, instead of 
the hundred teachersasked for by the Great Khan, the new pope 
(styled Gregory X.) could supply but two Dominicans; and these 
lost heart and turned back, when they had barely taken the first 
step of their journey. 

The second start from Acre must have taken place about 
November 1271; and from a consideration of the indications 
and succession of chapters in Polo's book, it would seem that the 
party proceeded from Lajazzo to Sivas and Tabriz, and thence 
by Yezd and Rirman down to Hormuz (Hurmuz) at the mouth 
of the Persian Gulf, with the purpose of going on to China by sea; 
but that, abandoning their naval plans (perhaps from fear of the 
flimsy vessels employed on this navigation from the Gulf east- 
wards), they returned northward through Persia. Traversing 
Kirman and Khorasan they went on to Balkh and Badakshan, 
In which last country young Marco recovered from illness. In 
a passage touching on the climate of the Badakshan hills, 
Marco breaks into an enthusiasm which he rarely betrays, but 
which is easily understood by those who have known what 
it is, with fever in the blood, to escape to the exhilarating 
mountain air and fragrant pine-groves. Jhcy then ascended 
the upper Oxus through Wakhan to the plateau of Pamir 
(a name first heard in Marco's book). These regions were 
hardly described again by any European traveller (save Benedict 
Goes) till the expedition in 1838 of Lieut. John Wood of the 
Indian navy, whose narrative abounds in incidental illustration 
of Marco Polo. Crossing the Pamir the traveUcrs descended 
upon Kashgar, Varkand and Khotan (Khutan). These are 
regions which remained almost absolutely closed to our know- 
ledge till after i860, when the temporary overthrow of the 
Chinese power, and the enterprise of British, Russian and other 
explorers, again made them known. 

From Khotan the Polos passed on to the vicinity of Lop-Nor, 
reached for the first time since Polo's journey by Prjevalsky 
in 187 1. Thence the great desert of Gobi was crossed to 
Tangut, as the region at the extreme north-west of China, both 
within and without the Wall, was then called. 

In his account of the Gobi, or desert of Lop, as he calls it, 
Polo gives some description of the terrors and superstitions of 
the waste, a description which strikingly reproduces that of 
the Chinese pilgrim Suan T'sang, in passing the same desert in 
the contrary direction six hundred years before. 

The Venetians, in their further journey, were met and 
welcomed by the Great Khan's people, and at last reached his 
presence at Shangtu, in the spring of 1275. Kublai received 
them with great cordiality, and took kindly to young Marco, by 
this time about twenty-one years old. The " young bachelor," 
as the book calls him, applied himself diligently to the acquisi- 
tion of the divers languages and written characters chiefly in use 
among the multifarious nationalities subject to the Khan; and 
Kublai, seeing that he was both clever and discreet, soon 
began to employ him in the public service. G. Pauthicr found 
in the Chinese annals a record that in the year z 377 a certain Polo 
was nominated as a second-class commissioner or agent attached 
to the imperial council, a passage which we may apply to the 
young Venetian. Among his public missions was one which 
carried him through the provinces of Shansi, ShensI, and 
Szcchuen, and the wild country on the borders of Tibet, to the 
remote province of Yunnan, called by the Mongols Karajang, 


and into northern Burma (Mien). Marco, during his stay at 
court, had observed the Khan's delight in hearing of strange 
countries, of their manners, marvels, and oddities, and had 
heard his frank expressions of disgust at the stupidity of envoys 
and commissioners who could tell of nothing but their official 
business. He took care to store his memory or bis note-book 
with curious facts likely to interest Kublai, which, on his return 
to court, he related. This south-western journey led him 
through a country which till about x86o was almost a terra 
incognita — though since the middle of the 19th century we have 
learned much regarding it through the journeys of Cooper, 
Gamier, Richthofen, Gill, Baber and others. In this region 
there existed and still exists in the deep valleys of the great 
rivers, and in the alpine regions which border them, a vast 
ethnological garden, as it were, of tribes of various origin, and 
in every stage of semi-dvilization or barbarism; these afforded 
many strange pibducts and eccentric traits to entertain Kublai. 

Marco rose rapidly In favour and was often employed on 
distant missions as well as in domestic administration; but we 
gather few details of his employment. He held for three years 
the government of the great city of Yangchow; on another 
occasion he seems to have visited Kangchow, the capital of 
Tangut, just within the Great Wall, and perhaps Karakorum on 
the north of the Gobi, the former residence of the Great Khans: 
again we find him in Ciampa, or southern Cochin-China; and 
perhaps, once more, on a separate mission to the southern states 
of India. We are not Informed whether his father and uncle 
shared in such employments, though they are mentioned as 
having rendered material service to the Khan, in forwarding 
the capture of Siang-yang (on the Han river) during the war 
against southern China, by the construction of powerful 
artillery engines— a story, however, perplexed by chronological 
difficulties. 

All the Polos were gathering wealth which they longed to carry 
back to their home, and after their exile they began to dread 
what might follow Kublai's death. The Khan, however, was 
deaf to suggestions of departure and the opportunity only 
came by chance. 

Arghun, khan of Persia, the grandson of Kublai's brother 
Hulagu, lost in 1286 his favourite wife, caUed by Polo Balgana 
{i.€. Bulughan or " Sable "). Her dying injunction was that her 
place should be filled only by a lady of her own Mongol tribe. 
Ambassadors were despatched to the court of Peking to obtain 
such a bride. The message was courteously received, and 
the choice fell on the lady Cocacin (Kukachin), a maiden of 
seventeen. The overiand road from Peking to Tabriz was then 
imperilled by war, so Arghun's envoys proposed to return by 
sea. Having made acquaintance with the Venetians, and eager 
to profit by their experience, especially by that of Marco, who 
had just returned from a mission to the Indies, they begged the 
Khan to send the Franks in their company. He consented with 
reluctance, but fitted out the party nobly for the voyage, charging 
them with friendly messages to the potentates of Christendom, 
including the pope, and the kings of France, Spain and England. 
They sailed from Zaiton or Amoy Harbour in Fuklen (a town 
corresponding either to the modem Changchow or less probably 
toTswanchoworChinchew),thenoneof the chief Chinese havens 
for foreign trade, in the beginning of 1393. The voyage in- 
volved long detention on the coast of Sumatra, and in south 
India, and two years or more passed before they arrived in 
Persia. Two of the three envoys and a vast proportion of their 
suite perished by the way; but the three Venetians survived all 
perils, and so did the young lady, who had come to look on them 
with filial regard. Arghun Khan had died even before they 
quitted China; his brother reigned in his stead; and his son 
Ghazan succeeded to the lady's hand. The Polos went on 
(apparently by Tabriz, Trebizond, Constantinople and Negro- 
pont) to Venice, which they seem to have reached about the end 
of 1395. 

The first biographer of Marco Polo was the famous geo- 
graphical collector John Baptist Ramuslo, who wrote more than 
two centuries after the traveller's death. Facts and dates 


POLO, MARCO 


fometimes contradict his statevents, bnt he often adds detail, 
evidently authentic, of great interest and value, and we need not 
hesitate to accept as a genuine tradition the substance of his 
story of the P<^i98' arrival at their family mansion in St John 
Chrysoslom parish in worn and outlandish garb, of the scornful 
denial of their identity, and the stratagem by which they secured 
acknowledgment from Venetian society. 

We next hear of Marco Polo in a militant capacity. Jealousies 
had been growing in bitterness between Venice and Genoa 
thiou^iont the 13th century. In 1298 the Genoese prepared 
to strike at their rivals on their own ground, and a powerful fleet 
under Lamba Doria made for the Adriatic Venice, on hearing 
of the Genoese armament, equipped a fleet stiO more numerous, 
and placed it under Andrea Dandolo. The crew of a Venetian 
galley at this time amounted, all told, to 350 men, under a 
c^milo or master, but besides this officer each 'galley carried a 
scfracamito or gentleman-commander, usually a noble. On one 
of the galleys of Dandolo*s fleet Marco Polo seems to have gone 
in this last capacity. The hostile fleets met before Curcola 
Island on the 6th of September, and engaged next morm'ng. 
The battle ended in a complete victory for Genoa, the details 
of which may still be read on the facade of St Matthew's church 
in that dty. Sixty-six Venetian galleys were burnt in 
Curxola Bay, and eighteen were carried to Genoa, with 7000 
prisoners, one of whom was Marco Polo. The captivity was* of 
less than a year's duration; by the mediation of Milan peace 
was made, on honourable terms for both republics, by July 
1399; and Marco was probably restored to his family during 
that Of the following month. 

But his captivity was memorable as the immediate cause of 
his B0ok. Up to this time he had doubtless often related his 
experience^ among his friends; and from these stories, and the 
fieqaent employment in them (as it would seem) of grand 
numerical expressions, he had acqtured the nickname of Marco 
MiOicitL Yet it would seem that he had committed nothing 
to writing. The narratives not only of Marco Polo but of 
several other famous medieval travellers («.;. Ibn Batuta, 
Friar Odoric, Nicolo Conti) seem to have been extorted from 
them by a kind of pressure, and committed to paper by other' 
bands, ^camples, perhaps, of that intense dislike to the use of 
pen and faik which still prevails among ordinary respectable 
folk on the shores of tKe Mediterraneaa 

In the prison of Genoa Marco Polo fell in with a certain person 
of writing propensities, Rustidano or Rustichello of Pisa, also a 
captive of the Genoese. His name is otherwise known as that 
of a respectable literary hack, who abridged and recast several 
of the French romances of the Arthurian cycle, then in fashion. 
He wrote down Marco's experiences at his dictation. 

We learn little of Marco Polo's personal or family history 
after this captivity; but we know that at his death he 
left a wife, Donata (perhaps of the Loredano family, but 
this b uncertain), and three daughters, Fantina and Bellela 
(married^ the former to Marco Bragadino), and Moreta. 
(then a spinster, but married at a later date to Ranuzzo 
Dolfino). One last glimpse of the traveller is gathered from 
hb will, now in St Mark's library. On the 9th of January 
1334 the traveller, in his seventieth year, sent for a neighbouring 
priest and notary to make his testament. We do not know the 
exact time of his death, but it fell almost certainly within the 
year 1324, for we know from a scanty series of documents, 
beginning in June 1325, that he had at the latter date been 
tome time dead. He was buried, in accordance with his will, 
in the Oiurch of St Lorenzo, where the famOy burying-place 
was marked by a sarcophagus, erected by his filial care for his 
father Nicolo, which existed till near the end of the i6th century. 
On the renewal of the church in 1592 this seems to have 
disappeared. 

The archives of Venice have yielded a few traces of our tra- 
veller. Besides his own will just alluded to, there are the wills of 
his unde Marco and ofhis younger brother Maffeo; a few legal 
doQunents connected with the house property in St John 
Chxysostom, and other papers of sixnilar character; and 


two or three entries in the record of the Maggior Con- 
siglio. We have mentioned the sobriquet of Marco Millioni. 
RAmuaio tells us that he had himself noted the use of this name 
in the public books of the commonwealth, and this statement 
has been verified in an entry in the books of the Great Council 
(dated April xo, 1305), which records as one of the securities 
in a certain case the " Nobilis vir liarckus Paulo Miuon." 
It is alleged that long after the traveller's death there was 
always in the Venetian masques one individual who assumed 
the character of Marco Millioni, and told Munchausen-like 
stories to divert the vulgar. There is also a record (March 9, 
13x1) of the judgment of the court of requests (Curia Peti- 
tionum) upon a suit brought by the " Nobilis vir Marcus Polo " 
against Paulo Girardo, who had been an agent of his, to recover 
thp value of a certain quantity of musk for which Girardo had 
not accounted. Anothier document is a catalogue of certain 
curiosities and valuables which were collected in the house of 
Marino FaUero, and this catalogue comprises several objects 
that Marco Polo had given to one of the Faliero family. 

The most tangible record of Polo's memory in Venice is a 
portion of the Ca' Polo — ^the mandon (there is reason to believe) 
where the three travellers, after thdr long absence, were denied 
entrance. The court in which it stands was known in Ramusio's 
time as the Corte dd miUumif and now is called Corte Sabbionenu 
That which remains of the ancient edifice is a passage with a 
decorated archway of Italo-Byzantine character pertaining to 
the X3th century. 

No genuine portrait of Marco Polo exists. There is a medallion 
portrait on the wall of the Sala dello Scudo in the ducal palace, 
which has become a kind of type; but it is a work of imagination 
no older than X76X. The oldest professed portrait is one in the 
gallery of Monsignor Badla at Rome, which is inscribed Marcus 
Polus vendus Mitts orhis d Indie peregrator frimus. It is 
a good picture, but evidently of the x6th century at earliest. 
The Europeans at Canton have absurdly attached the name of 
Marco Polo to a figure in a Buddhist temple there containing a 
gallery of " Arhana " or Buddhist saints, and populariy known 
as the " temple of the five hundred gods." The Venetian 
munidpality obtained a copy of this on the occasion of the 
geographic^ congress at Venice in x88x. 


The book indited by Rustidano u in two parts. The first, or 
prologue, as it is termed, is unfortunatdy the only part which con- 
sists of actual pcnonal narrative. It relates m an interesting 
though extremdy brid fashion the drcumstances which led the 
two elder Polos to the Khan's cottrt, toeether with those of their 
second journey (when accompanied by Marco), and of the return 
to the west by the Indian seas and Persia. The second and suple 
part consists Of a series of chapters of unequal length and unsystem- 
atic structure, descriptive of the different sutes and provinces of 
Asia (certain African islands and regions included), with occasional 
notices of their sights and products, of curious manners and re- 
markable events, and espeaally regarding the Emperor Kublai, 
his court, ^wars and administration. A series of chapters near 
the dose treats of sundry wars that took place between various 
branches of the house ot Jenghiz in the latter half of the 13th 
century. This last series is dther omitted or greatly curtailed in 
all the MS. copies and versions except one (Paris, National Library, 
FondsFr. 11 16). 

It was long doubtful in what language the work was originally 
written. That this had been some dialect of Italian was a natural 
presumption, and a contemporary statement could be alleged in 
Its favour. But there is now no doubt that the original was French. 
This was first indicated by Count Baldelli-Boni, who published an 
elaborate editk>n of two of the Italian texts at Florence in 1827, 
and who found in the oldest of these indisputable signs that it was 
a translation from the French^ The argument has since been 
followed up by othos; and a manuscript in rude and peculiar 
French, belonging to the National Library of Paris (Fonds Fr. 
1 1 16), which was printed by the SociiU de fto^apkie in 1824, is 
evidently dther the original or a dose transcript of the original 
dictation. A variety of its characteristics are strikingly indkative 
of the unrevised product of dtcUtion, and are such as would 
neoessarUy have disappeared dther in a translation or in a revised 
copy. Many illustrations could be adduced of the fact that the use 
of French was not a circumstance of surprinng or unusual nature; 
for the language had at that time, in some pdnts of view, even a 
wider diffusion than at present, and examples of its literary em- 
ployment by writers who were not Frenchmen (like Rusuoano 
niinself, a compiler of French romances) are very numerous. 


lO 

Eighty-five MSS. of the book are known, and their texu exhibit 
cons^erabie differences. These fall under four principal types. 
Of these, type i. is found completdy only in that old French codex 
which has been mentioned (Paris, National Library, Fr. 1116). 
Type iL is shown by several valuable MSS. in purer French (Paris, 
Nat. Libr., Fr. 3810; Fr. 5631; Fr. 5649; Bern. Canton Library. 
135), which formed the basis of the edition prepared by the late 
M. Pauthier in 1865. It exhibits a text condensed and revised 
from the rude original, but without any exactness, thoug^i perhaps 

•— '*— '^ -eneral direction by Marco Polo himself, for an Inscrip- 

to certain MSS. (Bern, Canton Libr. 125; Pans. 


POLO^ MARCO 


Nat.: 
veUer 


Jbr., Fr. 56^9) records the presentation of a copy by the tra- 
himself to the Seigneur Thi^bault dc C^poy. a distmguished 
Frenchman known to history, at Venice in the year 1306. Type 
ilL b that of a Latin verrion prepared in Marco Pdlas lifetime, 
though without any dgn of his cognisance, by Francesco Pipino. 
a Dominican of Bologna, and translated from an Italian copy. 
In this, condensation and curtailment are juried a good deal further 
than in type iL Some of the forms under which this type appears 
curiously ulustrate the effects of absence of effective publication, 
not only before the invention of the press, but in its eariy days. 
Thus the Latin verrion published by Grynaeus at Basel in the 
Nona Orbis (1532) is different in its language from Pipino's, and 
yet is clearly traceable to that as its foundation. In fact it b a 
retranslation into Latin from some version of Pipino (Marsden 
thinks the Portuguese printed one of 1502). It introduces changes 
of its own, and b worthless as a text; yet Andreas MOllcr, who in 
the 17th century took so much trouble with Pok>, unfortpnately 
chose as hb text thb fifth-hand version. The Frencn editions 
published in the middle of the i6th century were translations 
from Crynaeus's Latin. Hence they compete this curious and vkious 
circle of transmission—French, Italian, Pipino's Latin, Portuguese, 
Crynaeus's Latin, French. 

Type iv. devutes largely from those already mentioned; its 
history and true character are involved in obscurity. It b only 
represented by the Italian version prepared for the press by John 
Baptist Ramusio, with interesting preliminary dissertations, and 
published at Venice two years after his death, in the second volume 
of the Naoiiationi e viaui. Its peculiarities are great. Ramurio 
seems to imply that he made some use of Pipino's Latin, and various 
passages confirm this. But many new circumstances, and anec- 
dotes occurring in no other copy, are introduced; many names 
assume a new shape; the whole style b more copious and literary 
than that of any other version. While a few of the changes and 
interpolations seem to carry uv farther from the truth, others 
contain facts of Asbtic nature or history, as well -as of Poto's 
alleged experiences, whkfa it b difficult to ascribe to any hand 
but the traveller's own. 

We recognise to a certain extent tampering with the text, as in 
cases where Polo's proper names have been identified, and more 
modem fomb substituted. In some other cases the editorial 
spirit has gone astray. Thus the age of young Marco has been 
altered to cor r e s pond with a date wmcb b itself erroneous. Ormuz 
b described as an island, contraiy to the old texts, and to the fact 
in Polo's time. In mealdng 01 the oil-springs of Caucasus the 
phrase " c«mel-k)ads has been substituted for ** ship-kads," 
In ignorance that the rite was Baku on the Casfnan. 

But, on the other hand, there are a number oi new circumstances 
certainly genuine, which can hardly be ascribed to any one but 
Pok) himself. Such b the account whkh Ramurio's version gives 
of the oppressbns exercised by Kublai's Mahommedan minister 
Ahmad, telling how the Cathayans rose against him and murdered 
him, with the addition that Messer Marco was oq the spot when 
all this happened. Not only b the whole story in subsuntbl 
accordance with the Chinese annals, even to the name of the chief 
conspirator {Vanchu in Ramusio, Wanickeu in the Chinese records), 
but the annab also tell of the frankness of " Polo, assessor of the 
privy council," in opening Kublai's eyes to the imquities of his- 
agent. 

Pok> was the first traveller to trace a route across the whole 
fongitude of Asia, naming and describing kingdom after kingdom 
which he had seen; the first to speak of tne new and brillbnt court 
which had been established at Peking; the first to reveal China in 
all iu wealth'and vastncss, and to tell of the naUons on its borders; 
the first to tell more of Tibet than its name, to speak of Burma, 
of Laos, of Sbm, of Cochin-China, of Japan, of Java, of Sumatra 
and of other isUnds of the archipeUgo. of the Nicobar and Andaman 
Isbnds. of Ceyk>n and iu sacred peak, of Indb but as a country 
seen and partially explored; the first in medieval times to give 
any distinct account 01 the secluded Christbn Empire of Abyssinb. 
and of the semi-Christian isbnd of Sokotra, and to speak, however 
dimly, of Zanzibar, and of the vast and distant Madagascar; whilst 
he carries us also to the remotely oppoate region of Iberia and the 
Arctic shores, to speak of dog-pledges, white bears and reindeer- 
riding Tunguses. 

The diffusion of the book was hardly so ra|Md as has been some- 
times atle^. We know from Gilles Mallet's catalogue of the books 
collected m the Louvre by Charies V., dating «.i 370-1 375. that 
five copies of Marco Polo's woric were then in tne collection: but on 
the other hand, the 302 known MSS. and the numerous early printed 


edltioni^ t)\ " MAiidevilte." wlrfa hu lying wonders, indicates a much 
greater papuUirity, DAnte, who lived twenty-three years after 
the book w^i dicutnd, and who touches so nbny things in the seen 
and un^ecfi iivofSd9> rtever AlWdm to Pok>, nor, we befieve. to any- 
thing thAt cnn be conetected with him; nor can any trace of Pcilo 
be di« Dvicj-iMd in the book o\ h\% contemporary. Marino Sanudo 
the ESdcj-. though thb worthy ii wdl acquainted with the work, 
liter b;^ uFTic yeir*^ o| Hjiyfon the Armenbn. and though many 
of the ftubjcct* qrj which he writti ifl his own book {SecntaTuldium 
Cru^ii^) cbdllenge A reference to Pok)'s experiences. *' Mande- 
vilte " *-■ "' - *-- -' --J-- J "-^' '--* •-'' •-»-" 

The , ^ 

acquiiLntance with Polo's book or achievements 'are Pipino's 
CkFitnick, Wlinni't Floreniim Jhiiory, Pietro d'Abano's CoiKuiatar', 
the Ch ron uie o M oho of V pm. an d the poetical romance of Baudomn 
<U Sfbimrc, whLun bst bon:aws tht-rncs braely from Polo. 

Within the traveller's own hfetiine we find the eariiest examples 
of the prjcikol and truly scienti^c coast-charts {Portolani)t based 
upon the cxpcriencx ol pilou. mariners, merchants, Ac In two of 
the roost famous of the 14th century Portobni, we trace Marco 
Polo's influence — ^first, very slightly in the Laurentian or Medicean 
Portdano of X3i}i (at Florence), but afterwards with clearness 
and in remarkable detail in the Catalan Atlas of 137s Xnow at 
Paris). Both of these represent a very advanced stage 01 medbval 
knowledge, a careful attempt to represent the known world on the 
basis of collected, fact, ana a disr^rd for theological or pseudo- 
scientific theory; in the Catalan Atlast as regards Central and 
Further Aria, and partblly as regards India, Marco Polo's Book b 
the basb of the map. Hb names are often much perverted, and it 
is not always easy to understand the vbw that tne compiler took 
of hb itineraries. Still we have Cathay placed in the true position 
of China, as a gr^t empire filling the south-east of Aria. The 
trans-Gangetic peninsub is absent, but that of Indb proper is, 
for the firat time in the history of geography, r epr es en ted with a 
fair approximation to correct form ana porition. 

It b curious that, in the folkming age. owing partly to hb un- 
happy reverrion to the fancy of a circular dbk, the map of Fra 
Mauro (1459). one of the greatest map-making enterprises in histoiTt 
and the result of immense bbour in the collection of facts and the 
endeavour to combine them, gives a much less accurate idea of 
Asia thsn the C^ia faia/aiifl. Columbus possessed a printed 
copy oE the Latin verrion of Polo'f book made by Pifnno, and on 
more than Hrvcnty page^ of tKis tbrrc art manuscript notes in the 
admirers, handwriting, tc^tifvinet. what i» sufficiently evident from 
the whole history of. the ColiiMbiaa voyages, to the immense in- 
fluence of the work of tfac Venelijui merchant upon the discoverer 
of the flew world. 

When, in the ]6lh ornturyp attempts were made to combine 
new and old knowledge, the results were unhappy. The eariiest 
of sych conibi nation a tried to mlLie Columbus's ideas renrding 
thr identity of hi» disco veuei with the Great Khan's dominions; 
but even after America had vlndic^iicd lU independent existence, 
aod xha new knowlcdi? of the Portugi^eM had named China where 
the C^tabn map had »poken of Caikay, the latter country, with 
tbe whole of PoloV nan^eivcbture* sni& thuated to the north, tixming 
a frcparatc system. Heneeforward the influence of Polo's work 
on mnn^ wa« «j.Tiriply imurioua; and when to hb names was added 
a RpFinklSng of Ptakiriv «. a« was ubuoJ throughout the l6th century, 
the rf^ult wat a hotcbpotcb conveying no approximation to facta 
Ciee further Map). 

M to the alEeged introduetion of important inventions into 
Europe by Pglo — althougK the itrikinf resembbnce of early Euro- 
pe:in bloclc-booki to thoie of China lecms deariy to indicate the 
derivation of the art from that country, there b no reason for 
connecting thia introduction [any more than that of gunpowder 
or the mnrinef'fl eompiM) with the name of Marco. In the lAth 
century not onl^ were missions of the Roman Church established in 
some of the chief cLtjeft of eastern Chin^. but a regular overbnd. 
trade, was carried on between Italy find China, by way of Tana' 
CA20V), AstrikhanK Otrar. Kamtil (liimi) and Kanchow. Many 
a traveller other i^an Marco Polo friiK;ht have brought home the 
block-books, and »ome might have witTn-sed the process of maldng 
them. Ttiifr h the less to be ascribed to I'nlo, because he so curiously 
omits to i.pcak of the process of prinling, when, in describing the 
block-pnntcid pnper-cnoney of China, his subject seems absolutely 
to challenge a de«rSption of the art. 

See the Rectml oT the Paris Geofp^phlcal Society (l824)t vol. L, 
glvini^ the text of Lhe fundamental MS. fNat. Libr. niris, Fr. 
MiY^ iee above), as wetl u that ot the oldest Latin version: G. 
Pauthier'* editicin. twr* . . de MoHt> Polo . . . (Paris. 18(65). 
bawd mainly upon the three Paris MSS. (Nat. Libr. Fr. 2810; 
Fr. ^<,ii : Fr SO1- — -^ - ^ r-' -— ipanied by a commentary 
of ;;i .JL ^..ilii ■ Virion, givinff the oMest 

ttaluia vifstoh v- ^. i^7), '-**' li*:nry Yule^s edition, which 

in its final shape, as revised and augmented by Henri Cordier 
(. . . Marco Polo . . . London. 1903). b the most complete 


* Printed by Bongars in the collectbn called Cesta Dot per F^mos 
(1611), ii. i-a8i. 


H O friho u ae of Polo leaniiag in ttdstenoe, embodying the laboun 
of aB the bcit atudcnts of tfa« tubject, and siving the enence of 
aadi worica aa thoie of Major P. Molcaworth Sykea {Tat Thousand 
MiUt «s Penia, 5C) k> far as these touch Marco Polo; the 
Archimandrite PkQadina Katharov's ** Eluddations of Marco Polo " 
ffiom voL z. of the Jamnal of the North China Bnuich of the 
Royal Antic Society (1876X pp. I-S4: F. von Richthofen, Letttrs 
l» Siamtn Ckambtrjf Cammme; £. C. Baber. Tracels . . , i» 
Western Ckima; G. Phmipi, Identity ^ . . . ZaUnn with Chant' 
dboM in rcung Poo (Oct. 1890), and other studies in rotmfPao 
(Dec 1895 and July 1896). There are in all xo French editions 
of Polo aa «dl as 4 Latin editions, a; Italian, 9 German, 4 Spaniah, 
I PoctagQcae^ la English, a Russian, x Dutch, i Bohemian (Chekh). 
. ^ T^ . _ ..I See also E. Bretschneider, Mediaad 


I rocton 

I D^unsh and x Swedi 

Researches Jrvm Eastern Asiatic Sources, L 339, 167; u. 8, 71, 81-84, 
184: Lfen Cahutt, Intrednetian d Fhisloire de FAsie, 339, 386; 
C Raymond Beaaley, Dawn ^ Modem Geography, mTis-iCo, 
5«-547. 554. 55^^63. (H. V.; C R. B.) 

VOLO (TSbetan pnlu, bdl), the most andent of gunn with 
stick and balL Hodcey, the Ixuh national game of huiiing 
^^^ (and poaaiUy golf and cricket) are derived from polo. 
^^'^* The latter was called hockey or hurling on hone- 
back in En^and and Ireland respectively, but historically 
hockey and bulling axe polo on foot. 

Tlie eaxlicst records of polo are Pexsian. Ftom Persia the 
game qnead westward to Constantinople, eastwards through 
Turkestan to Tibet, China and JapaxL From Tibet polo travelled 
to Gilgit and Chitral, possibly also to Manipur. Fob also flourished 
in India In the x6th centuxy. Then for 300 years Its records in 
India, cease, tUl in 1854 polo came into Bengal from Manipur by 
way of Cachar and in x86a the game was played in the Punjab. 

There have been twelve varieties of the game during its 
ezistence of at least aoeo years, (x) A primitive form 
consisting of feats of hoxsemanship and of skill with stick and 
ban. (a) Early Persian, described in Shahnama, a highly 
ocgaxiixed game with rules, played four a side. (3) Later 
Persian, 1 6th centuxy, the grounds 300 by x 70 yds. Sir Anthony 
Shirley says the game resembled the rough football of the same 
period in England. (4) The game in the X7th centuxy in Persia. 
A more fai^y oiganized game than No. 3, as described by 
Chardln. (s) The Byzantine form played at Constantinople 
in tfc xath centuxy. A leathern ball the sise of an apple and 
a r^ ^uet were used. (6) The Chinese game, about a.d. 600 
pk^ with a light wooden balL The goal was formed by 
tv4r tfexts with a boarding between, in the latter a hole being 
cA^t d a oet atUched to it in the form of a bag. The side 
whHarhit the ball into the bag were the winners. Another 
Chinese form was two teams ranged on opposite sides of 
the gxooxid, each defending iu own goal. The object of the 
gaxne was to drive the ball through the enemy's goal. (7) The 
Japanese game, popular in feudal times, still survives under 
the name of Dakiu, or ball match. The Japanese game 
has a boarded goal; 5 ft. from the ground is a circular hole 
I ft. a in. in diameter with a bag behind. The balls are of 
paper with a cover of pebbles or bamboo fibre, diameter 
1-7 in., weight x| os. The sticks art racket shaped. The 
object is to lift over or carry the ball with the racket and 
place it in the bag. (8) Called rtf, played with a long stick 
with which the ball was dribbled along the ground. (9) Another 
andent Indian form in which the sides nunged up on opposite 
sides of the ground and the ball was thrown in. This is 
pxobably the form of the game which reached India from 
Ptosia and is represented at the present day by Manipur and 
GQ^t polo, though these forms are probably rougher than the 
old Indian game. (10) Modem English with heavy ball and 
sticks, played in England and the colonies and wherever polo 
is played in Europe. Its characteristics are: offside; severe 
petialtics for breach of the rules; dose combination; rather 
short passing; low scoring, and a strong defence, (xx) Indian 
polo has a lighter ball, no boards to the grounds, which are 
nsnally full-sized; a modified offside-rule, but the same system of 
penalties. It is a quicker game than the English. (la) The 
American game has no offside and no penalties, in the English 
sense. The attack is stronger, the passing longer, the pace 
greater and more sustained. American players are more certain 


POLO II 

goal-hitters and their scoring is higher. They defeated the 
English players in X909 with ease. 

Polo was first played in England by the loth Hussars in X869. 
The game spxead rapidly and some good play was seen at Lillie 
Bridge. But the oxganization of polo In England dates from 
its adoption by the Hurlingham Club in 1873. The gxound 
was boarded along the sides, and this device, which was employed 
as a remedy for the irregular shape of the Hurlingham ground, 
has become ahnost universal and has greatly affected the develop- 
isent of the game. The dub conunittee, in 1874, drew up the first 
code of rules, which reduced the number of pbtyers to five a side 
and induded offside. The next step was the foundation of the 
Champion Cup, In 1877. Then came the rule dividing the game 
into, periods of ten xninutes, with intervals of two minutes for 
rhanging ponies after each period, and five minutes at half- 
time. The height of ponies was fi3ied at i4>a, and a little later 
an official measurer was appointed, no pony being allowed to 
play unless registered at Hurlingham. The next diange was 
.the present scale of penalties for offside, foul riding or dangerous 
play. A shoit time after, the crooking of the adversary's stick, 
unless in the act of hitting the ball, was forbidden. The game 
grew faster, partly as the result of these rules. Then the ten 
minutes' rule was revised. The period did not dose until the 
ball went over the boundaxy. Thus the period might be ex- 
tended to twdve or thirteen mmutes, and although this time 
was deducted from the next period the strain of the extra- 
minutes was too great on men and ponies. It was therefore 
laid down that the ball should go out of pk^ on going out of 
bounds or striking the board, whichever happened first. In x9xo 
a polo handicap was esublis^ed, bas6d on the Amexican system 
of estlmaUng the number of goals a player was worth to his 
side. This was modified in the English handicap by assigning 
to each player a handicap number as at golf. The highest 
number is ten, the lowest one. The Hurlingham handicap is 
revised during the winter, again in May, June and July, each 
handicap coming into force one month after the date of issue. 
In tournaments under handicap the individual handicap numbers 
are added together, and the team with the higher aggregate 
concedes goals to that with the bwer, according to the con- 
ditions of the tournament. The handicap serves to divide 
second from first dass tournaments, for the former teams must 
iiot have an aggregate over a$. 

The size of the polo ground is 300 yds. in length and from 
x6o to 300 yds. in width. The laxger size Is only found now 
where boards are not used. The ball is made of willow root, is 
$1 in. in diameter, wdght not over 5I oz. The polo stick has 
no standard size or weight, and square or dgar-shaped heads 
are used it the discretion of the pbiyer. On soft grounds, the 
former, on hard grounds the latter are the better, but Indian 
and American phiyers nearly always prefer the cigar shape. 

The goal posts, now genexally made of papier xn&ch£, are 
8 yds. apart. This is the goal line. Thirty yards from the goal 
line a line is marked out, nearer than which to the goal no one 
of a fouled side may be when the side fouling has to hit out, 
as a penalty from behind the back line, which is the goal line 
produced. At 50 yds. from each goal there is generally a mark 
to guide the man who takes a free hit as a pehalty. 

Penalties are awarded by the umpires, who should be two in 
number, well mounted, and with a good knowledge of the rules 
of the game. The Hurlingham and Randagb dubs appoint 
ofiirial umpires. Thexe should also be a referee in case of 
disagreement between the umpires, and it is usual to have a 
man with a flag behind each goal to signal when a goal is 
scored. The Hurlingham dub xnakes and revises the rules of 
the game, and its code is, with some local modifications, in force 
in the United Kingdom, English-speaking colonics, the Argentine 
Republic, California, and throughout Europe. America and 
India are governed by thdr own polo associations. 

The American rules have no offside, and their penalties consist 
of subtracting a goal or the fraction of a goal, according to the 
offence, from the side which has incurred a penalty for fouling. 
The differences between the Hurlingham and Indian rules 


12 


POLONAISE— POLONNARUWA 


are very slight, and they tend to aasimibtte more as time 
goes on. 

Polo in the army is governed by an aiiny polo committee, 
which fixes the date of the inter-regimental tournament. The 
semi-finals and finals are played at Hurlingham. The earlier 
ties take place at centres arranged by the army polo conmiittee, 
who are charged by the military authorities with the duty of 
checking the expenditure of officers on the game. The value of 
polo as a military exercise is now fully recognized, and with the 
co-operation of. Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Rochampton the 
expenses of inter-regimental tournaments have been r^ulated 
and restrained. 

The County Polo Association has affiliated to it all the county 
dubs. It is a powerful body, arranging the conditions of county 
tournaments, constructing the handicaps for county players, and 
in conjunction with the Ranelagh dub holding a polo week for 
county players in London. The London dubs are three — 
Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton. Except that they use 
Hurlingham rules the dubs are independent, and arrange the con- 
ditions and fix the dates of their own tournaments. Ranelaglx 
has four, Roehampton three and Hurlingham two polo groundb. 
There are about 400 matches played at these dubs, besides 
members' games from May to July during the London season. 
At present the Meadowbrook still hold the cup which was won 
imter' by an English team in z886. In 1902 an American 
matJoaat team made an attempt to recover it and failed. 
'^'^ They lacked ponies and combination; but they bought 
the first and learned the second, and tried again successfully 
in 1909, thus depriving English polo ol the championshiD of 
the world. 

Polo in England has passed through several stages. It was 
always a game of skilL The cavalry regiments in India in early 
n*OMM. P^^^ days, the 5th, 9th, X2th and zyth Lancers, the 
loth Hussars and the xjth Hussars, had all learned the 
value of combinatwn. In very early days regimental players had 
learned the value of the backhanded stroke, placing the ball so as 
to give opportunities to their own side. Tlie duty of support- 
ing the other members of the team and riding off opponents 
so as to dear the way for players on the same side was 
understood. This combination was made easier when the 
teams were reduced from five a side to four. Great stress 
was laid on each man keeping his place, but * more 
flexible style of play existed from early days in the X7th Lancers 
and was improved and perfected at the Rugby Club by the bte 
Colond Gordon Renton and Captain E. D. Miller, who had 
belonged to that regiments For a long time the Rugby style 
of play, with its dose combination, short passes and steady 
defence, was the modd on which other teams formed themselves. 
The secret of the success of Rugby was the dose and unselfish 
combination and the hard work done by every member of the 
team. After the American victories of 1909 a bolder, harder 
hitting style was adopted, and the work of the forwards became 
more important, and longer passes are now the rule. But the 
main prindples are the same. The forwards lead the attack and 
are supported by the half-back and back when playing towards 
the adversaries' goal. In defence the forwards hamper the 
opposing No. 3 and No. 4 and endeavour to dear the way for 
their own No. 3 and No. 4, who are trying not mcrdy to keep the 
boll out of their own goal but to turn ddence into attack. Each 
individual player must be a good horseman, able to make a pony 
gallop, must have a control of the ball, hitting hard and dean 
and in the direction he wishes it to go. He must keep his eye 
on the ball and yet know where the goal-posts are, must be 
careful not to incur penalties and quick to take advantage of an 
opportum'ty. Polo gives no time for second thoughts. A polo 
player must not be in a hurry, but he must never be slow nor 
dwell on his stroke. He must be able to hit when galloping his 
best pace on to the ball and able to use the speed of his pony 
in order to get pace. He must be able to hit a backhander or 
to meet a ball coming to him, as the tactics of the game reiquire. 

Polo has given rise to a new type of horse, an animal of 
14 hands 2 in. with the power of a hunter, the courage of a 


racehorse and the docility of a pony. At first the ponies were 
small, but. now each pony must pass the Hurlingham official 
measurer and be entered on the register. The English Tin Polo 
system of measurement is the fairest and most Pomy, 
humane possible. The pony stripped of his clothing is led by 
an attendant, not his own groom, into a box with a perfectly 
levd floor and shut off from every distraction. A veterinary 
surgeon examines to see that the pony is neither drugged nor 
in any way improperly prepared. The pony is allowed to 
stand easily, and a measuring standard with a spirit-levd is 
then placed on the highest point of the wither, and if the pony 
measures 14*2 and is five years old it is registered for life. Ponies 
are of many breeds. There are Arabs, Argentines, Americans, 
Irish and English ponies, the last two being the best. . The Polo 
and Riding Pony Sodety, with headquarters at 12 Hanover 
Square, looks after the interests of the English and Irish pony 
and encourages their breeders. The En^ish ponies are now 
bred largdy for the game and are a blend oif thoroughbred 
blood (the best are always the race-winning strains) or Arab and 
of the English native pony. 

AUTRORITIBS.— Pofe itt England: J. Moray Brown, Riding and. 
Pole, Badminton Library, revised and brought up to date by 
T. F. Dale (Longmans, i8qq) ; Captain Younghusband, Polo in India, 
(n.d.); J. Moray Brown, Polo (Vinton, 1806); T. F. Dale, The Came 
of Polo (A. Constable & Co., 1897): Captaui Vounehusband, Tourna- 
ment Polo (1897); Captain de Lisle. Durham Light Infantry, Hints 

. « .. «. . , >.. . » «, « Drybrough, Polo (Vinton. 

lin E. D. 


1898; revised, Longmans, 1906); Captain 


Polo (1903); H. L, Fitipatricl 
Athleuc Library (1904): Major 
Polo (1904); T. F. Kle •• Polo. 


fin *• »• 
906); Capi 
tricl^ Eguestrian Polo, in Spalding'it 


Miller. Modem 


f, Youngfausband, Toumameni 

. Past and Present," Country Ldfei 

Walter Buckmaster, " Hints on Polo Combination," Library of 
Sport (George Newnes Ltd., 1905: Vinton & Co., 1900) ; Hurling^m 
Club, Rules of Polo, Register of Ponies; Polo and Riding Pony 
Society Stud Book (12 vds., 12 Hanover Square). Annuals: Amerkan 
Polo Association, 143 Liberty Street, New York; Indian Polo 
Association. Lucknow, N. P.; Captain E. D. Miller, D.S.O., TTia 
Polo Players' Guide and Almanack; The Polo Annual, ed. by L. V. L. 
Simmonds. Monthlies: Baileys Magazine (Vinton & Ca); The 
Polo Monthly (Craven House. Kingsway, London). 

Polo in Persia: Firdousi's Shahnama, translated as 1> lAtra 
des rois by T. Mohl, with notes and comm.: bir A '?, my 
Shirley, Travels in Persia (1569); Sir John Chardin. Voy JfL 
Perse (1686), ed. aug. de notes, &c. i^ar L. Langles, 181 1 ; Sir ' '^^ 
Ousdey, Traeds in Various Countries of the East, particular ' 
(18 to). .y« 

ThcfT am many nllu»9n» to pdo in the ooets, notahl -q q 
Jami and Omar Kha^ryam, ^^ aW'*?^ 

Polo in C^mtanttniipie*. Cianamus Joannes epiton. . ~^witr 
/oDfiNf ri Altxii? Commtnis ffit (Bonn, 1836). '" ' Hv^' 

Polo Itt liniui: Ain-i-AkbAri (155s); G. F. Vigne, Ttaiels in 
Koihmit (Ladakh *nd Ukarda, 1842); Colond Algernon Durand, 
TTfi- Milking of a Ftoniifr (1899}^ 

P^o Itt £?i/fjf and Chiifct: " Polo in Baltistan." The Field 
(iS38); jpfl/i? in Mampuff CapUm McCulloch. Manipuris and the 
Adjoitnt Tribes (i»i9J. (T. F. D.) 

POIANAISB (i.e. Polish, in French), a statdy ceremonious 
dance, usually written in f time. As a form of musical com- 
position it has been employed by such composers as Bach, 
Handel, Beethoven, and above all by Chopin. It is usual to 
date the origin of the dance from the election (1573) of Henry 
duke of Anjou, afterwards Henry III. of France, to the throne 
of Poland. The ladies of the Polish nobility passed in cere- 
monial procession before him at Cracow to the sound of statdy 
music This procession of music became the regular opening 
ceremony at royal functions, and developed into tht dance. 

The term is also given to a form t>f skirted bodice, which has 
been fashionable for ladles at different periods. 

POLONNARUWA, a ruined dty and andent capital of 
Ceylon. It first became a royal residence in a.d. 368, when the 
lake of Topawewa was formed, and succeeded Antmidhapura 
as the capital in the middle of the 8th century. The prindpal 
ruins date chiefly from the time of Prakrama Bahu (aj>. 1153- 
1x86). The most imposing pile remaining is the Jetawa- 
narama temple, a building 170 ft. in length, with walls about 
80 ft. high and 1 2 ft. thick. The city is now entirdy deserted, 
and, as in the case of Anuradhapiura, its ruins have only recently 
been reKued from the jungle. 


POLOTSK— POLTAVA 


1-3 


POUnSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Vitebsk, 
«t the oonflnence of the Polota with the Dvina, 62 m. by rail 
N.W. of the town of Vitebsk. Pop. 20,751. Owing to the 
continuous wan, of which, from its position on the line of 
communication between central Russia and the west it was for 
many centuries the scene, scarcely any of its remarkable anti- 
quities remain. The upper castle, which stood at the confluence 
of the rivers and had a stone wall with seven towers, is in ruins, 
as is the lower castle formerly enclosed with strong walls and 
connected with the upper castle by a bridge. The* cathedral 
<d St Sophia in the upper castle, buHt in the lath century, 
fell to ruins in the i8th century, whereupon the United Greek 
bishop substituted a modern structure. Upwards of two-thirds 
of the inhabitants are Jews; the remainder have belonged mostly 
to the Orthodox Greek Church since 1839, when they were 
compelled to abandon the United Greek Chuixh. Flax, linseed, 
com and timber are the leading articles of commerce. 

Polotesk or Poltesk is mentioned in 862 as one of the towns 
given by the Scandinavian Ruxik to his men. In 980 it had 
a prince of its own, Ragvald (Rogvolod or Rognvald), whose 
daughter is the subject of many legends. It remained an 
independent prindp^ty until the 12th century, resisting the 
repeated attacks of the princes of Kiev; those of Pskov, Lithu- 
ania, and the Livonian Knights, however, proved more effective, 
and Pcdotsk fell under Lithuanian rule in 1320. About 1385 it& 
independence was destroyed by the Lithuanian prince Vitovt. 
It was five times besieged by Moscow in 1500-18, and was 
taken by Ivan the Terrible in 1563. Recaptured by Stephen 
Batbory, king of Poland, sixteen years later, it beoune Polish 
by the treaty of 1582. It was then a large and populous 
dty, and carried on an active commerce. Pestilences and 
conflagrations were its ruin; the plague of 1566 wrought 
great havoc among its inhabitants, and that of x6oo destroyed 
15,000. The castles, the town and its walls were burned in 
1607 and 1642. The Russians continued their attacks, burning 
and plundering the town, and twice, in 1633 and 1705, taking 
poMession of it for a few years. It was not definitely annexed, 
however, to Russia until X772, after the first dismemberment 
of Poland. In x8x2 its inhabitants resisted the French invasion, 
and the town was partially destroyed. 

POLTAVA* a government of south-western Russia^ bounded 
by the government of Chernigov on the N., Kharkov on the £., 
Ekaterinoslav and Kherson on the S., and Kiev on the W., and 
having an area of 19,260 sq. m. Its surface is an undulating 
plain 500 to 600 ft. above sea-level, with a few elevations reach- 
ing 670 ft. in the north, and gently sloping to 300 and 400 ft. in 
the south-west. Owing to the deep excavations of the rivers, 
thdr banks, e^>eciaUy those on the right, have the aspect of 
hilly tracts, while k>w plains stretch to the left. Almost the 
whole of the surface consists of Tertiary deposits; Cretaceous 
rocks appear in the north-east, at the bottom of the deeper 
ravines. The government touches the granitic region of the 
Dnieper only in the south, below Kremenchug. Limestone 
with dolerite veins occurs in the isolated hill of laachek, which 
rises above the marshes of the Sula. The whole is covered with 
a layer, 20 to 60 ft. thick, of boulder day, which again is often 
mantled with a thick sheet of k)ess. Sandstone (sometimes 
suitable for grindstones) and limestone are quarried, and a few 
beds of gypsum and peat-bog are known witUn the government. 
With the exception of some sandy tracts, the soil is on the whole 
very fertile. Poltava is drained by the Dnieper, which flows . 
along its border, navigable throughout, and by iu tributaries 
the Sula, Psiol, Vorskla, Orel, Trubesh, and several others, 
none of them navigable, although their courses vary from 150 
to 270 m. each in length. Even those which used to be navigated 
within the historical period, such as the Trubezh and Supoi, 
are now drying up, while the others are being partially trans- 
formed into ma is hes. Deep sand-beds intersected by number- 
less ravines and old arms of the river stretch along the left 
bank of the Dnieper, where accordingly the settlements are 
few. Only 5% of the total area If under foRSt; timber, wooden 
wares, and pitch are imported. 


The estimated populatiojp in 1906 was 3,312,400. The great 
majority are Little Russians. Agriculture is the prindpal 
pursuit, 60% of the total area being arable land. The crops 
chiefly grown are wheat, rye and oats; the sunflower is largely 
cultivated, especially for oil, and the growing of tobacco, always 
important, has made a great advance. Kitchen gardening, 
the cultivation of the plimi, and the preparation of preserved 
fruits are important branches of industry. At Lubny, where 
an apothecaries' garden is maintained by the Crown, the col- 
lection and cultivation of medicinal plants are a speciah'ty. 
The main source of wealth in Poltava always has been, and still 
is, its live-stock breeding— horses, cattle, sheep, pigs. Some 
of the wealthier landownen and many peasants rear finer breeds 
of horses. The land is chiefly owned by the peasants, who 
possess 52% of the cultivable area; 42% bdongs to private 
persons, and the remainder to the Crown, the clergy, and the 
munidpalities. 

Among the manufactures distilleries hold the leading place, 
after which come flour-mills, tobacco factories, machine-making, 
tanneries, saw-mills, sugar-works and woollen manufactures. 
In the villages and towns several domestic trades are carried 
on, such as the preparation of sheepskins, plain woollen cloth, 
leather, boots and pottery. The fair of PolUva is of great 
importance for the whole woollen trade of Russia, and 
leather, cattle, horses, coarse woollen doth, skins, and various 
domestic wares are exchanged for manufactures imported from 
Great Russia. The value of merchandise brought to the fair 
averages over £2,500,000. Several other fairs, the aggregate 
returns for which reach more than one-half of the above, are 
hdd at Romny (tobacco), Kremenchug (timber, com, tallow 
and salt), and Kobdyaki (sheepskins). Com is exported to a 
considerable extent to the west and to Odessa, as also saltpetre, 
spirits, wool, tallow, skins and woollen cloth. The Dnieper is 
the prindpal artery for the exports and for the import— timber. 
The chief river-ports are Kremenchug and Poltava. Steamen 
ply between Kiev and Ekaterinoslav; but the navigation is 
hunpered by want of water and becomes active only in the 
soutL Traffic mostly follows the railway. Poltava is divided 
into fifteen districts, of which the chief towns are Poltava, 
Gadyach, Khond, Kobdyaki, Konstantinograd, Kremenchug, 
Lokhvitsa, Lubny, Mirgorod, Pereyaslavl, Piiyatin, Priluki, 
Romny, Zenkov and Zolotonoduu 

History.— At the dawn of Russian history the region now 
occupied by Poltava was inhabited by the Slav tribe of the 
Syeveryanes. As early as 988 the Russians erected several 
towns on the Sula and the Tmbezh for thdr protection against 
the Turkish Petchenegs and Polovtsi, who hdd the south- 
eastern steppes. Population extended, and the towns of 
Pereyaslavl, Lubny, Priluki, Piryatin, Romny, bepn to be 
mentioned in the i xth and x 2th centuries. The Mongol invasion 
of 1239-43 destroyed most of them, and for two centuries 
afterwards they disappear from Ruadan axmals. About X33X 
Gedimin, prince of Lithuania, annexed the so-called " Syeveisk 
towns " and on the leoognition of the union of Lithuania with 
Poland they were induded in the united kingdom along with 
the remainder of Little Russia. In 1476 a separate prindpality 
of Kiev under Polish rule and Polish institutions was formed 
out of Little Russia, and remained so until the rising of the 
Cossack chief Bogdan Chmidnicki in 1654. By the Andrussowo 
Treaty, the Idt bank of the Dnieper bdng ceded to Russia, 
Poltava became part of the doxninions of the Zaporogian 
Cossacks, and was divided into *' regiments,'* six of which 
(Poltava, Pereyaslavl, Priluki, Gadyach, Lubny and Mirgorod) 
lay within the limits of the present government. They lost 
their independence in 1764. (P. A. K.; J. T. Bs.) 

POLTAVA, a town of Russia, capital of the government of 
the same name, on the right bank of the Vorf^la, 88 m. 5y 
rail W.S.W. of Kharkov. Pop. 53,060. The town is built on 
a plateau which descends by steep slopes on neariy every side. 
Several suburbs, inhabited ^ (^ossadu, whose houses are buried 
amid gardens, and a German colony, surround the town. The 
oldest buildings are a monastery, erected in 1650, and a wooden 


H 


POLTERGEIST 


church visited by Peter the Great after the battle of Poltava. 
There are a military school for cadets, a theological seminary 
and two girls' colleges; also flour-mills, tobacco ivorks and a 
tannery. 

Poltava is mentioned in Rtissian annals m 1x74, under the 
name of Ltava, but does not again appear in history until 1430, 
when, together with Glinsk, it was given by Gedimin, prince of 
Lithuania, to the Tatar prince Leksada. Under the Cossack 
chief, Bogdan Chmicbicki, it was the chief town of the Poluva 
" regiment" Peter the Great of Russia defeated Charles XII. 
of Sweden in the immediate neighbourhood on the a7th of June 
1709, and the victory is commemorated by a column over 50 ft. 
in hei ght. 

POLTERGEIST (Ger. for "racketing spirit '0» the term 
applied to certain phenomena of an imexpLained nature, such 
as movements of objects without any traceable cause, and 
noises equally un traced to their source; but in some cases 
exhibiting intelligence, as when raps answer a question by a 
code. In the word Poltergeist, the phenomena are attributed 
to the action of a Geist, or spirit: of old the popular explanation 
of all residuary phenomena. The hypothesis, in consequence 
of the diffusion of education, has been superseded by that of 
''electricity"; while sceptics in all ages and countries have 
accounted for all the phenomena by the theory of imposture. 
The last is at least a vera causa: imposture has often been 
detected; but it is not so certain that this theory accounts for all 
the circumstances. To the student of human nature the most 
interesting point in the character of poltergeist phenomena is 
their appearance in the earliest known stages of culture, their 
wide diffusion, and their astonishing uniformity. Almost all 
the beliefs usually styled ** superstitious " are of early occurrence 
and of wide diffusion: the lowest savages believe in ghosts 
of the dead and in wraiths of the living. Such beliefs when 
found thriving in our own civilization might be explained as 
mere survivals from savagery, memories of all 

" The superstitions idle-headed «ld 
Received and did deliver to our age." 

But wc have not to deal only with a belief that certain 
apparently impossible things may occur and have occurred in 
the past. We are met by the evidence of sane and credible 
witnesses, often highly educated, who maintain that they 
themselves have heard and beheld the unexplained soirnds and 
sights. It appears, therefore, that in considering the phenomena 
of the poltergebt we are engaged with facts of one sort or 
another; facts produced either by skilled imposture, or resting 
on hallucinations of the witnesses; or on a mixture of fraud 
and of hallucination caused by " suggestion." There remains 
the chance that some agency of an unexplored nature is, at least 
in certain cases, actually at work. 

A volume would be needed if we were to attempt to chronicle 
the phenomena of the poltergeist as believed in by savages 
and in andent and medieval times. But among savages they are 
usually associated with the dead, or with the medidne-men of the 
tribes. These personages are professional " mediums," and like 
the mediums of Europe and America, may be said to have do- 
mesticated Uie poltergeist. At their stances, savage or dvilized, 
the phenomena are reported to occur— such as rappings and 
other noises, k>ud or low, and ** movements of objects without 
physical contact." (See, for a brief account, A. Lang, Cock 
Lane and Common Sense, " Savage Spiritualism "; and see the 
Jesuit Lettres idifiantes, North America, 1620-1770, and 
Kohl's KUcki Garni.) But "induced phenomena," where 
professional mediums and professional medical men are the 
agents, need not here be considered. The evidence, unless in 
the case of Sir William Crookes's experiments with Daniel Dunglas 
Home, is generally worthless, and the laborious investigations 
of the Society for Psychical Research resulted only in the 
detection of fraud as far as "physical" manifestations by 
paid mediums were concerned. 

The spontaneous poltergeist, where, at least, no professional 
b present, and no stance is being held, is much more curious and 


interesting than the simple tricks played in the dark by impudent 
charlatans. The phenomena are identical, as reported, literally 
"from China to Peru." The Cieza dc Leon (1549) tells us 
that the cacique of Pirza, in Popyan, during his conversion 
to Christianity, was troubled by stones faUing mysteriously 
throu^ the air (the mysterious point was the question of 
whence they came, and what force urged them), while Chris- 
tians saw at his table a glass of liquor raised in the air, by.no 
visible hand, put down empty, and replenished! Mr Dennys 
{Polk Lore of Ckina, 1876, p. 79) speaks of a Chinese householder 
who was driven to take refuge in a temple by the usual phenomena 
— ^throwing about of crockery and sotmds of heavy footfalls — 
after the decease of an aggrieved monkey. This is oi^y one of 
several Chinese cases of poltergeist; and the phenomena are 
described in Jesuit narratives of the x8th centuiy, from Cochin 
China. In these papers no explanation is suggested. There 
is a famous example ia a nunnery, recorded (1528) by a nouble 
witness, Adrien de Montakmbert, almoner to Francis I. The 
agent was supposed to be the spirit of a sister recently deceased. 

Among multitudes of old cases, that of the " Drummer of 
Tedworth " (1663-1663, see Glanvil, Saddueismus triumpkatus, 
x666); that at Rerrick, recoided by the Rev. Mr Telfer 
in 1695; that of the Wesley household (X716-X7X7) chronicled 
in contemporary letters and diaries of the W^ey family 
(Sottthey's Life of Jokn Wesley)-, that of Cideville (1851), from 
the records of the court which Uried the law-suit arising out of 
the affair (Proc. Soc. Psychical Reseorck, zviiL 454-463); and 
the Alresford case, attested by the great admiral. Lord St 
Vmcent, are among the most remarkable. At Tedworth we 
have the evidence of Glanvil himself, though it does not 
amount to much; at Rerrick, Telfer was a good chronicler 
and gives most respectable signed vouchers for all the marvels: 
Samud Wesley and his wife were people of sense, they were 
neither alarmed nor superstitious, merely puzzled; while the 
court which tried the Cideville case, only dedded that "the 
cause of the events remains unknown." At Alresford, in 
Hampshire, the phenomena attested by Lord St Vincent and 
his sister Mrs Ricketts, who occupied the house, were pecu- 
liarly strange and emphatic: the house was therefore puUcd 
down. At WHlington Mill, near Morpeth (X83X-X847), the 
phenomena are attested by the journal of Mr Procter, the 
occupant, a Quaker, a " tee>totaJler," and a man of great 
resolution. He and his family endured unspeakable things for 
sixteen years, and could find no explanation of the sights and 
sounds, among 'which were phantasms of animak, as at 
Epworth, in the Wesley case. 

Of all these cases that of the Wcsleys has attracted most 
critical attention. It wa^ not, in itself, an extreme instance 
of poltergeist: at Alresford, at the dose of the i8th century, 
and at Willington Mill in the middle of the xpth the disturbances 
were much more violent and persistent than at Epworth, while 
our evidence is, in all three examples, derived from the contem- 
porary narratives, letters and journals of educated persons. 
The Wesleys, however, were people so celebrated and so active 
in religion that many efforts have been made to explain their 
" old Jeffrey," as they called the disturbmg agency These 
attempts at explanation have been fruitless. The poet Coleridge, 
who said that he knew many cases, explained all by a theory of 
contagious epidemic halludnation of witnesses. Dr Salmon, 
of Trinity College, Dublin, set all down to imposture by Hetty 
Wesley, a vivadous girl {Portnigktly Review, x866). The 
documents on which he relied, when dosely studied, did not 
support his charges, for he made several unportant errors in 
dates, and on these his argument rested. F. Podmore, in several 
works (eg. Studies in Psyckical Reseorck), adopted a theory 
of exaggerative memory in the xutrrators, as one dement, 
with a dose of imposture and of hallucination begotten of 
exdted expecUtion. The Wesley letters and journals, written 
from day to day, do not permit of exaggerative memory, and 
when the records of X7x6-x7x7 are compared with the remini- 
scences collected from his family by John Wesley in 1726, the 
discrepancies are seen to be oiily such as occur in all huinai» 


POLTERGEIST 


IS 


evidence about any sort ol events, zemote by nine or ten 
yeaxs. Thus, in 1726, Mzs YfttHey mentioned a visionary 
badger aeen by her. She did not write about it to her son 
Samuel in 17x7, but her husband and her daughter did then 
describe it to Samuel, as an experience of his mother at 
that date. The vbole family, in 17x7, became familiar with the 
phenomena, and were tired of them and of Samuel's questions. 
(Mr Podxnore's arguments are to be found in the Journal cf the 
Studio of Psychical Raearchf iz. 40-4$' Some dates are mis- 
printed.) The theory of hallucination caxmot account for the 
oniformity of statements, in many countries and at many 
dates, to the effect that the objects mysteriously set hi motion 
moved fai soft curves and swerves, or "wobbled." Suppose 
that an acboit impostor is throwing them, suppose that the 
spectators are ezdted, why, shoidd their ezdtement evezy- 
where produce a uniform hallucination as to the mode of 
motioa? It is better to confess ignozanoe, and remain m 
doubt, than to invent such theories. 

A modem instance may be analysed, as the evidence was 
given oontempoFsneously with the events (Podmore, Proc, 
Soe. Psychical Researcht xiL 45-58: ** PoltergeisU '0* On 
Ibe aoth or axst of February X883 a Mrs White, in a 
cottage at Worksop, was "wa^iing up the tea-thmgs at the 
table," with two of her children hi the room, when ** the Uble 
tilted up at a considerable angle," to her amazement. On the 
a6th of February, Mr White being from home, Mrs White 
extended hospitality to a girl, Eliza Rose, " the child of an 
imbecile mother." Eliza is hiter described as " half-witted," 
but no proof of this is given. On the zst of March, White being 
from home, at about zz.30 pjn. a number of things " which had 
been in the kitchen a few minutes before " came tumbling down 
the kitchen stairs. Only Mrs White ahd £liza Rose were then 
in the kitdien. Later some hot coals made an hivasion. On 
the foUowxng night. White bemg at home in the kitchen, with his 
wife and Eliza, a miscellaneous throng of objects came in, 
Mr White made vain research upstairs, where was his brother 
Tom. On his return to the kitchen " a little china woman left 
the mantelpiece and flew into the comer." Bemg replaced, it 
repeated its flight, and was broken. White sent his brother to« 
fetch a doctor; there also came a policeman, named Higgs; and' 
the doctor and policeman saw, among other things, a basin and 
cream jug rise up automatically, fall on the floor and break. 
Next morning, a dock which had been silent for eighteen months 
struck; a crash was heard, and the dock' was found to have 
leapt over a bed and fallen on the floor. All day many things 
kept flying about and breaking themselves, and Mr White sent 
Miss Rose about her business. Peace ensued. 

Mr Pbdmore, who visited the scene on the 7th and 8th of 
April and collected depositions, says (writmg m 1883): "It 
nay be stated generally that there was no possibility, in most 
cases, of the objects having been thrown by hand. . . . More- 
over it is hard to concdve' by what mechanical appliances, 
under the circumstances described, the movements could have 
been effected. ... To suppose that these various objects 
were all moved by mfchanical contrivances argues incredible 
stupidity, amounting almost to imbecility, on the part of all 
the persons present who were not in the plot," whereas Higgs, 
Dr Lloyd and a miner named Curass, all " certainly not wanting 
in intelligence," examined the objects and could find no explana- 
tion. White attested that fresh hivasions of the kitchen by 
inanimate objects occuzred as Eliza was picking up the earlier 
arrivals; and he saw a salt-cellar fly from the table while Eliza 
was in another part of the room. The amount of things broken 
was valued by White at £g. No one was in the room when the 
dock struck and felL Higgs saw White shut the cupboard 
doors, they instantly burst open, and a large gh&ss jar flew into 
the yard and broke. " The jar could not go in a straight line 
from the cupboard out of the door; but it certainly did go " 
(Htggs). The depositions were signed by the witnesses (April 
1883). 

In i8g6, Mr Podmore, after thirteen years of experience 
in eramining reports of the poltergeist, produced his ezpUn*- 


tions. (z) The witnesses, though "honest and fairly hitdli- 
gent," were "imperfectly educated, not skilled in accurate 
observation of any kind." (They deaaibed, like many others, 
in many lands, the " wobbling " movement of objects in flight.) 
(a) Mr Podmore took the evidence Ave weeks after date; there 
was time for exaggerated memories. (Mr Podmore did not 
consult, it seems, the cofUemporary evidence of Hi^s in the 
Retford and Gaituborouih Times, 9th of March 1883. On 
examination it proves to tally as precisely as possible with the 
tfslimonifs which he gave to Mr Podmore, except that in March 
he mentioned one or two miracles which he omitted five weeks 
later! The evidence is published in l.ang's The Making of 
Religionf 1898, p. 356.) (3) In the evidence given to Mr Podmore 
five weeks after date, there are discrepandes between Higgs and 
White as to the sequence of some evenu, and as to whether 
one Coulter was present when the dock fell: he asserts, Higgs 
and White deny it. (There is never evidence of several witnesses, 
five weeks after an event, without such discrepandes. If there 
were, the evidence would be suspected as " cooked." Higgs 
in April gave the same version a» hi March.) (4) Aa there 
are discrepancies, the statements that Eliza was not always 
prfisent at the abnorznal occurrences may be erroneous. " It 
is perhaps not unreasonable to conjecture that Eliza Rose herself, 
as the instrument of mysterious agencies, or simply as a half- 
witted gurl gifted with abnormal cunning and love of mischief, 
may have been directly responsible for all that took place." 
(How, if , ks we have seen, the theory of mechanical appliances 
is abandoned, " under the drouastances described " ? We need 
to assume that all the drcuiflstances are wrongly described. 
Yet events did occur, the breakages were lamentable, and we 
ask how could the most half-witted of ghrls damage so much 
property undetected, under the eyes of the owner, a policeman, 
a medical practitioner and others ? How could she throw things 
from above into the zoom where she was picking up the things 
as they arrived? Or b that a misdescription? No evidence 
of Eliza's half-wittedness and abn<»mal cunning is adduced. 
If we call her "the instrument of mysterious agendes," the 
name of these agendes is— poltergeist! No later attempt to 
find and examine the abnormal giri is recorded.) 

The explanations are not ideally satisfactory, but they are the 
result, in Mr Podmore's mind, of examination of sevoal later 
cases of poltergeist.^ In one a girl, carefully observed, was 
detected throwing things, and evidence that the phenomena 
occurred, in her absence, at another place and time, is discounted. 
In several other cases, exaggeratbns of meznory, malobservation 
and trickery combined, are the exphmations, and the condu- 
sion is that there is " strong ground " for believing in trickery 
as the tme explanation of all these eleven cases, induding 
the Worksop affair. Mr Podmore asserts that, at Worksop, 
" the witnesses did not give thdr testimony until some weeks 
after the event." That is an erroneous statement as far as Higgs 
goes, the result apparently of malobservation of the local news- 
paper. More or less of the evidence was printed in the week 
when the events occurred. Something more than unconscious 
exaggeration, or malobservation, seems needed to explain the 
amazing statements znade by Mr Newman, a gamekeeper of 
Lord Portman, on the 33rd of Januazy Z895, at Durmeston m 
another case. Amozig other tl^ngs, he said that on the x8th 
of December Z894, a boot flew out of a door. " I went and put 
my foot on the boot and said ' I defy anything to move this 
boot.' Just as I stepped off, it rose up beUnd me and knocked 
my hat off. There was nobody behind me." Gamekeepers are 
acute observers, and If the narrative be untrue, malobservation 
or defect of memory does not explain the fact. In this case, 
at Durmeston, the rector, Mr Anderson, gave an account of 

^The present writer criticized Mr Podmore's explanation in 
The Ilaktne of ROi^on, Mr Podmore replied {Proc. Soc. Psyckicol 
Research, xtv. 1^3, X36), pointing out an error in the critic's 
preaentation of his meaning. He, in turn, laid that the writer 
*' champions the supe r normal interpretation,'* which is not exact, 
as the writer has no theoiy on the subject, though he is not 
satisfied that " a naughty little giri " is a uniformly soooesslul 
solution of the poltetgeut problem. 


i6 


POLTERGEIST 


gome of tlie minor phenomena. He could not explain them, and 
gave the best charaaer to the Nonoonfonnist mother of the 
child with whom the evenu were anodated. No txkkeiy 
was discovered. 

The phenomena are frequently connected with a person, 
often a child, sufifering from nervous malady or recent nervous 
shock. No such person appears in the Almford, WUlington, 
Epworth and Tedworth cases, and it is not stated that Eliza 
Rose at Woricsop was subjected to a medical examination. In 
a curious case, given by Mrs Crewe, in Tkt Night Side of Nature^ 
the young person was the daughter of a Captain Molesworth. 
Her own health was bad, and she had been depressed by the 
death of a sister. Captain Molesworth occupied a semi-detached 
villa at Trinity, near Edinburgh; his landlord lived next door. 
The phenomena set in: the captain bored holes in the wall to 
discover a cause in trickery, and his landlord brought a suit 
against ham in the sheriff's court at Edinburgh. 

The papers are preserved, but the writer found that to 
discover them would be a herculean labour. He saw, how- 
ever, a number of documents in the office of a firm of 
solicitors employed in the case. They proved the fact of the 
lawsuit but threw no other Ugfat on the matter. We often 
find that the phenomena occur after a nervous shock to the 
person who may be called the medium. The shock is frequently 
consequent on a threat from a supposed witch or wizard. This 
was the case at Cideville in 1850-1851. (See an abstract of the 
documents of the trial. Proceedings S.P.R. xviiL 454-465. 
The entire report was sent to the writer.) In 1901 there 
was a case at Great Grimsby; the usual flying of stones 
and other objects occurred. The woman of the house had been 
threatened by a witch, after that the poltergeist devebped. 
No explanation was forthcoming. In Proc. S.P.R. zviL 
320 the Rev. Mr Deanley gives a curious parallel case 
with detection of imposture. In Miss O'Neal's Devonskire 
Idylls is an excellent account of the phenomena which occurred 
after a Devonshire girl of the best character, well known to Miss 
O'Neal, had been threatened by a witch. In the famous instance 
of Christian Shaw of Bargarran (1697) the child had been thrice 
formally cursed by a woman, who prayed to God that her soul 
" might be hurled through helL" Christian fell into a sUte 
which puzzled the medicd faculty (especially when she floated 
in the air), and doubtless she herself caused, in an hysterical 
state, many phenomena which, however, were not precisely 
poltergeistish. A veiy marked set of phenomena, in the way 
of movements of objects, recently occurred in the Hudson Bay 
territory, after a ludf-breed giri had received a nervous shock 
from a flash of lightning that struck near her. Heavy weights 
automatically "tobogganed," as Red Indian spectators said, 
and there were the usual rappings in tent and wigwam. If we 
accept trickery as the sufficient explanation, the unifonnity of 
tricks played by hysterical patients is very singular. Still 
more singular is a bng series, continued through several yean, 
of the same occurrences where no hysterical patient is known to 
exist. In a very curious example, a carpenter's shop being the 
scene, there was concerned nobody of an hysterical temperament, 
no young boy or girl, and there was no explanation {Proe. S.P.R. 
vii. 383-394). The events went on during six weeks. 
An excellent case of hysterical fraud by a giri in France is given 
by Dr Grasset, professor of clinical medicine at Montpellier (Proe. 
S.P.R. xviii. 464-480). But in this instance, though things 
were found in unusual places, nobody over eight years old saw 
them flying about; yet all concerned were deeply superstitious. 

On the whole, while fraud, especially hysterical fraud, is a 
vera causa in some cases of poltergeist, it is not certain that the 
explanation fits all cases, and it is certain that detection of 
fraud has often been falsely asserted, as at Tedworth and 
Willington. No good chronic case, as at Alresford, Epworth, 
Spraiton <Bovet's Pandaemonium), Willington, and in other 
classical instances, has been for months sedulously observed by 
sceptics. In short-lived cases, as at Worksop, science appears 
on the scene long enough after date to make the theory of 
exaggeration of memory plausible. If we ask sdcnce to explain 


how the more remarkable occorrences could be produced by a 
giri ex kypetkese half-witted, the reply is that the occurrences 
never occurred, they were only " described as occurring " by 
untrained observers with " patent double magnifying " memo- 
ries; and with a capacity for being hallucinated in a uniform 
way all the world over. Yet great quantities of crockery 
and furniture were broken, before the eyes of observers, in a 
house near Ballarmina, in North Ireland, in January 1907. 
The experiment of exhibiting a girl who can break all the 
crockery without being detected, in the presence of a doctor 
and a policeman, and who can, at the same time, induce the 
spectators to believe that the flying objecu waver, swerve and 
" wobble," has not been attempted. 

An obvious difficulty in the search for authentic information 
b the circumstance that the poor and imperfectly educated are 
much more numerous than the well-to-do and well educated. 
It is therefore certain that most of the disturbances will occur 
in the houses of the poor and ill educated, and that their evidence 
will be rejected as insufficient. When an excellent case occurs 
in a palace, and is reported by the nuirgravine of Bayreuth, sister 
of Frederick the Great, in her Memoirs^ the objection is that her 
narrative was written long after the events. When we have 
contemporary journals and letters, or sworn evidence, as in the 
affairs of Sir Philip Frauds, Cideville and Willington, criticism 
can probably find some otiier good reasons for setting these 
testimonies aside. It is certain that the royal, the rich and the 
well-educated observers tell, in many cases, precisely the same 
sort of stories about poltergeist phenomena as do the poor and 
the imperfectly Instructed. 

On the theory that there exist " mysterious agencies " which 
now and then produce the phenomena, we may ask what these 
agendes can possibly be? But no answer worthy of considera- 
tion has ever been given to this question. The usual reply is 
that some unknown but intelligent force is disengaged from the 
personality of the apparent medium. This apparent medium 
need not be present; he or she may be far away. The High- 
landers attribute many poltergeist phenomena, ine^q^licable noises, 
sounds of viewless feet that pass, and so forth, to tdradh, an 
influence exerted unconsdously by unduly strong mshes on the 
part of a person at a distance. The phrase falbh air fdrsaing 
\" gomg uncontrolled ") is also used (Campbell, WiUkcrqft and 
Second Sight tn the Scottish Highlands, 1902, pp. Z44-r47). The 
present writer is well acquainted with cases attributed to 
tdradhf in a house where he has often been a guest. They exdte 
no alarm, their cause being well understood. We may call this 
kind of thing teletharyby, a racket produced from a distance. 
A veiy marked case in Illinois would have been attributed in 
the Highlands to the tdradh of the late owner of the house, a 
dipsomaniac in another state. On his death the disturbances 
ceased (first-hand evidence from the disturbed lady of the 
house, May X907). It may be worth while to note that the 
phenomena are often regarded as death-warnings by popular 
belief. The nriy inddents at the Wesleys' house were thought 
to indicate the death of a kinsman; or to announce the approach- 
ing decease of Mr Wesley pire, who at first saw and heard 
nothing unusuaL At Worksop the doctor was called in, because 
the phenomena were guessed to be " warnings " of the death 
of a sick child of the house. The writer has first-hand 
evidence from a lady and her son (afterwards a priest) of 
very singular movements of untouched objects in their presence, 
which did coindde with the death of a relation at a distance. 

BiBLiOGRAPBY —The literature of the subject is profoae. but 
scattered. For modem instances the Proceedings ej the Society 
for Psychical Research may be consulted, especially an essay by 
F. W. H. Myers, vii. 146-198. also iv. 29-38. with the essay by 
Podmore. already quoted Books like Dale Owen's Footfalls 
on the Boundary of Another World, and Fresnoy's RecueU des dis- 
sertatums sur les apparitions, are stronger in the quantity of anec- 
dotes than in the quality of evidence. A Lang's Booh of Dreams 
and Ghosts, contains outlandish and Celtic examples, and Telfair's 
(Telfer's) A True Relation of an Affparition (1694-1696) shows un- 
usual regard for securing signed evidence. Kiesewctter s CeschichU 
des neueren Oceultismus and Graham Dalyell's Darker imptr. 
stitiens of Scotland, with any collections of trials for witchcraft. 


POLTROON— POLYANTHUS 


17 


nuy be cxmsutecd, and Bovet't Pandatmcmvm (1684) U very rich 
in cases. The literature of the famous drummer of Tedworth 
(March 1662-April 1663) begins with an abstract of the sworn 
deposition of Mr Mompesson, whose house was the scene of the dis- 
turbances. The abstract is in the Mercurius ptMicus of April 
1663, the evidence was riven in a court of justice on the 1 5th of ApriL 
There is also a ballaa. a rhymed news-sheet of 1663 (Anthony 
Wood's Collection 401 (193). Bodleian Library). Pepys mentions 
" books " about the affair in his Diaqr for June 1663. Glanvil's 
first known vcnion is in his Saddnetsmus triumphahu of 1666. 
The sworn evidence of Mompesson proves at least that he was 
distai1)ed in an intolerable mannefp certainly beyond any means 
at the disposal of his two daughters, aged nine and deven or there- 
abouts. The agent may have been the Idradk of the drummer 
whom Mompesson offended. GUnvil in 1666 confused the dates, 
and. save for hb own experiences, merely repeats the statements 
cunent in 1662-1663. The ballad and Mompesson's deposition 
are given in Proc, S.PJL xvii. 301^7336, in a discussion between 
the writer and Mr Podmorc The dated and contemporary 
narrative of Procter in the Willington Mill case (183s- 
1847). is printed in the Joum. SJ'JL (Dec. 189a). with some 
contemporary letters on the subject. Mr Procter endured the 
disturbances for sixteen years before he retreated from the 
place. There was no naughty little girl in the affair; no nervous 
or hysterical patient. The Cdtic hypothesb of Idradkj exeitised 
by ** the spirit of the livine," includes visual apparitions, and many 
a so-called " ghost " of tne dead may be merely X]b€ tdradk of a 
living person. (A. L.) 

POLTROOV, a oowazd, a worthless rogue without courage or 
spirit. The word comes through Fr. poUron from ItaL poUrone, 
an idle fdlow, one who lolls in a bed or couch (Milanese poller, 
Venetian pdtrona, adapted from Ger. Pdster, a pillow; cf. 
English " bolster ")• The old guess that it was from Lat. poUice 
truncuSf maimed in the thumb, and was first applied to those 
who avoided military service by self-mutilation, gave rise 
probably to the French application of poUron to a falcon whose 
talons were cut to prevent its attacking game. 

POLTROT. JEAN DB {c. 1537-1563),. sieur de M£r6 or M^rey, 
a nobleman of Angoumois, who murdered Francis, duke of Guise. 
He had lived some time in Spain, and his knowledge of Spanish, 
together with his swarthy complexion, which earned him the 
nickname of the " Espagnolet," procured him employment as a 
spy in the wars against Spain. Becoming a fanatical Huguenot, 
be determined to kill the duke of Guise, and gained admission 
as a deserter to the camp of the Catholics who were besieging 
Oricans. In the evening of the x8th of February 1563 he hid 
by the side of a road along which he knew the duke would pass, 
fired a pistol at him, and fled. But he was captured the next day, 
and was tried, tortured several times, and sentenced to be drawn 
and quartered. On the x8th of March 1563 he underwent a 
frightful punishment. The horses not being able to drag off his 
limbs, he was hacked to pieces with cutlasses. He had made 
several contradictory dedarations regarding the complicity of 
CoUgny. The admiral protested emphatically against the 
accusation, which appears to have had no foundation. 

See Ubnoirtsdu princs de Condi (London, 1743) : T. A. D'Aubign^, 
Bistoire «m«MrjeU« (ed. by de Ruble. Soc. ae Fkutoirt de France, 
1 886) : A. de Ruble, L'Assassinat du due Franfois de Lorraine (Paris, 
1897). 

POLTAERUS, a Macedonian, who lived at Rome as a rhetori- 
cian and pleader in the 2nd century a.d. When the Parthian War 
(162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, 
dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a 
work, still extant, called StraUgica or StraUgBmaia, a historical 
collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek 
and strung together in the form of anecdotes. It is not strictly 
confined to warlike stratagems, but includes also examples of 
wisdom, courage and cunning drawn from dvil and political life. 
The work is uncritically written, but is nevertheless important on 
account of the extracts it has preserved from histories now lost. 
It is divided into eight books (parts of the sixth and seventh 
are lost),- and originally contained nine hundred anecdotes, 
of which eight hundred and thirty-three are extant. Polyaenus 
intended to write a history of the Parthian War, but there is no 
evidence that he did so. His works on Macedonia, on Thebes, 
and on tactics (perhapa identical with the StraUgica) are lost. 

His Sirateiica seems to have been highly esteemed by the Roman 
emperors, and to have been banded down by them as a sort of 
XXU X* 


heirloom. From Rome it passed t<^ Constantmople; at the end of 
the 9th century it was diligently studied by Leo VI., who himself 
wrote a work on tactics; and m the middle of the 10th century 
Constantine Porphvro^enitus mentioned it as one of the most 
valuable books in the imperial library. It was used by Stobaeus, 
Suidas, and the anonymous author of the work lUpl irtarM (see 
Palabphatus). It b arranged as folkiws: bks. 1., ii., iii., strata- 
gems occurring in Greek history: bk. iv., stratagems of the Mace- 
donian kings and successors of Alexander the Great; bk. v., strata- 
gems occurring in the history of Sicily and the Greek islands and 
cotonies; bk. vL, stratagems of a whole people (Carthaginians, 
Lacedaemonians, Argives), together with some individuals 
(Philopoemen, IVrrhus, Hannibal); bk. vii., stratagems of the 
barbarians (Medes, Pereians, Eeyptians, Thradans, Scvthians, 
Celts); bk. viii., stratagems of Romans and women. Tnis dis- 
tribution b not, however, observed very strictly. Of the negligence 
or haste with which the work was written there are many instances: 
e.g. he confounds Dionysius the elder and Dionysius the younger, 
Mithradates satrap 01 Artaxerxes and Mithradates the Great, 
Scipio the elder ana Scipio the younger, Perseus, king of Macedonia 
and Perseus the companion of Alexander; he mixes up the strata- 
gems of Caesar and Pompey; he brings into immediate connexion 
events which were totally distinct; he narrates some events twice 
over, with variations according to the different authors from whom 
he draws. Though he usually abridges, he occasionally amplifies 
arbitrarily the narratives of nis authorities. He nexxr mentions 
his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Dkxlorus, Plutarch, Frontinus 
and Suetonius; amongst authors of whom only fragments now 
remain he drew uponCtesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and 
Nicolaus Damasoenus. His style is dear, but monotonous and 
inelq^nt. In the forms of his words he generally follows Attic 
usa|». 

The best edition of the text b W5UAin and Mdbcr (Teubner 
Series, 1887, with bibliography snd editio prinoeps of the SlraU' 
gemata of the emperor Leo) ; annotated editions by Isaac Casaubon 
(IS89) and A. CoraSs (1800): I. Mdber, Ueber die QueUen tmd 
Werth der StraUgemensamtiUung Polyins (1885); Knott, De fide 
et fonHbus Pdyaeni (1883), who lafgdy reduces the number of 
the authorities consulted by Polyaenus. Eng. trans, by R. Shepherd 
(«793>. 

POLYANDRY (Gr. roXis, many, and Mip, man), the system 
of marriage between one woman and several men, who are her 
husbands exdusively (see Family). .The custom locally legal- 
izing the marriage of one woman to more than one husband at a 
time has been variously accounted for as the result of poverty and 
of life in unfertile lands, where it was essential to check popula* 
tion as the consequence of female infantidde, or, in the opim'on 
of J. F. McLennan and L. H. Morgan, as a natural phase through 
which human progress has necessarily passed. Polyandry b to 
be carefully differentiated from communal marriage, where the 
woman is the property of any and every member of the tribe. 
Two dbtinct Idnds of polyandry are practised: one, often called 
Nair, in which, as among the Nairs of India, the husbands are 
not related to each other; and the second, the Tibetan or fraternal 
polyandry, in which the woman b married to all the brothers of 
one family. Polyandry b practised by the tribes of Tibet, 
Kashmir and the Himalayan regions, by the Todas, Koorgs, 
Nairs and other peoples of India, in (Ceylon, New Zealand, by 
some of the Australian aborigines, in pairts of Africa, in the 
Aleutian archipelago, among the Koryaks and on the Orinoco. 

See McLennan's Primitive Marriaee (London, 1880: Studies in 
Ancient History (London, 1886); " The Lcvirate and Polyandry," 
in The Fortntghtly Reoiew, new series, vol. xxi. (London, 1877); 
L. H. Morgan. System of Consanguinity and Afinity of Ike Human 
Family (Washington, 1809); Lord Avcbury, Origin of GoUiwation; 
E. Westermarck, History oj Human Marrtage, 

POLYANTHUS, one of the oldest of the florists' flowers, b 
probably derived from P. variabilis, itself a cross between the 
common primrose and the cowsUp; it differs from the primrose in 
having the umbeb of flowers carried up on a stalk. The florists' 
polyanthus has a golden margin, and b known as t^e gold-laced 
polyanthus, the properties being very dbtinctly laid down and 
rigidly adhered to. The chief of these are a dear, unshaded, 
blackish or reddbh ground colour, an even margin or ladng of 
yellow extending round eadi segment and cutting through its 
centre down to the ground colour, and a yellow band surrounding 
thetubeof exactly the same hue ss the yellow of the lacing. The 
plants are quite hardy, and grow best in strong, loamy soil 
tolerably well enriched with well-decayed dung and leaf-mould; 


i8 


POLYBIUS 


they should be planted aboyt the end oC September or not 
later than October. Plants for exhibition present a much 
better and cleaner appearance if kept during winter in a cold 
wcU-aired frame. 

For the flower borders what are called fancy polyanthuses are 
adopted. These are best raised annually from seed, the young 
crop each year blooming in succession. The seed should be 
sown as soon as ripe, the young plants being allowed to stand 
through the winter in the seed bed. In April or May they are 
planted out in a bed of rich garden soil, and they will bloom 
abundantly the following spring. A few of the better " thrum- 
eyed " sorts (those having the anthers in the eye, and the pistil 
sunk in the tube) should be allowed to ripen seed; the rest may be 
thrown away. In some remarkable forms which have been 
cultivated for centuries the ordinarily green calyx has become 
petaloid; when this is complete it forms the hose-in-hose prim- 
rose of gardeners. There ore also a few well-known double- 
flowered varieties. 

POLYBIUS (c. ao4-x22 B.&), Greek hbtorian, was a native of 
Megalopolis in Arcadia, the youngest of Greek cities (Pans. viii. 
9), which, however, phiyed an honourable part in the last days of 
Greek freedom as a stanch member of the Achaean League iq.v.). 
His father, Lycortas, was the intimate friend of PhOopoetnen, and 
on the death of the latter, in z8a, succeeded him as leader of the 
league. The date of Polybius's birth is doubtful. He tells us 
himself that in x8i he had not yet reached the age (? thirty years, 
Polyb. xxix. 9) at which an Achaean was legally capable of 
holding office (xxiv. 6). We learn from Cicero {Ad Fam. v. 13) 
that he outlived the Numantine War, which ended jn 133, and 
from Ludan {Macrob. 22) that he died at the age of eighty-two. 
The majority of authorities therefore place his birth between 
8X4 <^<i 204 B.C. Little is known of his early life. As the son of 
Lycortas he was naturally brought into close contact with the 
leading men of the Achaean League. With Philopoemcn he 
seems to have been on intimate terms. After Philopoemen's 
tragic death in Mcsseaia (18 j) he was entrusted with the honour- 
able duty of conveying home the urn in which his ashes had been 
deposited (Plut. Phil. n). In x8i, together with his father, 
Lycortas and the younger Aratus, he was appointed, in spite of 
his youth, a member of the embassy which was to visit Ptolemy 
Epiphanes, king of Egypt, a mission, however, which the sudden 
death of Ptolemy brought to a premature end (xxv. 7). The 
next twelve years of his life are a blank, but in 169 he reappears 
as a trusted adviser of the Achaeans at a difficult crisis in the 
history of the League. In 1 7 1 war had broken out between Rome 
and the Macedonian king Perseus, and the Achaean statesmen 
were divided as to the policy to be pursued; there were good 
reasons for fearing that the Roman senate would regard neu- 
trality as indicating a secret leaning towards Macedon. Polybius 
therefor^ declared for an open alliance with Rome, and his views 
were adopted. It was decided to send an Achaean force to co- 
operate with the Roman general, and Polybius was selected to 
command the cavalry. The Roman consul declined the proffered 
assistance, but Polybius accompanied him throughout the 
campaign, and thus gained his first insight into the military 
system of Rome. In the next year (168) both Lycortas and 
Polybius were on the point of starting at the head of X30o 
Achaeans to take service in Egypt against the Syrians, when an 
intimation from the Roman commander that armed inter- 
ference was undesirable put a stop to the expedition (xxix. 23). 
The success of Rome in the war with Perseus was now assured. 
The final victory was rapidly followed by the arrival in Achaea 
of Roman commissioners charged with the duty of esUblishing 
Roman interests there. Polybius was arrested with xooo of 
the principal Achaeans, but, while his companions were con- 
demned to a tedious incarceration in the country towns of Italy, 
he obtained permission to reside in Rome. This privilege he 
owed to the influence of L. Aemih'us PauUus and his two sons, 
Sdpio and Fabius (xxxii. 9). Polybius was received into Aemi- 
lius's house, and became the instructor of his sons. Between 
Scipio (P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger), the future 
conqueror of Carthage, and himself a friendship soon sprang up, 


which ripened* intb a lifelong Intimacy, and was of inestimable 
service to him throughout his career. It protected him from 
interference, opened to him the highest circles of Roman society, 
and enabled him to acquire a personal influence with the leading 
men, which stood him in good stead when he afterwards came 
forward to mediate between his countrymen and Rome. It 
placed within his reach opportunities for a close study of Rome 
and the Romans such as had fallen to no historian before him, 
and secured him the requisite leisure for using them, while 
Scipio's liberality more than once supplied him with the means of 
conducting difficult and costly historical investigations (Pliny, 
N.H. V. 9). In X51 the few surviving exiles were allowed to 
return to Greece. But the stay of Polybius in .Achaea was brief. 
The estimation in which he was held at Rome is clearly shown 
by the anxiety of the consul Marcus (or ManJius) Manilius (149) 
to take him as his adviser on his expedition against Carthage. 
Polybiusstartedto joinhim, but broke off his journey at Corcyra 
on learning that the Carthaginians were inclined to yield (xxxvi. 
3). But when, in 147, Scipio himself took the command in 
Africa, Polybius hastened to join him. and was an eye-witness 
of the siege and destruction of Carthage. During his absence in 
Africa the Achaeans had made a last desperate attempt to 
assert their independence of Rome. He returned in 146 to find 
Corinth in ruins, the fairest cities of Achaea at the merey of the 
Roman soldiery, and the famous Achaean League shattered to 
pieces (see Achaean League). All the influence he possessed 
was freely spent in endeavouring to shield his countrymen from 
the worst consequences of their rashness. The excesses of the 
soldiery were checked, and at his special intercession the statues 
of Aratus and Philopoemen were preserved (xxxix. 14). An 
even more difficult task was that entrusted to him by the 
Roman authorities themselves, of persuading the Achaeans to 
acquiesce in the new regime imposed upon them by their con- 
querors, and of setting the new machinery in working order. 
With this work, which he accomplished so as to earn the heartfelt 
gratitude of his countrymen (xxxix. z6), his public career seems 
to have closed. The rest of his life was. so far as we know, 
devoted to the great history which is the lasting monument of 
his fame. He died, at the age of eighty-two, of a fall from his 
horse (Ludan, Macrob. 33). The base of a statue erected to 
him by Elis was found at Olympia in 1877. It bears the inscrip- 
tion ii wAXtt 4 'UXduv IloXd^tor Avicbpra UtyaSmrdKLrnp. 

Of the forty books which made up the history of Polybius, the 
first five alone have come down to us m a complete form ; of the rest 
we have only more or less copious fragments. . But the ijeneral 

Elan and scope of the work are explained by Polybius himself. 
[is intention wa^ to make plain how and why it was that " all the 
known regions of the civilized world had fallen under the sway 
of Rome" (iii. i). This empire of Rome, unj>recedented in its 
extent and still more so in the rapidity with which it had been ac- 
quired, was the standing wonder 01 the age, and " who," he exclaims 
(1. i). " is so poor-spinted or indolent as not to wish to know by 
what means, and thanks to what sort of constitution, the Romans 
subdued the world in something; less than- fifty-three years ? " 
These fifty-three years arc those between 230 (the point at which 
tTir v.hrk of Aratus ended) and 168 B.C., and extend therefore 
intm the outbnrjk of the Hannibalic War to the defeat of Perseus 
at r'>d[5*L To this period then the mahr portion of his history 
15 devoted rrom the third to the thirtieth book indusive. ^ But 
far cUaniMs" wke he prefixes in bks. I. and ii. such a preliminary 
ilietch of I he cadier history of Rome, of the First Punic War, and 
of I he conicmpcirary events in Greece and Asia, as will enable his 
readers mon* fully to understand what follows. This seems to 
hfl\-c becTi hii original plan, but at the opening of bk. iii., wiitten 
apf^it^Fitly fifitr 146, he explains that he thought it desirable to 
add jQifnfl fici^jLint of the manner in which the Romans exercised 
the f>o*tf they had won. of their temperament and policy and of 
the final catastrophe which destroyed Carthage and for ever broke 
np the Achaean League (iii. 4* 5h To this appendbt, giving the 
history from 168-146, the last ten books arc devoted. 

Whatever fault may be found with Polybius, there can be no 
question that he had formed a high conception of the task before 
him. He lays repeated stress on two qualities as distinguishing 
hb history from the ordinary run of historical compositions. The 
first of these, its synoptic character, was partly necessitated by the 
nature of the period. The various states fringing the basm of the 
Mediterranean had become so inextricably interwoven that it 
was no longer possible to deal with them in isolation. Polybius 
therefore claims for hb history that it will take a comprehensive 


POLYBIUS 


19 


vKw of the whole coone of events in the civilized world, within 
the itmits of the period (i. 4). He thus aims at placing before his 
readers at each stage a complete survey of the field d action from 
Spain to Syria and Egypt. This synoptic method proceeds from 
a true appreciation of what is now called the unity of history, and 
to Polvbius must be given the credit of having first firmly grasped 
and clearly enforced a lesson which the events <A his own time 
m-ete especially well calculated to teach. It is the great merit 
of hia work that it gives such a picture of the and and 3rd centuries 
B.C. as no series of special narratives could have supplied. 

The second quality upon which Polybius insists as distinguishing 
his history from all others is its " pragmatic " character. It deals, 
that is, with events and with their causes, and aims at an aocuiate 
record and cq>tanation of ascertained facts. This "pragmatic 
method '* Qx. 2) makes history intelligible by explaining the how 
and the why; and, secondly, it is only when so wntten that history 
can pc y f igm its true function of instructing and guiding those who 
study it. For the great use of history, according to Polybius, b to 
contribute to the right conduct of human life (L 35). But this 
it caa do only if the historian bears in mind the true nature of his 
ta&k. He must remember that the historian should not write as 
the dramatist does to charm or exdte his audience for the moment 
(iL 56). He will aim simply at exhibiting events in their true 
light, setting forth "the why and the how" in each case, not 
coofuaing causes and occasions, or dragging in old wives' fables, 
prodigies and marvels (ii. 16, iii. 48^.. He will omit nothing which 
can help to explain the events he is dealing with : the genius and 
temperament of particular peoples, their political and military 
systems, the characters of the leading men, the ge^^phical features 
ol the country, must all be taken into account. To this conception 
of history Polybius b on the whole consUtently faithfuL It is 
true that hb anxiety to instruct leads often to a rather wearisome 
iteration of hb favourite maxims, and that his digressions, such 
as that on the military art, are occasionally provokmgly long and 
didactic But his comments and reflections are for the most jpart 
sound and instructive (e.g. those on the lessons to be learnt from 
the revolt of the mercenaries in Africa, i. 65; from the Celtic raids 
in luly, ii. 3^ : and on the Roman character), while among hb digres- 
aons are included such invaluable chapters as thoae on the Roman 
constitution fbk. vi), the graphic description of Cisalpine Gaul 
(bk. iL) and the account of the rise and constitution of the Achaean 
League (iL 38 seq.). To hb anxiety again to trace back events 
to tndr first causes we owe, not only the careful inquiry (bk. iii.) 
into the origin of the Second Punic War, but the sketch of early 
Roman history in bk. L, and of the early treaties between Rome 
and Carthage in iiL 23 seq. Among the many defects which he 
censures in previous historians, not the least, serious in hb eyes 
are their inattention to the political and geographical surroundings 
of the history Oi- 16, iiL 36), and thdr neglect duly to.set forth the 
causes of events (iii. 6). 

Polybius b equally explicit as regards the personal qualifications 
necessary for a good historian, and m this respect too his practice b 
in dose agreement with his theory. Without a personal knowledge 
of affairs a writer will inevitably distort the true relations and im- 
portance of events (xiL 28). Such experience would have saved 
accomplisbed and fluent Greek writers like Timaeus from many 
^ thetr blunders (xii. 35a), but the shortcoming's of Roman soldiers 
and senators like Q. Fabius Pictor show that it b not enough by 
itself. Equally indispensable b careful painstaking research. All 
available evidence must be collected, thoroughly sifted, soberly' 
weighed, and, lastly, the hbtorian must be animated by a stnceie 
love of truth and a calm impartblity. 

It is important to consider how far Polybius himself comes up 
to hb standard. In hb personal aoiuaintance with affairs, in the 
variety of his experience, and in hb opportunities for forming a 
correct judgment on events he b without a rival among ancient 
historians. A great part of the period of which he treats IcU within 
his own lifetime Gv. 3). He may just have remembered the battle 
of CyxKMcephalae (197), and, as we have seen, he was actively 
engaged in the military and political affairs of the Achaean Lea^e. 
During his exile in Rome he was able to study the Roman constitu- 
tion, and the peculiarities of the Roman temperament; he made 
the acquaintance of Roman senators, and became the intimate 
friend of the greatest Roman of the day. Lastly, he was able to 
survey with hb own eyes the field on which the neat struggle 
between Rome and Hannibal was fought out. He left Rome 
only to witness the crowning triumph of Roman arms in Africa, 
and to gain a practical acquaintance with Roman methods of 
government by assisting in the settlement of Achaea. When, in 
146, hb public life cloara. he completed his preparation of himself 
for his great work by laborious investig^ations of archives and monu- 
ments, and by a careful personal examination of historical sites and 
scenes. To all thb we must add that he was deeply read in the 
l e arninf of hb day, above all in the writings of earlier historians. 

Of PolytMus's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be 
given than hb conscientious investigation of original documents 
and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography 
— both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his 
successor Livy. conqncuously failed. Polybius is careful con- 
itantly to fcntod «• ^( h^ writes for thoae who lire ^tAe^M^iSt 


lovers of knowledge, with whotn truth b the first consideration. 
He closely studied the bronze tablets in Rome on which were in- 
scribed the early treaties concluded between Romans and Cartha- 
gimans. He quotes the actual language of the treaty which ended 
the First Punic War (i. 62), and of that between Hanmbal and Philip 
of Maoedon (vii. 9). In xvi. 15 he refers to a document which he 
had persoiAilly inspected in the archives at Rhodes, and In iii. ^ 
to the monument on the Lacinian promontory, recording the 
number of Hannibal's forces. According to Dionysius, L 17, he 
got hb date for the foundation of Rome from a tablet m the pontifical 
archives. As insunces of his careful attention to geography and 
topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, 
from the Afrkan coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to 
the Euxine and the coasts of Asb Minor in the cast, but also the 
geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout hb 

Next to the duty of original research, Polybius ranks that of 
impartiality. Some amount of bbs in favour of one's own country 
may, he thinks, be pardoned as natural (xvi. 14) ; but it is unpardon- 
able, he says, for the historian to set anything whatever above the 
truth. And on the whole, Polybius roust be allowed here again 
to have practised what he preached. It b true that his affection 
for and pride in Arcadb appear in more than one passage (iv. 20, 
21), as also does hb dislike of the Aetolbns (iL 45, iv. 3. 16). His 
treatment of Aratus and Philopoemen, the heroes of the Achaean 
League, and of Cleomenes of Sparta, its most constant enemy, is 
perhaps open to severer critkism. Certainly Cleomenes does not 
receive full justice at hb hands. Similarly hb views of Rome 
and the Romans may have been influenced by hb firm belief in 
the necessity of accepting the Roman supremacy as inevitable, 
and by his intimacy with Sciplo. He had a dc^ admiration for 
the great republic, for her well-balanrad constitution, for her militaiy 
system, and for the character of her citizens. But just as his 
patriotism does not blind him to the faults and follies of his country- 
men (xxxviiL 4, 5, 6), so he does not scniple to criticize Rome. 
He notices the incipient degeneracy of Rome after 146 (xviiL 35). 
He endeavours to hold the balance evenly between Rome and 
Carthage; he strong:ly condemns the Roman occupation of Sardima 
as a breach of faith (iii. 28, ai); and he does full justice to 
HannibaL Moreover, there can oe no doubt that he sketched 4he 
Roman character in a masterly fashion. 

His interest in the study of character and hb skill in its delinea- 
tion are everywhere noticeable. He believes, indeed, in an over- 
ruling fortune, which guides the course of events. It is fortune 
which has fashioned anew the face of the world in his own time 
(iv. 2), which has brought the whole civilized world into subjection 
to Rome (i. 4) ; and the Roman Empire itself b the most marvellous 
of her works (viii. 4). But under fortune not only political and 
geographical conditions but the characters and temperaments of 
nations and individuab play their part. The Romans had been 
fitted by< their previous stru|[gles for the conquest of the world 
(i. 63) ; they were chosen to punish the treachery of Philip of Macedon 
(xv. 4) ; and the greatest of them, Scipio himself, Polybius regards 
as the especial favourite of fortune (xxxii. i^; x. 5). 
■ In respect of form, Polybius b far the inferior of Livy, partly 
owing to his very virtues. Hb Uudable de^re to present a picture 
of the whole political situation at each important moment is fatal 
to the continuity of his narrative. Thus the thrilling story of the 
Second Punic War is broken in upon by digressions on the con- 
temporary affairs in Greece and Asb. More serious, however, 
than thb excesave love of synchronism is hb almost pedantic 
anxiety to edify. For grace and elegance of composition, and for 
the artistic presentation of events, he has a hardly concealed con- 
tempt. Hence a general and almost studied carelessness of effect, 
which mars hb whble werk. On the other hand he is never weary 
of preaching. His favourite theories of the nature and aims of 
history, of the distinction between the universal and specbl histories, 
of the duties of an historbn, sound as most of them are in them- 
selves, are enforced with, wearisome iteration \ more than once the 
effect of a graphic picture is spoilt by obtrusive moralbtng. Nor, 
lastly, b I^lybius's style itself such as to compensate lor these 
defects. It is, indeed, often impressive from the evident earnest- 
ness of the wnter, and from hb sense of the gravity of his subject, 
and is unspoilt by rhetoric or conceit. It has about it the ring of 
reality; the language is sometimes pithy and vigorous; and now 
and then we meet with apt metaphors, such as those borrowed 
from boxing (L ^7), from cock-fighting (i. 58), from draughts (i. 84). 
But, in spite of these redeeming features, the prcvaili/ig baldness 
of Polybius's style excludes him trom the first rank among cbssical 
writers; and it is impossible to quarrel with the verdict pronounced 
by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who places him among those authors 
of later times who neglected the graces of style, and who paid for 
their neglect by leaving behind them works " which no one was 
patient enough to read through to the end." 

It is to the value and variety of hb nutter, to his critical insight, 
breadth of view and wide research, and not least to the surpassing 
importance and interest of the period with which he deals, that 
Polybius owes his place among the writers of history. What is 
known as to the fortunes of .his histories, and the reputation they 
enjoyed, fully bears out thb QOndusioo. The silence respecting 


20 POLYCARP 

him maintained by Quintilian and by Ludan may reaionably be 
talcen to imply their agreement with Dionytius as to hit merits 
as a master of style. On the other hand, Cicero (De off. iii. 32) 
describes him as "bonus auctor in primis"; in the De reptiblica 
(iL 14} he praises highly hu accuracy in matters of chronology; 
and Cicero's younger contemporary, Marcus Brutus, was a devoted 
student of Polybius, and was engaged on the eve of the battle of 
Pharsalia in compilthe an epitome of his hutories (Suldas, s.v.\ 
Plutarch, BruL a). Livy^ however, notwithstanding the extent 
to which he used his wntings (see Livv), speaks of him in such 
qualified terms as to suegcst the idea that his strong artutic sensi- 
bilities had been woundra by Polybius's literary defects. He has 
nothing better to say of him than that he is * by no mean- -on- 
temptible " (xxx. 45), and " not anuntrustworthy^ auihor " { ^ :iii. 
10). Posidonius and Strabo, both of them Stakii like P< ! ius 
himself, are said to have written continuations of h » h istary ("^ \»», 
I.V.; Strabo p. ^1$). Arrian in the eariy part o\ the sni md 
Aelian in the 3rd century both speak of him with respect, tli igh 
with reference mainly to his excellence as an auchoniy on ihc art 
of war. In addition to his Histories Polybius uu9 the author of 
the following snuUer works: a life of Phifopoemen (Pclyb> k. 24), 
a history of the Numantine War (Cic. Ad Pom. v. t^). a treatiM^ on 
tactics (Polyb. ix. 30; Arrian, Tactica; Aelian, Tact, i.). The 
geographical treatise, ticferred to by Geminus, h possibly identical 
with the thirty-fourth book of the Histories iivliutiL^ hinder, 
Praef. p. 184. 

AuTMORiTiBS.— The complete books (i-^v.^ of the Histories 
were first printed in a Latm translation by Nicholas Perotti in 


iBhaL 

of Polybius. Our knowledge of the contents of the fra^entary 
books u derived partly from quotations in ancient wnters, but 
mainly from two collections of excerpts; one. probably the work 
of a late Byzantine compiler, was first printed at Basel in 1549 
and conuins extracts from books vi.-xviii. (w*pl w/MafiUum, vept 
optHit tml Ktudrnt); the other consists of two fragments from the 
" select passages " from Greek historians compiled Dy the directions 
of Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the loth century. To these 
must be added the Vatican excerpts. edited by Angelo Mai in the 
prwent ppntury. 

The follawiriR art the moft {mtvartant moderti editions of Polybiui: 
Erneati (t vola,, 1 763-1764); Schwci^k&user (9 voliv, 1793. and 
Oxfoi4, 1823); Eckkcr ii vol* .^ TS44); U Dindorf U voU., 1S66- 
i«6S, 2nd ed.. T. DuttnerWobstt 5 vola-» Lripde, 1^81-1904); 
Hutoch U vols., 1867-18711; J. L. Btrachjirt-Davidsor!. Sdei^fipits 
from Polyhiui (Oxford, T&fllii). Ft>r the llJeraturt o\ iht aubjcct, 
Mt Eneclmann. BtbliotK script. cMjj.: Script, irafci, pp. 64fr- 
65Q (8ih cd, Lcipiig, ifiSol* S« alw W. W. Cape*. Tfu HiiUfry 
ef ike Ack^tcn Ltaiue {London, jEafi); P. BuscmihI. Gesck. d, 
gntck LtlSfTCJHf in d* AUxcitdrinerzeti, \l So-i;}!! (Ltiprig, tfl^i- 
ie9J}s O. Cunii, Psiy^s utid stitt Wtrk (Leipite, 1003); R. v. 
Scala. Dk Siadicn da Polybwf (StuttRart, iBgol; f B. Bury, 
Ancient Creek Ilifhrinns (19091^ '* g. whole-hearted appreciatloa 
of Poly bill* "; J. L+ St fac ha n- Davidson, in HdJenka, pp. 353- 
1187 f London, iftqjl), ami in AppenOix l[. to SeUiiiim:^ fnym Polybius 
p[>. • .. . Oxford, tSM). (H, F, P.; X.) 

POLYCARP (e. 69-c. 155), bishop of Smynia aod one of the 
Apostolic Fathers, derives much of his importance from the faa 
that he links together the apostolic age and that of nascent 
Catholicism. The sources from which we derive otir knowledge 
of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (i) a few notices in the 
writings of Irenacus, (3) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at 
Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle 
of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving 
an account of the martyrdom of Polycaxp. Since these authori> 
ties have all been more or less called in question and some of them 
entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few 
words about each. 

^ X. The Statements of Irenaeus are found (a) in his Adversus haereses, 
iii. 3. 4i (6) in the letter to Victor^ where Irenaeus gives an account 
of Polycarp's visit to Rome, (c) m the letter to Florinus — a most 
important document which describes the intercourse between 
Irenaeus and Polycarp and Polycarp's relation with St John. No 
objection has been made against the genuineness of the statements 
in the Adversus haereses, but the authenticity of the two letters 
has been stoutly contested in recent times by van Manen.* The 
main attack is directed against the Epistle to Florinus, doubtless 
because of its importance. " The manifest exaggerations," says 
van Manen. " coupled with the fact that Irenacus never shows 
any signs of acquaintance with Florinus . . . enable us to perceive 
dcariy that a writer otherwise unknown is speaking to us here." 
The criticism of van Manen has, however, found no supporters 
outside the Dutch school. The epistle b quoted by Eusebius 


* Bncy. Bib. iiL 3490. 


(v. 30), and b aoeepted as cenulne by Hamacl^ and KrOger.* 
The relevant statemenu in the letter, moreover, are supported 
by the references to Polycarp which we find in the body of 
Irenaeus's great work. 

a. The Epistle 0/ Po/yeor^.— Thouah Irenaeus sutes that Polycarp 
^r-"- r-Tny "letters to the fietEhDouring churches or to certain 
t>\ [lie bn^chren ''* otity one has b«n preserved, vix. the well-known 
kcter to the FbilippLans. The cpiatle h lafgely involved in the 
Ignjiian coisiroverssy (§ee lONATtt;^). The testimony which it 
sfTordii to the [|i:natian Epistles u so ■triking that^ those scholars 
who fecard the&e let ten as spuriout are bound to reject the Epbtle 
cT Polycarp altof;ethcr, or at any rate to kuk upon it as brgely 
i ' r|:K<litedi. The romcr coune hai been adopted by Schwegler.* 
i r.'' and Hllacnrdd/ the latter by RitBchl* and Lipsius.* The 
I iilitatton ofthei L^nauan let ten in modern times has, however, 
I 'Lcalty desTfoycd the attack on the Epistles of Polycarp. The 
( : fLjil evidence In iu Tavour is of considerable weight. Irenaeus 
( .^,4} exprculy mcniioni and cocnrncpids a "veiy adequate" 
(ixe>wT&T^) IsucT of Pqlyrarp to the PhUippians, ana we have no 
reason for doubting the identity of this letter mentioned by Irenaeus 
with oyr cptstlc. EuHrbtui (tLL jG) quates extracts from the 
epUtle, and lome of the cxtracii contain the very passages which 
tfic critics have marked ai interpolations, and Jerome (De Vtr. lU, 
XV li-} testifies thai in hU time the epiatio ^at publicly md in the 
Acinic churches* The inte4:nal evidence h equally strong. There 
i ' Hc:.lijtcly tto motive for a fofHery in the contents of the epistle. 
J ilirnack Kiy», *' There ia no (race of any tendency beyond the 
i:-. :-.-diate purpose of maintaining the true Christians' lit e in the 
church and warning tt again^i covet outness and against an un- 
brother! jf spirit. The occasion of the kiitf was a case of embezzle* 
ment, the guiky individual bein^ a prtabyter at Philippi. It shows 
a hne combination oL mildneu i^iLh wenty : the language b simple 
but pawcrfuK and, while there 11 undoubtedly a lack of original 
idea 9, the author shows remarlcpble «kill in weaving together 
prtgn-int sentences and impressive warnini^s selected from the 
ftpo^iulic epistles and the first Episilc of Cknicnt. In these circum- 
stances it would never have occuritd to any one to doubt the 
genuineness of the epbtle or to suppose that it had been inter- 
polated, but for the fact that in several passages reference b made 
to Ignatius and hb epistles." The date of the epistle depends 
upon the date of the Ignatian letters ami b now generally fixed 
between iia and 118. An attempt has been made in some quarters 
to prove that certain allusions in the epbtle imply the rise of the 
heresy of Marcion and that it cannot therefore be placed earlier than 
140. Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp'a statements 
may equally well be directed against Corinthbnism or any other 
form of Docetism, while some of hb arguments are absolutely 
inapplicable to Marcionbm. 

3. The Epistle of Ignatius to Poiycarp.—'nAk epbtle has of course 
been subjected to the same criticum as has been directed against 
the other epistles of Ignatius (see Ignatius). Over and above the 
general criticbm, which may now be said to have been completely 
answered by the investigations of Zahn, Lightfoot and Hamacic, 
one or two specbl arguments have been brought against the Epbtle 
to Polycarp. Ussher, for instance, while acceptmg the other six 
epistles, rejected this on the ground that Jerome says that Ignatius 
only sent one letter to Smyrna — a mbtake due to nis misinterpret 
tation of Eusebius. Some modem scholars (among whom Hamaclc 
was formeriy numbered, though he has modified nb views on the 
point) feel a difficulty about the peremptory tone which Ignatius 
adopts towards Polycarp. There was some force in thb argument 
when the Ignatbn Epistles were dated about 140, as in that case 
Polycarp would have been an old and venerable man at the time. 
But now that the date b put back to about iia the difficulty 
vanished, since Polycarp was not much over forty when he received 
the letter. We^must remember, too. that Ignatius was writing 
under the consciousness of impendinj; martyraom and evidently 
felt that thb gave him the right to criticize the bishops and churches 
of Asm. 

4. The Letter of the Church ai Smyrna to the Phik>melians b a 
most important document, because we derive from it all our in- 
formation with regard to Polycarp's martyrdom. Eusebius has 
preserved the greater part of this epbtle (iv. 15), but we possess it 
entire with various concluding observations in several Greek MSS., 
and also in a Latin translation. The epbtle gives a minute 
description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of 
Polycarp and of hb trial and martyrdom ; and as it contains many 
instructive detaib and professes to nave been written not long after 
the evenu to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one 
of the most precious remains of the 2nd century. Certain recent 
critics, however, have questioned the authenticity of the narratiw. 


' GeschichU der alUhristlichen Litteratur, i. 593-594- 
' Early Christian Literature (Eng. trans., 1897), p. isa 

* Letter to Florinus ap. Euseb. v. aa 

* Nachapostolisches Zeitalter, iL 154. 

* Apostol§9SckichU, p. 5a. 
^ApostoUuhe Voter, p. 272. 

* EntsUhumg der althatholischen Kircke, p. 584. 

* Ueber das VerhiUniss, ^e., p. 14. 


POLYCARP 


21 


- the date of the epiftle down to ebout 360, though 

be admiu many of the tutements as trustworthy. Keiiii, too,' 
endeavouri to show that, although it was based on good infonnatioo, 
it could not have been composed till the middle ofthit xrd century. 
A similar position has also been taken upby SchOier,* Holtxmann,^ 
Gebhardt,* R6viUe.« and van Maoen.' The bet named regards the 
document "as a decorated narrative of the saint's martyrdom 
framed after the pattern of Jesus' martyrdom." though he thinks 
that it cannot be put as late as 250, but must fall within the limits 
of the snd century. It cannot be said, however, that the case 
against the document has been at all substantiated, and the more 
oMjderate school of modem critks {e.g. Lightfoot.* Hamack,* 
KrOger)" is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, 
though it reoognixcs that here and there a few slight interpolations 
have been inserted.*^ Besides these we have no other sources for 
the life of Polycarp; the Vita S. PUycarpi auctore Pionio (published 
by Dqchcene, Paris, l88x, and Lightfoot Iptatius and Polycarp, 
iSSs, B. 101S-X047) u worthless. 

Aaramxng the genuineness of the documents mentioned, we 
now proceed to collect the scanty information which they afford 
with Rgaid to Polycaip's career. Very little is known about 
his early Kf e. He must have been bom not later than the year 
69, for on the day of his death (c, 155) he declared that he had 
ierred the Lord for etghty-siz years {Martyrium, 9). The 
statftTifnt seems to imply that he was of Christian parentage; 
he cannot have been older than eighty-six at the time of his 
nuutyrdom, since he had paid a visit to Rome almost inmiediately 
before. Irenaeus tells us that in early life Polycarp " had been 
taoght by apostles and lived in familiar intercotuse with many 
that bad seen Chzist " (iiL 3,4)* This testimony is expanded 
in the remaxlcable words which Izenaeus addresses to Florinus: 
" I saw thee when I was still a boy (jrw tn &¥) in Lower Asia 
m company with Polycarp ... I can even now point out the 
place where the blessed Polycarp used to sit when he discoursed, 
and describe his goings out and his comings in, his manner of 
life and his personal appearance and the discourses which he 
ddivered to the people, how he used to speak of his intercourse 
with John and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord, and 
how he would relate their words. And everything that he had 
heard from them about the Lord, about His miracles and about 
His tfsrhtng, Polycarp used to tell us as one who had received 
it from those who had seen the Word of Life with their own eyes, 
aad an this in perfect harmony with the Scriptures. To these 
things I used to listen at the time, through the mercy of God 
voudisafed to me, noting them down, not on paper but in my 
heart, and constantly l^ the grace of God I brood over my 
aocoxate recollections." These are priceless words, for they 
cstahlish a chain of tradition (John-Polycarp-Irenaeus) whidi is 
without a parallel in eariy church history. Polycarp thus 
becomes the living link between the Apostolic age and the great 
writers who flourished at the end of the 2nd Century. Recent 
criticism, however, has endeavoured to destroy the force of the 
words of Irenaeus. Haznack, for instance, attacks this link at 
both ends." (a) The connexion of Irenaeus and Polycarp, he 
axgncs, is very weak, because Irenaeus was only a boy (irett) at 
the time, and his xeodlections therefore carry very little wdght. 
The fact too that he never shows any signs of having been influ- 
enced by Polycarp and never once quotes his writings is a further 
proof that the relation between them was slight, (b) The 
connexion which Irenaeus tries to esUblish between Polycarp 
and J<^ the apostle is probably due to a blunder. Irenaeus has 
coofnsed John the apostle and John the presbsrter. Polycarp 
was the disdple of the latter, not the former. In this second 

^ Zedaeir, f. wistmuh. Thed, (1874), p. aoo seq. 

*Am dem UrekruUntkmm (1878), p. 90. 

•Z«»tocjr./. A««. rfcwt. (i8ro). o. 203 seq. 

• Zeitsekr. /. wissauck. neoL (x877)* 

• Z€iiKkr.f. kisL Tkeci. (1875). 

• Da ammo Pehcarpi (1881). 
^Omi-Ckfia (iMi), and Ency, Bib, iiL 3479' 

• JptaHms OMd Polycarp^ u 589 seq. 
•GeMck.d. aUchrisL lA H. L 341. 


* EaHy OkrisUan lAL (Eng, trans.. 1897), p. a8o. ■ 
'^AmoogiC these we ought probably to include the 

' '1. 1^), KtBoKuM betns here used in tne sense 

! which b not founa elsewhere at so taxlf a 


Amongrt thes 


nf ordiodax a 


■ C in s w a tog i V , L ^^^J^ 


argument Hamack has the support of a considerable number of 
modem scholars who deny the Ephesian residence of John the 
apostle. But, as Gwatkin^* has pointed out, Hamack's argu- 
ments are by no means decisive, (a) When Irenaeus describes 
himself as a boy (rcuO» ke need not have meant a very young lad, 
under thirteen, as Harnack makes out. Lightfoot has dted many 
instances whidi prove that the word could be used of a man 
of thirty." Nor does the alternative phrase which Irenaeus uses 
in iii. 3, 4 ( 8r ual iiyM ibspdutaitiaf hf rg rpcn-^ iiftuf ^^udq) 
mih'tate against this interpretation^ for elsewhere Irenaeus him- 
self distinctly says " txiginta annorum aetas prinui indoles est 
Juvcnis " (ii. 22, 5). It is true that Hamack has adduced argu- 
ments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus 
was not bom tillabout 140;** but against this we may quote the 
decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130,^ while 
Lightfoot argues for i ao." The fact that Irenaeus never quotes 
Polycarp does not count for much. Polycarp wrote very little. 
He does not seem to have been a man of great mental capacity. 
" His influence was that of saintliness rather than that of 
intellect." (6) A discussion of Hamack's second line of argument 
is impossible here. His theory with regard to the confusion 
of names is a gratuitous assumption and cannot be proved. 
The tradition of St John's residence at Ephesus is too strong to 
be easily set aside. In spite therefore of much modem criticism 
there seems to be no solid reason for rejecting the statements of 
Irenaeus and regarding Polycarp as the link between the Apostolic 
age and the first of the Catholic fathers. 

Though Polycarp must have been bishop of Smyrna for nearly 
half a century we know nekt tonothing about his career. We 
get only an occasional glimpse of his activity, and the period 
between 1x5 and 155 is practically a blank. The only points of 
sure information which we possess relate to (x) his relations with 
Ignatius, (a) his protests against heresy, (3) Us visit to Rome hi 
the time of Anicetus, (4) his martyrdom. 

X. His Rdaiums vith /ffioffftf.— Ignatius, while on his way to 
Rome to suffer martyrdom, halted at Smyrna and received a 
warm welcome from the church and its bishop. Upon reaching 
l^oas he despatched two letters, one to the church at Smyrna, 
another addressed personally to Polycarp. In these letters 
Ignatius charged Polycarp to write to all the churches between 
Smyrna and Syria (since his hurried departure from Troas made 
it impossible for him to do so in person) urging them to send 
letters and delegates to the church at Antioch to congratulate 
it upon the cessation of the persecution and to establish it in the 
faith. The letters of Igiiatius illustrate the commanding 
position which Polycarp had already attained in Asia. It was 
in the discharge of the task which had been laid upon him by 
Ignatius that Polycarp was brought into correspondence with 
the Philippians. The Church at Philippi wrote to Polycarp 
asking him to forward their letters to Antioch. Polycarp replied, 
promising to carry out their request and enclosing a number of 
the letters of Ignatius which he had in his possession. 

s. Polycarp^s Attack on Heresy. — ^AU through his life Polycaxp 
appears to have been an uncompromising opponent of heresy. 
We find him in his epistle (ch. viL) uttering a strong protest 
against certain false teachers (probably the followers of 
Cerinthus). 

For every one who shall not confess that Tesus Christ b come 
in the flew is antichrist; and whosoever shall not confess the 
testimony of the Cross b of the devil; and whosoever shall pervert 
the <tfacles of the Lord to hb own lusts and say that there b neither 
resurrection nor judgment, that man is the fint-bora of Sstan. 
Wherefore let us fonake thdr vain dmns and their false teaching 
and^ turn unto the word which was deCvered unto us from the 
beginning." " 

Polycarp lived to see the rise of the Mardonite and Valentinian 
sects and vigorously opposed them. Ireiueus teUs us that on 

" Conlemp. Renew, February x897> 

^* Itnatius and Pciycofp, i. 43a, lor instance, Constantine (Euseb. 
V.C. u. 51) describes himself as cofiitp voZt, though he must have 
been over thirty at the time. 

» Ckronologie, i. 325-333. 

<• See Lightfoot, ^.aTl, 


_^ Essays on Supernatmal 


£uip0ii. 


264.263. 


22 


POLYCLITUS 


one occasion Marcion endeavoured to establish xdations with 
him -and accosted him with the words, " Recogniz^ us." But 
Polycarp displayed the same uncompromising attitude which his 
master John had shown towards Cerinthus and answered, " I 
recognize you as the first-bom of Satan." The steady progress 
of the heretical movement in spite of all opposition was a cause 
of deep sorrow to Polycarp, so that in the last years of his life the 
words were constantly on his lips, " Oh good God, to what times 
hast thou spared me, that I must suffer such things!" 
I 3. Polycarp* s Visit to Rome, — It is one of the most interesting 
and important events in the church history of the and century 
that Polycarp, shortly before his death, when he was considerably 
over eighty years old, imdertook a journey to Rome in order to 
visit the bishop Anicetus. Irenaeus, to whom we are indebted 
for this information {Haer. iii. 3, 4; Episk ad victcrem, ap. 
Euseb. V. 24), gives as the reason for the journey the fact that 
differences existed between Asia and Rome "with regard to 
certain things " and especially about the time of the Easter 
festival. He might easily have told us what these "certain 
things " were and given us fuller details of the negotiations 
between the two great bishops, for in all probability he was 
himself in Rome at the time. But unfortunately all he says is 
that with regard to the certain things the two bishops speedily 
came to an understanding, while as to the time of Easter, each 
adhered to his own custom, without breaking off communion 
with the other. We learn further that Anicetus as a mark of 
special honour allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in 
the chiurch, and that many Mardonites and Valentinians were 
converted by hinr during his stay in Rome. 
I 4. Polycarp*! liartyrdom.-^HoX. many months apparently 
after Polycarp's return from Rome a persecution broke out in 
Asia. A great festival was in progress at Smyrna. The pro- 
consul Statius Quadratus was present on the occasion, and the 
asiarch Philip of Trallcs was presiding over the games. Eleven 
Christians had been brought, mostly from Philaidelphia, to be 
put to death. The appetite of the populace was inflamed by the 
spectacle of their martyrdom. A cry was raised " Away with 
the atheists. Let search be made forPoIycaip." Polycarp took 
refuge in a country farm. His hiding-place, however, was be- 
trayed and he was arrested and brought back into the dty. 
Attempts were made by the officials to induce him to recant, but 
without effect. When he came into the theatre the proconsul 
urged him to " revile Christ," and promised, if he would consent 
to abjure his faith, that he would set him at liberty. To this 
appeal Polycarp made the memorable answer, " Eighty and six 
years have I served Him and He hath done me no wrong. How 
then can I speak evil of my King who saved me? " These words 
only intensified the fury of the mob. They clamoured for a lion 
to be let loose upon him there and then. The asiarch however 
refused, urging as an excuse that the games were over. When 
they next demanded that their victim should be burned, the 
proconsul did not interfere. Timber and faggots were hastily 
colleaed and Polycarp was placed upon the pyre. With calm 
dignity and unflinching courage he met his fate and crowned a 
noble life with an heroic death. 

I The question as to the date of the martyrdom has evoked 
considerable controversy. Eusebius in his Ckronicon gives 
AJ>. z66 as the date of Polycarp's death, and until the year 1867 
this statement was neves questioned. In that year appeared 
Waddington's Mimoire sur la chnntologie de la vie du rkiteur 
Adius Aristidet in which it was shown from a most acute combin- 
ation of circumstances that the Quadratus whose name is men- 
tioned in the Martyrium was proconsul of Asia in x 55-1 $6, and 
that consequently Polycarp was martyred on the 23rd of February 
X55* Waddington's conclusion has received overwhelming 
support amongst recent critics. His views have been accepted 
by (amongst many others) Renan,' Hilgenfeld,* Gebhardt,' 
Lipsius,« Hamack,* Zahn,* Lightfoot/ Randell.* Against this 

■ Antiekrut (1873}, p. 207. * Zeituhr.f. viss, Thed. (1874), p. 325. 

•Zeitschr.f. kist. Theol. (1875), p. 356. 

< Jakrb. f. prot. Tkeot. (1883), p. 525. » Chrondope, t 334-356. 

• ZeUschr, f. Vfiss. Theol. (i88a), p. 227: (1884). p. 216. 

* Jptatitu and Polycarp, 1 629-702. * Stvdia biUica (1883). i. 1 73- 


array of scholars only the following names of importance can be 
quoted in support of the traditional view — Kcim,* Wicsclcr^' and 
Uhlhom.** The problem is too complex to admit of treatment 
here. There seems to be little doubt that the case for the earlier 
date has been proved. The only point upon wliich there is 
division of opinion is as to whether Waddington's date 155, or~ 
as is suggested by Lipsius and support.ed by C. H. Turner** — the 
following year 156 is the more probable. The balance of opinion 
seems to favour the latter alternative, because it leaves more 
room for Polycarp's visit to Anicetus, who only became bishop of 
Rome in 154. Hamack, however, after careful investigation^ 
prefers 155. 

The significance of Polycarp in the history of the Church' is 
out of all proportion to our knowledge of the facts of his career. 
The violent attack of the Smymaean mob is an eloquent tribute 
to his influence in Asia. " This is the teacher of Asia," (hey 
shouted, " this is the father of the Christians: this is the des- 
troyer of otir gods: this is the man who has taught so many no 
longer to sacrifice and no longer to pray to the gods."" And 
after the execution they refused to deliver up his bones to the 
Christians for burial on the ground that " the Christians would 
now forsake the Crucified and worship Polycarp."** Polycarp 
was indeed, as Polycrates says,** "one of the great luminaries " 
(MC7&Xa oToixua) of the time. It was in no small degree due to 
his stanch and unwavering leadership that the Church was saved 
from the peril of being overwhelmed by the rising tide of the 
pagan revival whidb swept over Asia during the first half of the 
2nd century, and it was his unfaltering allegiance to the Apostolic 
faith that secured the defeat of the many forms of heresy which 
threatened to destroy the Church from within. Polycarp had 
no creative genius. He was a " transmitter, not a maker," 
but herein lies his greatness. Much occurred between the 
Apostolic age and the age when the faith of the Church was 
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination 
of the canon of the New Testament. This intervening period 
was the most perilous epoch in the history of the ante-Nicene 
Church. The Apostolic tradition might have been perverted 
and corrupted. The purity of the GoApd might have been 
defiled. The Christian idnl might havi been lost. That the 
danger was so largely averted is to no small extent the result of 
the faithful witness of Polycarp. As Irenaeus says (iii. 3, 4)/ 
" Polycarp does not appear to have possessed qualifications for 
successfully conducting a controversial discussion with erroneous 
teachers . . . but he could not help feeling how imlike their 
speculations were to the doctrines which he had learned from 
the Apostles, anVi so he met with indignant reprobation their 
attempt to supersede Christ's gospel with fictions of tbeir own 
devising." It b this that constitutes Polycarp's service to the 
Church, and no greater service has been rendered by any of its 
leaders in any age. 

B18LIOGRAPRT.— J. B. Lightfoot, Apdstelic Falkers, pt. u. 
(2nd ed., 1889). Polycarp is dealt with in I. 417-459. 530^<H; 
u. 897-1086: G. Volkmar, Bpistula Polycarpi Smymaei ganuna 
(ZQnch, 1885) ; T. Zahn. PoruhimgeH zur CeschichU des Kanous, fife, 
iv. 249, 279; J. M. Cotterill, "The Epistle of Polycarp to the 
Phnippians,^' Joum. of PkUol. (1891), xix.. 241-485; Hamack, 
Ckronolqeie der altckrtstUcken Utteratur (1897). See also Apo- 
stolic Fatbbbs. (H. T. a.) 

POLTCLITUS. the name of two Greek sculptors of the school 
of Argos; the first belonging to the fifth century, the second to 
the early part of the fourth. 

I. The elder and best known Polyditus was a contemporary of 
Phddias, and in the opinion of the Greeks his equaL He made 
a figure of an Amazon for Ephesus which was regarded as superior 
to the Amazon of Phddias made at the same time; and his 
colossal Hera of gold and ivory which stood in the temple near 
Argos was considered as worthy to rank with the Zeus of Phddias. 

•Aus dem Urckristenltm, p. 90- , , 

« Die CkristemerfelgungeH der Caesaren (1878), p. 34. 

"5*iiJ«»«Wu»(i89o).ii. 105-156. .. 

«> ReaUncyk. /. frot, Tkeel., 2nd ed. xu. 105. 

*> Martyrtum, ch. 12. 

M Ibid. 17. 

u Ap. Euseb. v. 34. 


POLYCRATES— POLYGAMY 


23 


It woold be liard for a modon critic to nU Polyditus so hi^: 
tbe reason is that balance, rhythm and the minute perfection of 
bodi^sr form, which were the great merits of this sculptor, do not 
appeal to us as they did to the Greeks of the 5th century. He 
woiked mainly in bronze. 

As regards his chronology we have data in a pap3mis pub- 
lished by Grenfell and Hunt containing lists of athletic victors. 
From this it appears that he made a sutue of Cyniscus, a victori- 
ous athlete of 464 or 460 B.C., of Pythodes (45a) and Aristion 
(453). He thus can scarcely have been bom as late as 480 B.C, 
His statue of Hera is dated by Pliny to 430 B.a His artistic 
activity must thus have been long and prolific. 

Cofriesof his spearman (doryphorus) (see Gkeek Akt, Plate VI. 
fig. 80), and his victor winding a ribbon round his head (diadu- 
menus) have long been recognized in our galleries. We see their 
excellence, but they inspire no enthusiasm, because they are 
mofe fleshy than modem figures of athletes, and want charm. 
They are diiefly valuable as showing us the square forms of body 
affected by Polyditus, and the sdieme he adopted, throwing 
the weight of the body (as Pliny says of him) on one leg. We 
must not, however, judge of a great Greek sculptor by Roman 
copies of his works. This has bttn enforced by the discovery at 
Ddos, by the French excavators, of a diadimienus of far more 
pleasing type and greater finish, which also goes back to Poly- 
ditus. The excavations at Olympia have also greatly widened 
our knowledge of the sculptor. Among the bases of statues 
found on that site were three signed by Polyditus, still bearing 
on their surface the marks of attachment of the feet of the 
statues. This at once gives us their pose; and following up the 
due, A. Furtwang^er has identified several extant sUtues as 
copies of figures of boy athletes victorious at Olympia set up by 
Polyditus. Among these the Westmacott athlete in the British 
Museum is coiapicuoua. And it is cotain that these boys, 
althoo^ the anatomy of their bodies seems to be too mature, yet 
have a real charm, combining beauty of form with modesty and 
unaffected simplidty. They enable us better to understand the 
merit of the soalptor. 

The Amazon of Polyditus survives in several copies, among 
the best of which is one in the British Museum (for its type see 
Gb£EK Akt, fig. 40). Here again we find a certain heaviness; 
and the womanly character dt the Amazon scarcdy appears 
through her robust limbs. But the Amazon of Pbddlas, if 
rightly identified, is no better. The masterpiece of Polyditus, 
his Hen of gold and ivoiy, has of course totally disappeared. 
The coins of Argos give us only the general type. Many axchaeo- 
k)gists have tried to find a copy of the head. The most defen- 
sible of all these identifications is that of C. Waldstein, who 
shows that a head of a girl in the British Museum (labelled as 
Polyditan) corresponds so nearly with that of Hera on 5th 
ccntuiy coins of Argos that we must regard it as a reflex of the 
head of the great statue. It seems very hard and cold beside 
such Doble h«ds of the goddess as those in the Ludovisi Gallery 
(Tenne Museum) Rome. American archaeologists have in 
recent years conducted excavations on the site of the Argive 
temple of Hera (Akgos and Greek Akt, fig. 39); but the sculp- 
tural fragments, heads and torsos, which seem to belong to the 
temple erected in the time of Polyditus, have no close stylistic 
resttoblance to other statues recognized as his; and at present 
their position in the history of art is matter of dispute. ■ 

Tbe want of variety in the works of Polyditus was brought as 
a reproach against him by andent critics. Varro says that his 
statues were square and almost of one pattern. We have 
already observed that there was small variety in their attitudes. 
Except for the statue of Hera, which was the work of his old 
age, he produced scarcely any notable statue of a ddty. His 
field was narrowly limited; butin that fidd he was unsurpassed. 

7. Tbe 3rounger Polyditus was of the same family as the dder, 
and the works of the two are not easily to be distinguished. 
Some existing bases, however, bearing the name are inscribed 
in cfaaracten of the 4th century, at which time the dder sculptor 
cannot have been alive. The most noted work of the younger 
artist was a statue in marble of Zeus Milichius (the Merdful) 


set up by the people of Argos after a shameful massacre which 
took place in 370 B.C. The dder artist is not known to have 
worked in marble. (P. G.) I 

POLYCRATES, tynnt of Samos (e. 53S-5r5 B.C.). Having 
won popularity by donations to poorer dtizens, he took advan- 
Uge of a festival of Hera, which was being celebrated outside 
the walls, to make himself master of the dty (about 535 B.C.). 
After getting rid of his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloaon, who 
had at first shared his power, he established a despotism whidi 
is of great importance in the history of the island. Realizing 
dearly the value of sea-power for a Gredc state, he equipped 
a fleet of xoo ships, and so became master of the Aegean basin. 
This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which 
made him noto^ous throughout Greece; but his real purpose 
in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the 
archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia. The details 
of his conquests are uncertain, but it is known that in the 
Cydades he maintained an alliance with the tyrant Lygdamis 
of Nazos, and curried favour with the Delian Apollo by dedi- 
cating to him the island of Rhenda. He also encountered and 
heavily defeated a coalition of two great naval powers of the 
Asiatic coast, Miletus and Lesbos. Doubtless with the object 
of expanding the flourishing foreign trade of Samos, he entered 
into alliance with Amasis, king of Egypt, who, according to 
Herodotus, renounced his ally because he feared that the pxis, 
in envy of Polycrates' excessive good fortune, would bring 
ruin upon him and his allies. It is more probable that the 
breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses 
of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to 
support him with a naval contingent This squadron never 
reached Egypt, for the crews, composed as they were of Poly- 
crates' political enemies, suspecting that Cambyses was under 
agreement to slay them, put back to Samos and attacked their 
master. After a defeat by sea, Polycrates repdled an assault 
upon the walls, and subsequently withstood a siege by a joint 
armament of Spartans and Corinthians assembled to aid the 
rebds. He maintained his ascendancy until about 515, when 
Oroetes, the Persian govemor of Lydia, who had been reproached 
for his failure to reduce Samoa by force, lured him to the 
mainland by false promises of gain and put him to death by 
cradfixion. 

Beside the political and commercial pre-eminence which he 
conferred upon Samos, Polycrates adorned the dty with public 
works on a large scale— an aqueduct, a mole and a temple of 
Hera (seeSaicofi; Aqueducts). The splendour of his palace 
is attested by the proposal of the Roman emperor Caligula to 
rebuild it. Foreign artists -worked for him at Jiigh wages; 
from Athens he brought I>emocedes, the greatest physician of 
the age, at an exceptional salary. He was also a patron of 
letters: he collected a library and lived on terms of intimate 
friendship with the poet Anacreon, whose verses were full of 
references to his patron. The philosopher Pythagoras, however, 
quitted Samos in order to escape his tyranny. (M. O. B. C.) 

POLTteRATBS, Athenian sophist and rhetorician, flourished 
in the 4th century B.C He taught at Athens, and afterwards 
in Cyprus. He composed declamations on panuioxical themes 
— an Encomium on Clytaemnestra, an Accusaiion of Socrates, 
an Encomium on Busins (a mythical king of Egypt, notorious 
for his inhumanity); also declamations on mice, pots and 
counters His E$uomiiiM on Busiris was sharply criticized 
by Isocrates, in a work still extant, and Dionysius of Hali- 
camassus characterizes his style as frigid, vulgar and indegant. i 

POLTQAMT (Gr. troXfo, many, and yi/un, marriage), or as it 
is' sometimes termed, Polygyny (ym^, woman), the system 
under which a man is married to several women at the same time. 
Derivativdy it indudes the practice of polyandry, but it has 
become definitdy restricted to expressing what has been, and still 
is, far the commonest tjrpe of relations between the sexes (see 
Famzly and Maxuaoe). Among Oriental nations plurality of 
legal wives is customary. Mahommedans are allowed four. A 
Hindu can have as many as he pleases: the high-caste sometimes 
haviAg as _many.as_a_hundred._Polygamyisjthe_ rule among 


H 


POLYGENISTS— POLYGON 


Affkaa tiibes, and is common aniong Uioae of Australia and Poly- 
nesia. In China, howeveri only one wife is lawf uL In many 
polygamous countries the pnurtlcal obstacle of apense prevenU 
men from taking advantage of their privileges.. While poly* 
gamy was the rule in biblioal days' among the andent Jews, and 
was permitted and even eojoined in certain cases by the Mosaic 
law, the Christian Churrh, though it is nowhere forbidden, except 
for "bishops," in the New Testament, has always set iU face 
against it. There have, however, htea divines who dissented 
from this general disapprovaL The Anabaptists insisted on 
freedom in the matter, and Bernardino Ochino conditionally 
defended plurality of wives. When in 4540 Philip the Magnani- 
mous, the reforming Landgrave of Hesse, determined (with his 
wife's approval, she being a confirmed invalid) to marry a second 
wife, Luther and Melanchthon approved " an his personal friends, 
though not as doctors of theology "; while Jlartin Bucer assisted 
at the marriage. In later times the Mormons {q.v.) in America 
provide the most notable instance of the revival of polygamy. 

FOLTQENinS, the term applied to those anthropologists 
who contend that the several primary races of mankind are 
separate species of independent origin. (See Monogenxsts.) 

POLTQLOTT (Gr. troXfo, many, and ylsurra, tongue), the term 
for a book which contains side by side verrions of the same text 
in several di£ferent languages; the most important polyglotts 
are editions of the Bible, or its parts, in whidi the Hebrew and 
Greek originals are exhibited along with the great historical 
versions, which are of valtie for the history of the text and its 
interpretation. The first enterprise of this kind is the famous 
Hexapla of Origen in which the Old Testament Scriptures were 
written in six paralleT columns, the first containing the Hebrew 
text, the secoiid a transliteration of this in Greek letters, the 
third and fourth the Greek translations by Aquila and Sym- 
machus, the fifth the Septuagint version as revised by Origen, 
the sixth the translation 1^ Theodotion. Inasmuch, however, as 
only two languages, Hebrew and Greek, were empbyed the work 
was rather diglott than polyglott in the usual sense. After the 
invention of printing and the revival of philological studies, 
polyglotts became a favourite means of advancing the knowledge 
of Eastern languages (for which no good helps -were available) as 
well as the study of Scripture. The series began with the 
ComptutensioM printed by Amaldus Guilielmus de Brocario at 
the expense of Cardinal Ximenes at the university at Alcali de 
Henares (Complutum). The first volume of this, containing the 
New Testament in Greek and Latin, was completed on the xoth 
of January 15x4. In vols. ii.-v. (finished on July xo, 151 7) 
the Hebrew text of the Old Testament was printed in the 
first column of each page, followed by the Latin Vulgate and 
then by the Septuagint version with an interlinear Latin trans- 
lation. Bebw these stood the Chaldee, again with a Latin 
translation. . The sixth volume containing an appendix is dated 
X515, but the work did not receive the papal sanction till March 
1520, and was apparently not issued till X 52a. The chief editors 
were Juan de Vergara, Lopez de Zufiiga (Stunica), Nuficz de 
Guzman (Pindanus), Antonio de librixa (Nebrissensis), and 
Demetrius Ducas. About half a century after the Com^u- 
tensian came the Antwerp Polyglett, printed by Christopher 
Plantin (i 569^1 572. in 8 vols, folio). Of this the prindpal editor 
was Arias Montanus aided by Guido Fabridus Boderianus, 
Raphelengius, Masius, Lucas of Bruges and others. This work 
was under the patronage of Philip IL of Spain; it added a new 
language to those of the Comptulensian by induding the Syriac 
New Testament; and, while the earlier polyglott had only the 
Jaigum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch, the Antwerp Bible had 
also the Taxgum on the Prophets, and on Esther, Job, Psalms 
and the Salomonic writings. Next came Le Jay's Paris Poly- 
iou (1645), which embraces the first printed texts of the Syriac 
Old Testament (edited by Gabrid Sionita, a Maronite, but the 
book of kuth by Abraham Ecchdensis, also a Maronite) and of 
the Samaritan Pentateuch and version (by Morinus)^ It has also 
an Arabic version, or rather a series of various Arabic versions. 
The last great polyglott is Brian Walton's (London, 1657), 
.which is much less beautiful than Le Jay's but more complete 


in various ways, induding," amoos other things, the Syriac d 
Esther and of several apocryphal books for which it is wanting 
in the Paris Bible, Persian versions of the Pentateuch and Goq>ds, 
and the Psalms and New Testament in £thk>pic Walton was 
aided by able scholars, and used much new manusciipt material. 
His prolegomena, too, and collections of various readings mark an 
important advance in biblical criticism. It was in connexion 
with this pdygbtt that £. Castdl produced hisfamousHtf^ftotf 
Latkon (s vols, folio, London, 1669), an astounding monument of 
industry and erudidon even when allowance is made for the fact 
that for the Arabic he had the great MS. lexicon oompiliMl and 
Idt to the university of Cambridge by the almost forgotten 
W. BedweU. The liberality of Cardinal Ximenes, who is said 
to have q>ent half a million ducats oh it, removed the Complu- 
lensian polygbtt from the risks of commerce. The other three 
editions all brought their promoters to the verge of ruin... The 
later polyglotts are of little scientific importance, ' the best 
recent texts having been confined to a single language; but every 
biblical student still uses Walton and, if he can get it, Le Jay. 
Of the numerous polyglott editions of parts of the Bible it may 
suffice to mention the Genoa peslter of 15x6, edited by Giustini- 
am', bishop of Nebbio. This is in Hebrew, Latin, Gredc, Chaldee 
and Arabic, and is interesting from the character of the Chaldee 
text, being the first specimen of Western printing in the Arabic 
character, and from a curious note on Columbus and the dis- 
covery of America on the maxgin of Psalm zix. (A..W. Po.) 

FOLTQNOTUS, Greek painter in the middle of the 5th «entuiy 
B.a, son of Aglaophon, was a native of Thasos, but was adopted 
by the Athenians, and admitted to their dtizenship. He painted 
for them in the time of Cimon a picture of the taking of Ilium 
on the walls of the Stoa Poedle, and another of the marriage of 
the daughters of Leudppus in the Anaceum. In the hall at the 
entrance to the Acropolis other works of his were preserved. 
The most important, however, of his paintings were hii frescoea 
in a building erected at Delphi by the people of Cnidus. The 
subjects of these were the visit to Hades by Odysseus, and the 
taking of Ilium. Fortunatdy the traveller Pausaniaa has left 
us a Careful description of these paintings, figure by figure 
(Pans. X. 25-'3x). The foundations of the building have been 
recovered in the course of the French' excavations at DdphL 
From this evidence, some modem archaeologists have tried to 
reconstruct the paintings, excepting of course the colours of them. 
The best of these reconstructions is by Cari Robert, who by the 
hdp of vase-paintings of the middle of the fifth century has 
succeeded in recovering both the perspective of Polygnotus 
and the character of his figures (see Greek Axt, fig. 29). The 
figures were detached and sddom overlapping, ranged in two or 
three rows one above another; and the farther were not smaller 
nor dimmer than the nearer. The designs are-repeated in 
Frazer's Pausanias, v. 360 and 372. It wHl hence appear 
that psintings at this time were executed on almost predMly 
the same plan as contemporary sculptural reliefs. We 
learn also that Polygnotus employed but few colours, and 
those simple. Techniodly his art was primitive. His excdlence 
lay in the beauty of his drawing of individual figures; but 
especially, in the "ethical" and ideal character of hu art. The 
contemporary, and perhaps the teacher, of Phddias, he had the 
same grand manner: SimpUdty, which was almost childlike, 
sentiment at once noble and gentle, extreme grace and charm 
of execution, marked his works, in contrast to the more 
animated, complicated and technically superior paintings of 
a later age. <*<>.. '*u»-r (P.G.) 

P0LT60N (Gr. troXfo, many, and ytaida, an angle), in geo- 
metry, a figure endosed by any number of lines— the sides — 
which intersect in pairs at the comers or vertices. If the sidea 
are coplanar, the polygon is said to be " plane "; if not, then it 
is a "skew" or "gauche" polygon. U the figure li«i entirdy 
to one side of each of the bounding lines the figure is " convex "; 
if not it is " re-entrant " or " concave ." A " regular " polygon 
has all its sides and angles equal, tje. it b equilateral and equi- 
angular; if the sides and angles be not equal the polygon is 
"irregular." Of polygons inscriptible in a drde an equilateral 


POLYGON 


25 


Cgnre ift necewirily eqiiiangnhr, but the convefte ii only true 
whca the number of «>det is odd. The term regul&r polygisn 
it usually lestrkted to ** convex " jMlygont; a ipecial dm of 
polygons (regttlsr in the wider tense) has been [mmed " hm 
pol^rioiis ** on i^oount of their resemblance to si^r-rays- ihcse 
are. however, concave. 

Pohrgona» etpedally qf the " regular '* and " itar " (ypn, wer? 
cxtcnaivdy studied by the Greek geometera. Thrr? arv two 
important cocx)Uaries td prop. 3s, book !., ol Euclid 'a El*mtnij 
reUttn^ to polygona. Having proved that the sum ol tht ancltft 
of a tnaagle is a ■traight angw, ue. two right angIcA, k u readily 
■een that the sum of the intenud an^es of a polygon (nfcesaarily 
convex) ofsadesisw— 3 straight an^es (an— aright angles j, Tor the 
p ol y gon ' can be divided into »— 3 triangles by iinca joining one 
cs to tlie other vertices. The second corollary u that the 
of the suppleoients of the internal angles, mciieured in the 
■une direction, m 4 right. angies» and is thus> independent cf the 
lunnlxr of sidesi l 

' The syslenaatic diKussion of regular polyftms withf respect to the 
inscribed and drcomacribed circles is given in the fourch book of 
the EUmaits. (We may ndte that the construction of an equilateral 
triangle and square appear in the first book.) The triangle 19 dis^ 
cussed in props. 2-6; the square in props. 6-9; the pentagon (5 Aide) 
in prapc 10-14; the hexagon (6-aide) in prop, i^;: aii4 the quin- 
deoi^on in prop. 16. The triangle aynd square call for no special 
mentioo here, other than that any triangle can be icLicnbcd or 
drcnmscribed to a cifde. Thepentagonbof more interest. Euclid 
bases his construction upon uie fact that the i^a^eli^a trLingte 
formed by joining the extremities of one dde of a regular penta- 
gon to tlie opposite vertex has each anrie at the base douLlc the 
angle at the vertex. He constructs this triangle in prop. id. by 
dividing a line in medial section. «.«. the square of one part equal to 
the product of the other part and the whole line (a conBtructiun given 
in book n. 11), and thai showing that the greater legmcnt is the 
base of the renuired triangle, the remaining sides being ea<:h equal 
to the whole line. The inscription of a pentagon In a Eirrle is 
effected by inscribing an isosceles triangle similar to that constructed 
in propL 10. bisecting the angles at the laae and {Mtxlucing the blxQ- 
tors to meet the drcle. Euclkl then proves that theae inicnections 
and the three vertices of the triangle are the vertices ol the re«iuired 
The circumscription of a pentagon it effected by con 


7 


stnicting an inscribed pentagon, and drawing tane<?ntB to the circle 
at the ver ti ces This supplies a general method for cintum^ribtnK 
a polygon if the inscribed be given, and conversetyr. in book tail, 
I0> an alternative method: for inscribing a pent .t Ron i^ mtikA ted, 

is there diown that the sum of the sc^uares of the &ide» ol a. 

|ttare and hexagon inscribed in the same arde equala the «quartr 
. the side of the pentagon. It may be incidentally natictd that 
Euclid's constnictkm of the isosceles triangle which has its basal 
angles double the vertical angle solves the problem of quinquesccun^ 
a rvht angle; moreover, the base of the triangle Ls the ude o( the 
regular decagon inscribed in a drde having the vcnes as centre 
and the sides of the triangle as radius. The inscription of a he^gon 
ia a circle (prop. 15) reminds one of the Pythagorean n^sult (hit 
mx equilateral triangles placed about a common vertex rorni a plane : 
hence the bases form a regular hexagon. The aide of a hexagon 
macribed in a drde obviously e()uals the radius of the circle. The 
inacripckm of the ouindecagon in a drele is made to depend upon 
the fact that the difference of the arcs of a drclr intereepLed by 
covcrtical sides of a regular pentagon and equilateral triangle is 
I -4, — ^, of the whole circumference, and hence the bisection 
of this mta cepted arc (by book iiL, 30) gives the ude of the 
quradecsgott. 

The mrthods of Euclid permit the bonstmctbn of the following 
«rks of inscribed polygons: from the square, the 3^ side or octagon. 
16-. 3>- . . ..or genenUy 4-a*-side; from the hexagon, the r j-side 
or dodecagon. 24-, aft- .... or generally the 6-3*-wSci from the 
tcon. the xo«die or decagon, ao-, 40* 
from the quindecagon, the yy, 60- 


, Of generally J-j** 


It was long supposed' that Mother inscribt^cf polygons v't 
le of construction by dementary methods Ci^f ' ' 


, , , . . by the ruler 

and compasses); Gauss disproved this by forming the 17-iide, &eid 
he snbseonently generalised his method for the (j*+i)-stde, when 
this onmoer is prune. 

The problem of the construction of an inscribed hrptaran, notugon. 
or genersDy of any polygon having an odd number of sidca, ii readily 
rBduced to the construction of a certain IsoscdcstriaTTBle. Suppose 
the polyfon to have (3»+i) sides. Join the extrtmitics of one 


*«}« to the opposite vertex, and consklcT the triangle so formed. 
h li ncadily sren thst the angle at the base is » times the angle at 
the venex. La the heptagon the ratio is 3, in the nooagon 4, and 
»o on. The Arabian geometers of the 9th century showed that the 
heptxieon frquired the solutwn of a cubk equation, thus resembliiw 
the Fyth^igDrran problems of "duplicating the cube" and "trt- 
uctiAg an angle." Edmund Halley gave solutions for the heptagon 
and noFiagon by means of the parabola and drde, and by a 
par^t)oU an^ hyperbola respectivdy. 

Ah hough ngoroue methods for inscribing the general polygons in 
a cirrk arv wanting, many approximate ones nave been devised. 
Two sijch methods are here given: (i) Divxle the diameter of the 
circle ixiui as many parts as the polygon has skies. On the 
diameter construct an equDateral triamde; and from iu vertex 
dmw a tine through the ucofid division along the diameter, 
measured hom an extremity, and produce this une to intercept 
the cirtk. Then the chord joinhig this point to the extremity of 
the diameter is the skle of the required polygon, (a) Divkle the 
diameter as before, and draw also the perpendicular diameter. 
Take point! on these diametere beyond the drde and at a dis- 
tance from the drde equal to one divisbn of the diameter. Join the 
pdnti iD obtained; and draw a line from tfie point nearest the 
divided diameter where this liiie intercepts the drde to the third 
divibon ivum the produced extremity; this line is the required 
knrth. 

The cofiitnictkm of any regular polygon on a given side may be 
readily performed with a protractor or scale off chords, for it is 
only neces^arv to lay off from the extremities of the given side 
lines equal in length to the given base, at angles equal to toe interior 
angle of the polygon, and repeating the process at each extremity 
so obt^incif , the angle bdng always uken on the same side; or lines 
may be laid off at one half of the interior angles, describing a drde 
having the meet of these lines as centre and thdr length as radius^ 
amf tfien measuringthe given base around the ctrcumference. 

Star Poly^c^ns.'-Thtut 6gwrt» were studwd by the Pythagoreana, 
and Hjbicquently ennged the attention of many geometers— 
Boethiua. Athelard of Bath. Thonus Bradwardine. arehbishop 
ot Canterbury-, Johannes Kepler and others. Mysticaland PT^g^l 
prapertiei were assigned to tnem at an early date; thelNthagoreana 
regarded the pentagram, the star polygon derived jfrom toe pentagon, 
OS 1 he v>'Tnbal of health, the Platonlsts of well-bdng* whue otners 
used it to Eymbolise happiness. Engraven on metal, Ac, It la 
worn in almost every country as a charm or amulet. 

The pen la eon gives rise to one star polygon, the hexagon gives 
none, tlie heptagon two. the octagon one, and the nooagon two. 
fn ^nerat, the number of star polygons which can be drawn with 
the vet I irc9 of an n-point regular polygon is the number of numbers 
vfhich artr not factore of » and are less than i«. 



PeniagnmL 


Heptagrams. 


Nonograms. 


Number of n-pdni and nsidt Pohioms, A polygon may be 
maided u determined by the joins oTpbints or tne meets of fines. 
The terminal tlon 'pam is often applied to the figures determined 
by Knr9. ;.f . pentagram, hexagram. It ia of interest to know how 
many polygons can be forroedTwith n given points as vertsoes (no 
three ol which are coUinear^, or with 11 gixTO lines as skies (no two 
o[ whi c h arv paralld). G)nsidering the case of ooints it is obvious that 
we Gin Jotn a chosen point with any one 01 the remaining (n->l) 
points; any one of these (n— l) points can be joined to any one 
or the remaining (»— s), and by proceeding similariy it is seen that 
we c^n poM through the n pouiu in (n— i) (n— a) . . . a*i or 
(r — I)! ways. It IS obvious that the dincUou in which we pass 
is t mmaterioJ ; hence we must divide this number by a, thus obtaining 


(ip- 1)1/2 as the required number. In a simihu' manner it may 
be shown that the number of polygons determined by » lines is 
(n-i)!/3. Thus five points or lines determine la pentagons, 


6 point! or lines 60 hexagons, and so on. 
Mrniuraiion.~^ln the regular polygons the fact that thiey can be 


inscribed and drcumscribed to a drcle affofda convenient expres* 

' " rith n-ddes, 

jL fc 360711, and 

each internal angle is (n— s}a-/» or (n— s) iSO*/u. CsUing the 


sons tor their area, Ac In a n-gon, ia. a polygon with 1 
each side subtends at the centre the ang^ 3«/% <.«. , 


y«.and 

_ _ ^ , __ , . - ing the 

length of side a we may derive the following' rdations: Area 


Nomber 
of sides. 

Triugle. 

^ 4 

Square. 

Pentagon. 

6 
Hexagon. 

Heptigon. 

8 
Octagon. 

Noi^. 

Decagon. 

II 
Undecagon. 

13 

• 

i 

R 

e 

60* 

lao* 

O-4M0I 

9^; 

90* 

X 

0-70710 
0-5 

108* 

ISO* 

6o* 
a-598oe 

0-86603 

laM* 

3-63391 
11523 
1-0383 

135; 

13065 

i'ao7i 

140; 

40* 
6-18183 
1-4619 
1-3737 

I-538S 


III9615 


26 


POLYGONACEAE 


(A)«i a*n cot (w/n); radius of ctrcunKtrcle (R)«*i a cotec (w/n) 
radius of iiKircle (r) « |a cot (*/")• 

The uble at foot of p. 1592 gives the value of the intenial angle 
(«), the angle fi subtended at the centie by a fide, area (A), radius 
of the circunxirde (R). radius of the inscribed circle (r) for the 
simpler polygons, the length of the side being taken as unity. 

POLTGONACBAB, in boUny, « natural order of Dicotyledons, 
containing 30 genera with about 700 species, chiefly in the north 
temperate zone, and represented in Great Britain by three 
genera, . Potygonum, Rumex (Dock, q.t.) and Oxyria. They are 
mostly herbs characterized by the 
union of the stipules into a 
sheath or oaea^ which protects the 
younger leaves in the bud stage 
(fig. i). Some are climbers, as, for 
instance, the British Polygonum 
Cottdolvulus (black bindweed). In 
MueUenbeckia plaiydada^ a native 
of the Solomon Islands, the stem 
and branches are flattened, form- 
ing libbon-like dadodes jointed at 
f # ^ B I ^ nodes. The leaves are alter- 

Fifs. i.-^-eaf of Polygonum, nate, simple and generally entire: 
with pan of stem (f.ocraa). ^^^ '^ ^ ^^^ back in the 
bud. They are generally smooth, but sometimes, especially in 
mountain spedes, wooUy. The small regular, generally her- 
maphrodite flowers are borne in large numbers in compoimd 
inflorescences, the branches of which are cymose. The parts of 
the flower are whorled (cyclic) or acydic. The former arrange- 
ment may be derived from a regular trimerous flower with two 
whorls of perianth leav^ twcrstaminal whorls and a three-sided 
ovary^-such a flower occurs in the Califomian genus PterosUgia 
(fig. a). The flower of rhubarb (Rheum) is derived from 
th^ by doubling in the outer ittsminsl whori (fig. 3), and 






Fio. 2.TPteroskgiA Flo. 3.— iStooN. Fio. 4.— J^immx. 

that of the dock (Rumex) by doubling in the outer staminal 
whorl and suppression of the inner (fig. 4). In Koemgia, a 
tiny knnual less than an inch high, native in the arctic and 
sub-arctic regions and the Himalayas, there is one perianth and 
one staminal whori only. Dimerous whoried flowers occur in 
Oxyria (mountain sorrd), another arctic and alpine genus, the 
flowers of which resemble those of Rumex but are dimerous 
(fig. s). In the acyclic flowers a s-merous perianth is followed 


Fio. $.— Oxyria. 




Fio. ^—Polygonum. 


Fio. 7. — Dry one-seeded fruit 

of dock IRumex) cut vertically 

(enlarged). 

OS, Pericarp formed from ovary 
wall. 

$t Seed. 

s; Endosperm. 

pl^ Embryo with radicle point- 
ing upwards and cotyledons 
downwards* 


by s to 8 stamens as in Polygonum (fig. 6). The perianth leaves 
are generally uniform and {;reen, white or red in colour. They 
are free or more or less united, and persist till the fruit is ripe, 
often playing a part in its distribution, and affording useful 
characters for distinguishing genera or spedes. Thus in the docks 


the three inner leaves enlarge and envelope the fruit as three 
membranous wings one or more of which bear on the back large 
fleshy warts. L^ often, as in the South American genus 
Triplaris, the three outer perianth leaves form the agent of 
distribution, developing into long flat membranous wings, the 
whole mechanism suggesting a shuttlecock. The number of the 
carpels is indicated by the three-sided (in dimerous flowers tx7o- 
sided) ovary, and the number of the styles; the ovary is uni- 
locular and contains a single erect ovule springing from the top 
of the floral axis (fig. 7). The fruit is a dr>- one-seeded nut, two- 



Rumex obttuifolius, Common Dock. 
I. Upper part of plant, showing the flowers. 
a. Leaf from base of the stem. 

3. Fruit enlarged. 

4. Fruit of Rumex Ace$osa (sorrel) (enlarged). 

sided in bicarpellary flowers, as in Oxyria, The straight or 
curved embryo is embedded in a mealy endosperm. The flowera 
are wind-poUinatcd, as in the docks (Rumex), where they are 
pendulous on long slender stalks and have large hairy stigmas; 
or insect-pollinated, as in Polygonum or rhubarb (Rheum), where 
the stigmas are capiute and honey is secreted by glands near the 
base of the stamens. Insect-pollinated flowers are rendered 
conspicuous diiefly by their aggregation In large numbers, as 
for instance in Bistort (Polygonum Bistarta), where the perianth 
is red and the flowers are crowded in a spike. In buckwheat 
(q.v., P. Pagopyrum) the numerous flowers have a white or red 
perianth and are perfumed; they are dimorphic, i.e. there are 
two forms of flowen, one with long styles and short stamens, 
the other with short styles and long stamens. In other cases 
self-pollination is the rule, as in knot-grass (P. amculare), where 
the very small, solitary odourless flowers are very rardy visited 
by insects and pollinate themsdves by the incurving of the three 
inner stamens on to the styles. 

Pdygonaceae is mainly a north tempera'te order. A few genera 
are tropical, e.g. CoccoMm, which has la^ species restricted to tropical 
and suD-tropical America. PoIyfONttm nas a very wide distribution 
spreading from the limits of veeeution in the northern hemisphere 
to the mountains of tropical Africa and South Africa, through the 
highlands of tropical Asia to Australia, and in America as far south 
as Chile. Most of the genera have, however, a limited distribution. 
Of the three whkh are native in the British Ides, Polygonum has 


POLYGONAL NUMBERS— POLYHEDRON 


27 


13 mectes; Rumtx (fie. 8) (i 1 species) includes the various species of 
dock (f.v.) and sorrel {R. Aeeiosa); and Oxyria di^ytia, an alpine 
' ■ •> . . ' • -^ (S. ««fa. shkrp) 


plant unountaiA sorret). takes its generic 
from the acidity of its leaves. RAeuM (1 


;, an alpine 

, Hibt, sharp) 

(Rhubarb, qjB,) ia central 


Asiatic 

POLYGONAL NUMBERSy in mathematics. Suppose we have 
a number of equal circular counters, then the number of counters 
which can be placed on a regular polygon so that the tangents to 
the outer rows form the regular polygon and all the internal 
counters are in conUct with its ncighboure, is a "polygonal 
number ** of the order of the polygon. If the polygon be a 
triangle then it is readily seen that the numbers are' 3, 6, 10, 15 
. . . and gcneraJUy )n (» + i); if & square, 4, 9, t6, . . . and gener- 
ally ff^; if a pentagon, 5, 12, 33. . . and generally nisn-i); if a 
b&cagon, 6, 15, 38, . . . and generally n(aH— i); and similarly for a 
polygon of r sides, the general expression for the corresponding 
polygonal number is in\in^ 1) (r— 3)+2l. 

Algebraically, polygonal numbers may be regarded as the sums 
of consecutive terms ol thft arithmetkal progressions having i for 
the first term and 1, 3, 3, ... for the common differences. Taking 
unit common difference we have the series i; 1+2 -3; 1+2+3 
-6: 1+2 + 3 + 4- 10; or generally 1+2+3 ••• + »- 
{uin-i-i): these are triangular numbers. With a con^mon difference 
3 we have i; 1+3-4: «+3 + 5-9; >+3 + 5 + 7-i6: 
or generally I +3+5+...+ (211 -!)-«•; and generally for 
the polygonal number of the fth order we take the sums of consecu* 
tive terms of the series 

I, i+(f-2). i+a (r-2), . . . i+fi-i.r-2; 
and hence the scth polygonal number of the rth order is the sum of 
9 terms of this scries, «.e., 

l+i+(r-2) + l+2(r-2)+ . . . +(l+«-l.r-2) 
-i»+J«.«-i.y-2. 
The series i, 3, 3. 4. . .>. or generally n, arc the so<alled " linear 
numbers " (cf. FicuaATB Numbers). 

POLTHEDRAL NUMBERS, in mathematics. These numbers 
ai« related to the polyhedra (see Polyhedron) in a manner 
similar to the relation between polygonal numbers (see above) 
and polygons. Take the case of tetrahedral numbers. Let AB, 
AC, AJ) be three covcrtical edges of 
a regular tetrahedron. Divide AB, 
. . . into parts each equal to A i, so 
that tetrahedra having the common 
vfertex A are obtained, whose linear 
dimensions increase arithmetically. 
Imagine that we have a number of 
sphms (or shot) of a diameter equal 
to the distance Ai. It is seen that 
4 shot having their centres at the 
vertices of the tetrahedron At will form 
a pyramid. In the case of the tetra- 
hedron of edge A3 we require 3 along each side of the base, i.e, 
6, 3 along the base of Ai, and x at A, making 10 in alL To add 
a third layer,.we will require 4 along each base, i.e. 9, and i in 
the centre. Hence in the tetrahedron A3 we have 30 shot. 
The numbers 1,4, xo, 20 are polyhedral numbers, and from their 
association with the tetrahedron are termed "tetrahedral 
numbcfa." 

This iSiistration may serve for a definition of polyhedral 
nnmben: a polyhedral nimiber represents the number of equal 
spheres which can be placed within a polyhedron so that the 
q^icKS touch one another or the sides of the polyhedron. 

In the case of the tetrahedron we have seen the numbers to be 
X. 4, 10, 20; the general formula for the nth tetrahedral number is 
iii(«+x)(»+2). Cubic numbers are 1, 8, .27, 64, 125, &c.; 
or RoeraUy »*. Octahedral numbers are 1 , 6, 19, 44, &c. . or generally 
i«r2>i*+i)- Dodecahcdcal numbers. are i, 20. 84, 220, &c.; or 
generally i«(9fi*— 911+2). Icosahedral numbers are 1, 12, 48, 
1^ ftc, or gtoenUy inCsii'— 5)1+2). 

FOLTHEDBON (Gr. toX£v, many, Upa^ a base), in geometry, 
a solid figure contained by plane faces. If the figure be entirely 
to one side of any face the polyhedron, is said to be " convex, " 
and it b obvious that the faces enwrap the centre once; if, on the 
other hand, the figwe is to both sides of every face it is said to be 
** concave, " and the centre is multiply enwrapped by the faces. 
" Regular polyhedra " are such as have their faces all equal 
icgolaz polygons, and all their solid angles equal; the term ia 



usually restricted to the five forms in which the centn is singly 
enclosed, viz. the Platonic solids, while the four polyhedra in 
which the centre is multiply enclosed are referred to as the 
Kepler-Poiiuot solids, Kepler having discovered three, while 
Pbinsot discovered the fourth. Another group of polyhedra 
are termed the *' Archimedean solids," named after Archimedes, 
who, according to Pappus, invented them. These have faces 
which are all regular polygons, but not all of the same kind, 
while all their solid angles are eqiuiL These figures are often 
termed " semi-regular solids," but it is more convenient to restrict 
this term to solids having all their angles, edges and faces equal, 
the latto*, however, not being r^^ular polygons. 

Platonic Solids. The names of these five solids are: (t) the 
tetrahedron,- encksed by four equilateral txiangles; (3) the cube 
or hexahedron, enclosed by 6 squares; (3) the octahedron, 
enclosed by 8 equilateral triangles; (4) the dodecahedron, en- 
closed by X3 pentagons; (5) the iccoahedron, enclosed by 20 
equilateral triangles. 

The first three wero certainly known to the Egyptians; and 
it b probable that the icosahedron and dodecahedron were added 
by the Greeks. The cube may have originated by placing three 
equal squares at a common vertex, so as to form a trihedral angle. 
Two such setscanbe pUced so that the free edges are brought 
into coincidence while the vertices are kept dbtinct. This 
solid has therefore 6 faces, 8 vertices and X2 edges. The equi- 
lateral triangle b the basb of the tetrahedron, octahedron and 
icosahedron.' If three equilateral triangles be placed at a 
common vertex with their covertical sides coinddent in pairs, 
it is seen that the base b an equal equilateral triangle; hence four 
equal equilateral triangles enclose a space. This solid has 4 
faces, 4 vertices and 6 edges. In a similar manner, four covertical 
equilateral triangles stand on a square base. Two such sets placed 
base to base form the octahedron, which consequently has 8 
faces, 6 vertices and x 2 edges. Five equilateral triangles coverti- 
cally placed woUld stand on a pentagonal base, and it was found 
that, by forming several sets of such pyramids, a solid could be 
obtained which had 20 triangidar faces, whidi met in pairs to 
form 30 edges, and in fives to form 13 vertices. Thb b the 
icosahedron. That the triangle could give rise to no other solid 
followed from the fact that six coverticaUy placed triangles formed 
a plane. The pentagon b the basb of the dodecahedron. Three 
pentagons may be placed at a common vertex to form a solid 
angle, and by forming several such sets and placing them in 
juxtaposition a solid b obtained having X2 pentagonal faces, 
30 edges, and 20 vertices. 

These solids played an important part in the geometry of the 
Pythagoreans, and in their cosmology symbolized the five de- 
menU: fire (tetrahedron), air (ocUhedron), water (icosahedron), 
earth (cube), universe or ether (dodecahedron). They were 
also discussed by the Platonbts, so much so that they became 
known as the " Platonic solids." Euclid discusses them in the 
thirteenth book of hb Elemenls, where he proves that no more 
regular bodies are possible, and shows how to inscribe them in a 
sphere. Thb Utter problem received the attention of the 
Arabian astronomer Abul Wefa (loth century A.D.), who solved 
it with a single opening of the compasses. 

MauuraUon of the Platonic Solids. — ^The mensuration of the regular 
polyhedra b readily investigated by the methods of elemenury 
geometry, the property that these soUds may be inscribed in and ' 
circumscribed to concentric spheres being espedally usef uL 

If F be the number of faces, n the number of edges per face, m 
the number of faces per vertex, and / the length of an edge, and- if 
we denote the angle between two adjacent faces by I, the area by A. 
the volume by V7 the radius of the circura-sphcrc by R, and of the 
in-sphere by r, the following general formulae hold, a being written 
for 2W». and for 2»/m: — 

Sin il - cos fif sin a; tan fl -cos 0/{sux* a -cos^ 0) }. 

A-}/>iiFcot a. 


V-irA-j^/s» F tan )! cot« « 

-W'nFcot'acosMsin'tt- 

R-i/un )I tan ^-i/ un ^/(stn* «-cos> 0)1 


"itPn F cot' « cos 0/(sin* e-cos^ 0)\. 

-i/un )I tan ^-i/ un ^/(stn* «-cos> ^, 

f -1/ tan \l cot g- j/ cot e cos g/(sin« a-cos* 0)h. 


> In the language of Proclus, the commentator: " The equilateraj 
triangle is the proximate cause of the three elements, * fire,* air and 
' water '; but the square b annexed to the * earth.* " 


28 


POLYHEDRON 

The following Table gives the value* ol A. V. R. r for the five Polybedra>— 



A. 
Area. 

Volume 
V. 

Radius of Circum-spbere. 

Radius of In-sphere. 
r. 

Tetrahedron 

(1-7321 P) 

/»/6Vi 
(oii785/») 

r V6/4 

I.V6/12 

Cube 

6/» 

/• 

rv3/» 

¥ 

Octahedron 

/».aV3 
(SA642P) 

(0-47140 /•) 

l/Va 

INS 

Dodecahedron .... 

/•.isVd+aVs) 

Uo-64578 P) 

"■'^.^tnVA"*" 

/.WI(5+3V5)/»I 

I.V|t«>+iiV5)/40| 

Icosahedron 

>5V3 

(86605 h 

" •ji'.?.ra>'" 

^WI(5+V5)/a| 

^WI(7+3V5)/6| 


jilid h clotibly encloMd by the fires. 
r^ikncd by toe Inteiwct^Dni oJ the 
■ PUtonic kooahfdirofi i" ^t^'- ■ ' its 


KepUr-Poiruol Pdykedra.—Thent solids have all their faces 
equal regular polygons, and the angles at the vertices all equal. 
They bnr a< relation to the Platonic solids similar to the 
relation of "star polygons" to ordinary regular polygons, 
inasmuch as the centre is multiply enclosed in the former 
and singly in the latter. Four tuch solids exist: (1) small 
steUated dodecahedron; (2) great dodecahedron; (3) great 
stellated dodecahedron; (4) great icosahedron. Louis Poinsot 
discussed these solids in hU memoir, " Sur les polygones et les 
poly6dres " {Joum. ^ote poly, [iv.] 1810), three of them having 
been previously considered by Kepler. They were afterwards 
treated by A. L. Cauchy ijoum. £coU pdy. [ix.] 18x3), who 
showed that they were derived from the Platonic solids, and 
that no 'more than four were possible. A. Cayley treated 
them in several papers (e.g. PkU. Mag,, 1859, 17, p. 123 seq.), 
considering them by means of their projections on the 
drcumsciibing sphere and not, as Cauchy, in solido. 

The JBKtK MeUaUd td^^tatkedron \t Tornicd by itclUtintt ific PLatooic 
doUi^axhedftiii (by *• ttFllatin^ " is tnesnt dcvdGpin^ itw facca con- 
[iGUOUB to a KiccifiMi Uuc lO as to foriti 4 t^ulsf pyr*mid>. It lias 
1 J pemagtuiaf faces, ami jocdgcs^ ififhicb interact in fivta to toim 12 
vurtkci Each vertcK j» Blirgty cndo^d by t\vs five facci; the 
centre ot each facp is. doyblv cnctoscd by ibe uicccuion of Uccs ;tbfjut 
th<t face* and the centre of ttie sfjilid h clotibl] 
Thtf treat dodtcaht^dfoit is dctcrmi 
t*clvc pla^fs^ whtth inicriixt the ] 

edecȣ or each fAce haa the same boiiitditnei u th les 

of fiv^ covert Iral facw of the icosahcitnjd. It i« t! cal 

ixt bcbw} of the smstt stetlatcd drKjctahtdftm, I.. tcx 

b doubly cfictoflcd by ihe succetilod of covertical faccia, v,V,\<~ ?hc 
cettttT ot the sotid it triply enclosed by the fice^ The £rtal itf-i'-.Ud 
^ffdemhtdt^n 19 fomjed by stclUtin^t the f*cw of a p^ai dodti.ihe- 
dfTtn, It ba^ J 3 fftcew, *hkh ineet in 30 cdgea; these Interne [ in 
threei to form ao vertices. Each verted in smgly enclosed by the 
tuccession di faces about h : and the cenEre of the solid m au.id m |>ly 
eDcloied by the lact.**, The p-aU fce^joAAirM ia the reciprwil of 
tbe gnat iiTcUated dodecahedron. Each ot the twenty irianKular 
fa££i subtend at the centre the same angle ai la Biibtend[>d b> [our 
whole and six haU fjices of the l^bionk icowhedrcm; in other w :.fci», 
the solid is detef mined by Ch« twenty planes which can be dr^vn 
through the Vertkes of the three tAces conti^ous to any fjco of 
a riatonLc icosahedroa. The centre of the soLd ia vcptuply encJi&sed 
by the l^aces. 

A connexion between the number of face*t veittcca and edges of 
re^lar polyhcdra was discovered by Eulcfn and the rtsuk. »fi«h 
afiiiniea the form E + a = F + V» whfft E, F, V are the nimil>er 
of edges, faces and vcnlee*. U knoini as EuJcrV thforem on [-ly- 
bedni. Tlii* formula only hold* \m the Pbtonic *olid>. Piiniot 
gave the formula E + J* »■ tV + ¥, in whkh * it the numUr of 
timet the projedlon* of the faces from the ten in? on t<s the surfice 
of the ciTCumstriliTiy sphere make up the spJierieal surfaee, the ;irea 
of i fteltatcd face being n^koned once, nndf is the ratia " anEl^efi at a 
l*Wteit lut*' ttt projected on ihc sphere, E, V, F being the same at 
before. Ciylry gave the form tj la E 4- 3D - fV + f'F. where 
#, E* y, F are the laTue is before, is the lamc nii Poinsot "a k \^ith 
the djttincti^sn that the area of a jtelbtcd face is rfckoned as ific ■^um 
of the irianEles having thrir veftkes at the centre of the fate und 
standinf on the rides, and (f* is the ratio 1 " tbe ini^lei subtended at 
the centre of a fare by IM sides /».'* 

The follow ini[ table nive* theie eonstAiiti fof the Prgtifar poly- 
h«dn; ■ denatea the number of ndes to a face. Hi the nuiaber of Isces 
toa vertex ^— 



F 

V 

E 

II 

Hi 

§ 

• 

D 

* 

Tetrahedron 

Cube 

Ocuhedron 

Dodecahedron 

Icosahedron .... 

% 

8 
la 
20 

J 

6 
20 

12 

6 
12 
12 

30 
30 




1 


1 

1 
1 
1 

I 

Small stellated dodecahedron . 
Great dodecahedron . . . 
Great stellated dodecahedron . 
Great icoMhedron . . . . 

la 
la 
12 
20 

12 
12 
20 
12 

30 
30 
30 
30 



2 

2 
I 
2 


2 
3 
4 

7 


Archimedean SoUds.—Thtat solids are characterized by 
having all their angles eqtial and all their faces regular 
polygons, which are not all of the same specica. Thirteen ■ 
such solids exist. - 

1. The tnauaUd Utrakedron is formed by truncating the vertices 
of a regular tetrahedron so as to leave the original faces hexagons. 
(By the truncation of a vertex or edge we mean the cutting away of 
the vertex or edge by a pbne making coual angles with alTthe faces 
composing the vertex or with the two faces forming the edge.) It 
is bounded by 4 triangular and 4 hexagonal faces; there are 18 edges, 
and 12 vertices, at each of which two hexagons and one triangle are 
coverticaL 

2. The c u boctahedron is a tesserescae-decahedron (Gr. T«w«ptt-«u- 
bmOf fourteen) formed by truncatins the vertices of a cube so as to 
leave the original faces squares. It is enclosed by 6 square and 
8 triangular faces, the latter belonging to a coaxial octahedroo. It 
it a common crystal form. 

X. The truncated atbe is formed in the same manner as the 
cuboctahedron. but the truncation 19 only carried far enough to 
leave the original faces octagons. It has 6 octagonal faces 
(belonging to the original cube), and 8 triangular ones (belongbg to 
the coaxial octahedron). 

4. The truncated octahedron b formed by truncating the vertices 
of an octahedron so as to leave the original faces hexagons; con- 
sequently it is bounded by 8 hexagonal and 6 square faces. 

5. 6. Rhombicuboctahedrtt. — ^Two Archimedean solids of 26 
faces arc derived from the coaxial cube, octahedron and semi- 
retnilar (rhombic) dodecahedron (see below). The " small rhombi- 
cuDoctahedron " is bounded by 12 pentagonal. 8 triansular and 
6 st^uare faces; the " great rhombicuboctahcdra " by 12 oecagonal, 
8 triangular and 6 square faces. 

7. The icosidodecahedren or dyocaetriacontahedron (Gr. hrotmt' 
TfiLbmro, thirty-two), is a 32-faced solid, formed by truncating the 
vertices of an icosahedron so that the original faces become triangles. 
It is enclosed by 20 triangular faces belonging to the original icosa- 
hedron, and 12 pentagonal faces belonging to the coaxial dodecahe- 
dron. 

8. The truncated icosahedron is formed similariy to the icosidode- 
cahedron, but the truncation b only carried far enough to leave the 
original faces hexagons. It is therefore enclosed by 20 hexagonal 
faces belon^ng to the icosahedron, and 12 pentagonal faces belonging 
to the coaxial dodecahedron. 

. 9. The truncated dodecahedron is formed by truncatine the vertices 
of a dodecahedron parallel to the faces of the coaxial icosahedron 
so as to leave the former decagons. It is enclosed by 20 triangular 
faces belonging to the icosahe<mm and 12 decagons belonging 4o the 
dodecahedron. 

la The snub cube is a 38-faoed solid having at each comer 4 tri- 
angles and I square; 6 faces belong to a cube, 8 to the'coaxial 
octahedron, and the remaining 24 to no regular solid. 

II, 12. The rhonMcosidodScahedro. — ^Two 62-faced solids are 
derived from the dodecahedron, icosahedron and the semi-regular 


POLYMETHYLENES 


29 


are 12 pentagonal faces bcbneing to the dodecahedron, 20 triangub 
faces belonging to the icosaheoron and 30 sauare facrs bclongini 
to the triacontahedron. In the " great rhombicosidodccahedron 


triacootahedron. In the " small rhombicosidodccahedron " there 

) triangular 
I belonging 
" great rhombicosidodccahedron 
the dodecabedzal faces are decagons, the icoeahedral hexagons 
and the triacontahedral sauares; this solid is lomctinws callea the 
** truncated icosidodecahearon." 

13. The snub dodecahedron is at03>faced solid having 4 triangles 
ana a pentagon at each comer. The pentagons belong to a dodeca- 
hedron, and 20 triangles to an icosahedron ; the remaining 60 triangles 
belong to no regular solid. 

Semi-tepdar PofjrAetfra.— Although this term b frequently 
given to the Archimedean solids, yet it is a convenient de- 
notation for solids which have all their angles, faces, and edges 
equal, the faces not being regular polygons. Two such solids 
exist: (i) the "rhombic dodecahedron," formed by trun- 
cating the edges of a cube, is bounded by za equal rhombs; it 
b a common crystal form (see Crystallography); and (2) the 
** semi-regular triacontahedron." which b enclosed by 30 equal 
rhombs. 

The interr^tions of the polyhedra enumerated above are con- 
adcrably elucidated by the intfxxluction of the following terms: 
(1) Correspondence. Two polyhedra correspond when the ladii 
vectofcs from their centres to the mid-point of the edges, centre qf 
the faces, and to the vertices, can be brought into coincidence. (3) 
ReciprocaL Two polyhedra are reciprocal when the faces and ver- 
tices of one oorremond to the vertices and faces of the other. (3) 
SummHal or faciai. A polyhedron (A) b said to be the summital 
or facial holohedron of another (B) when the faces or vertices of A 
correspood to the edges of B, and the vertices or faces of A corre- 
nond to the vertices and faces together of B. U) Hemikedral. 
A polyhedron b said to be the hemihedral form of another poly- 
hedron when its faces correspond to the alternate faces of the latter 
or holohedral fonn; consequently a hemihedral form has half the 
namber of faces of the holohedral form. Hemihedral forms are of 
special importance in crystallographv, to which article the reader 
b referred for a fuller explanation 01 these and other modifications 
of polyhedra (tetartohodral, enantiotropic, &c.). 

It b readily seen that the tetrahedron b its own reciprocal, t.«. 
it is self-reciprocal; the cube and ocuhcdron. the dodecahedron and 
icosahedron, the small stelbtcd dodecahedron and great dodeca- 
hedron, and the great stelbted dodecahedron and great icosahedron 
are examples of reciprocals. We mav also note that of the Archime- 
dean solids: the truncated tetrahedron, truncated cube, and trun- 
cated dodecahedron, are the reciprocals of the crystal forms triakis- 
tetrahedron, triakisoctahcdron and trbkisicosahedron. Since the 
tetrahedron b the heinihedral form of the octahedron, and the octa- 
hedron and cube are reci p rocal, we may term these twro btter solids 
" r eci p roc a l holohedra " of the tetrahedron. Other examples of 
rodprocal holohedra are: the riiombic dodecahedron and cubocta- 
bcdron, with regard to the cube and octahedron; and the semi- 
regular trbcootahedron and icosidodecahcdron, with rceard to the 
dMecahedron and kosahcdron. As examples of facbl holohedra 
we may notice the small rhombicuboctahedron and rhombic dode- 
cahedron, and the small rhombicosidodccahedron and the semi- 
regular triacontahedron. The correspondence of the faces of poly- 
hedra b also of importance, as may be seen from the manner in which 
one polyhedron may be derived from another. Thus the faces 
of the cuboctahedron, the truncated cube, and truncated octahe- 
dron, corre sp ond; likewise with the truncated dodecahedron, trun- 
catea icosahedron, and icosidodecahedron; and with the small and 
great rfaombicoadodecahedFa. 

The general theory of polyhedra properly belongs to combinatorial 
aaalysisL The determination of the number of dilTerent polyhedra 
of n faces, te. »-hedrons, b reducible to the problem: In how many 
ways cam multiplets, i^. triplets, quadruplets, &c., be made with n 
symbols, so that (i) every contiguous pair of symbols in one multtplet 
are a contiguous pair in some other, the first and bst of any mul- 
tjplet being considered contiguous, andifa) no three symbols in any 
nultiplet shall occur in any other. This problem b treated by 
the Rev T. P. Kirkman in the Manehesier Memoirs (185s. 1857- 
i860); and in the PkO. Trans. (1857). . _ 

See Max Brikkner, Videck* ttrnf Vidfiacks (1900); V. Eberhard. 
Zmr MorpkOogie der Pelyeder (1891). 

POLTMBTHTUMBS, in chembtry, cyclic compounds, the 
simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of 
general formuk CJIftii where n may be i to 9, and known as 
tri-, tetn-, penta-, heza-, and hepU-methylene, &c., or eyclo- 
propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c: — 


Clycl#-propaae, -butane, -pentone. 

The nantiinted memben of the aeries are named on the 


Geneva system in which the termination -one b repbced hy-ene, 
•dienc, -tricne, according to the number of double linkages in 
the compound, the position of such double linkages being 
shown by a numeral immediately following the suffix -ene; 
for example I. b methyl-cyc/o-hexadiene — x. 3. An alterna- 
tive method employs A. v. Baeyer's symbol A. Thus 
A 2*4 indicates the presence of two double bonds in 
the molecule situated immediately after the carbon atoms 
2 and 4; for example II. b A 2-4 dihydrophthalic acid. 

^ CHCH ^ .C(CO.H):ffiv 

(6)^(5) (6) (5) 

As to the stability of these compounds, most trimethylene 
derivatives are comparatively unstable, the ring being broken 
fairly readily; the tetramethylene derivatives are rather more 
stable and the penta- and hexa-methylene compoimds are very 
stable, showing little tendency to form open chain compounds 
under ordinary conditions (see Chemistry: Organic) 
. Isomerism. — No isomerism can occur in the moHosubstitution 
derivatives but ordinary position Isomerism exists in the di- 
and poly-substitution compounds. Stereo-isomerism may 
occur: the simplest examples are the dibasic acids, where a cis- 
(malcinoid) form and a trans- (fumaroid) form have been ob- 
served. These isomers may frequently be dbtinguished by 
the facts that the or-adds yield anhydrides more readily than 
the Iraiu-adds, and are generally converted into the Iraiu-acids 
on heating with hydrochloric add. O. Aschan (B«r., 1903, 35, 
p. 3389) depicU these cases by representing the plane of the 
carbon atoms of the ring as a straight line and denoting the 
substituted hydrogen atoms by the letters X, Y, Z. Thus for 
dicarboxylic adds (C0|H - X) the possibilities are represented by 

^^-^ (cb), ^^f (tians), x-^ (I). 

The trans compound is perfectly asymmetric and so iu mirror 
image (I) should exbt, and, as all the trans compounds syn- 
thctlcaUy prepared are optically inactive, they are presumably 
racemic compounds (see O. Aschan, Chemie der aiicyklischen 
Verbindungen, p. 346 seq.). 

General Methods of Formation. — Hydrocarbons may be ob- 
tained from the dlhalogen paraffins by the action of sodium or 
zinc dust, provided that the halogen atoms are not attached 
to the same or to adjacent carbon atoms (A. Frcund, Monats., 
x882,3,p. 625; W. H. Perkin, jun., Joum. Chen. Soc., 1888, 53, 
p. 213) ^- 

CH;:CH!:B;+^N-^NaBr-fg{};:g|};; 

by the action of hydriodic add and phosphorus or of phos- 
phonium iodide on benzene hydrocarbons (F. Wreden, Ann., 
1877, 187, p. 153; A. V. Baeyer, ibid., 1870, 155, p. 266), ben- 
zene giving methylpentamethylene; by passing the vapour of 
benzene hydrocarbons over finely divided nickd at 180-250" C. 
(P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens, Comptes rendus, 1901, 132, p. 
2 10 seq.); and from hydrazines of the type CHsm.i*NH-NHi 
by oxidation with alkaline potassium ferricyanide (N. Kijncr, 
Joum, prak. Chem., 1901, 64, p. 113). Unsaturated hydro- 
carbons of the series may be prepared from the corre- 
sponding alcohob by the elimination of a molecule of water, 
using dther the xanthogenic ester method of L. Tschugacff 
(B<r. 1899, 32, p. 3332): CH>._,ONa->C.Hto-iOCS SNa(R) 
->C»Ht»-a+COS+RSH; or simply by dehydrating with 
anhydrous oxalic add (N. Zelinsky, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3249); 
and by eliminating the halogen acid from mono- or di-halogen 
polymethylene compounds by heating them with quinoline. 

Alcohols are obtained from the corresponding halogen com- 
pounds by the action of mobt sQver oxide, or by warming them 
with silver aceUte and acetic add; by the reduction of ketones 
with metallic sodium; by passing the vapours of monohydric 
phcnob and hydrogen over finely divided nickd (P. Sabatier and 
J. B. Senderens, loc. of.); by the reduction of cydic esters with 


30 


POLYMETHYLENES 


sodium and alcohol (L. Bouveault and G. Blanc, CompUs rendus, 
19031 136, p. 1676; 137, p. 60); and by the addition of the 
elements of water to the unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons on 
boiling with dilute acids. 

Aldehydes and Ketones.—Tht aldehydes are prepared in the 
usual manner from primary alcohols and acids. The ketones 
are obuined by the dry distillation of the calcium salts of di- 
basic saturated aliphatic acids (J. Wislicenus, Ann,, 1893, 275, 
p, 3og): (CH, CH,COJiCa-»(CH,CH,J,CO; by the action of 
sodium on the esters of adds of the adipic and pimelic acid 
scries (W. Dieckmann, Ber., 1894, 27, pp. 103, 2475): — 

CH,CH,CH,CO|R CHrCHrCH,. 

CHrCHrCCR XHrCHiCO * 

by the action of sodium ethylate on j-ketonic acids (D Vor- 
linder, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2348): — 

ch/ *' Nx>iH-» CH< '' N:o, 
xrocH, x:ocH,/ 

from sodio-malonic ester and a3-unsaturated ketones or keionic 
esters: — 


(RO.C),CH,+PhCH K:HCO-CH.-#PhCH( 


/CH. 


COv 


:h,; 


™\:h(co,r).cck 

from aceto-acetic ester and esters of ai3-unsaturaled acids, 
followed by elimination of the carboxyl group: — 

<CH,.CRV 
>CHCO,R; 
CHrCO ^ 

by the condensation of two molecules of aceto-acetic ester with 
aldehydes followed by saponification (E. Knoevenagel, Ann., 
1894, 281, p. 25; 1896, 288, p. 321; Ber.f 1904, 37, P- 4461) ^- 

XHrCHR'v 
aCHrCO.CH«CQiR+OHC.R'-»CH,C<; >CH,. 

V:h — CO "^ 

from t-5-diketones which contain a methyl group next the 
keto-group (W. Keip, Ann,, 1896, 290, p. 123).— 
yCHrC(CH,W 
3CH,C0CHr-»(CH,),C<C /CH ; 

by the condensation of succinic add with sodium ethylate, fol- 
lowed by saponification and elimination of carbon dioxide: — 

and from the condensation of ethyl oxalate with esters of other 
dibasic acids in presence of sodium ethylate (W. Dieckmann, 
Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1470; 1899, 32, p. 1933):— 

CO.R vCCR COCH^^^ 

to»K x:o,r"* co-ch/ *■ 

Acids may be prepared by the action of dihalogen parafTms on 
sodio-malonic ester, or sodio-aceto-acctic ester (W. H. Pcrkin, 
jun., Joum. Chem. Soc., 1888, 53, p. X94):— 

C,H4Br,-l-2NaCH(CO,R),->(CH0aC(COiR),-fCH,(CO»R),; 
ethyl butane tetracarboxylate is also formed which may be 
converted into a tetramethylene carboxylic ester by the action 
of bromine on its disodium derivative (W. H. Perkin and 
Sinclair, ibid., 1829, 6x, p. 36). ,Thc esters of the acids may 
also be obtained by condensing sodio-malonic ester with 
a-halogen derivatives of unsaturated adds: — 

CHrCH : CBrC0iR4-NaCH(C0kR)r-^H,CH<J 

x:(COiR)t 
by the action of diazomethane or diazoacetic ester on the esters 
of unsaturated adds, the p3rra2oline carboxylic esters so formed 
losing nitrogen when heated and 3rielding acids of the cydo- 
propane series (E. Buchner, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 703; Ann., 1895, 
284, p. 212; H. V. Pechmann, Ber., 1894, 27, p. 1891): — 

CHCCR NiNCHCQiR yCHCQjR 

CH,N,+ I -♦ I I -♦H,C< ; 

CHCQiR HiC— CHCQiR XIHCOiR 

and by the Grignard reaction (S. Malmgren, Ber., 1903, 36, pp. 
668, 2622; N. Zelinsky, ibid., 1902, 35, p. 2687). 


Cydo-pr opafK Croup. 

Trimetkylene, C|H(, obtained by A. Frcund {MirtuUs., 1882, j. 
p. 625) by healing trimechylene bromide with sodium, is a gas, which 
may be liquefied, the Ikiuid boiling at —35,^ C. (749 mmj. It dis- 
solves gradually in concentrated sulphuric acid, forming propyl 
sulphate. Hydriodic acid converts it into n-propyl iodide. It ts 
decomposed by chlorine in the presence of sunlight, with explosive 
violence. It is stable to cold potassium permanganate. 

Cyclo-ffropam carboxylu actd, CiH»*CO:H, is prepared by heatinsp 
the i.i-aicarboxylic acid; and by the hydrolysis of us nitrile, formed 
by heating Y-chlorbutyro-nitrile with potash (L. Henry and P. Dalle, 
Chem. Centralhlatt, 1901, I, p. 1357. 1902, f , p. 913) It is a colour- 
less oil, moderately soluble in water. 

The 1.1 dicarboxyltc actd is prepared from ethylene dibromkle and 
sodio-malonic ester. The ring is split by sulphuric or hydrobrom^ 
acids. The cu 1 .2<yc\o-propttHe dtcarboxyitc acid is formed bv elimi- 
nating carbon dioxide from cyclo-propaMe tricarboxylic acid -1.2.3 
(from a^-dibrompropionic ester ana sodio-malonic ester). The 
lran«-add is produced on healing pyrazolin-4.5-dicarboxylic ester,, 
or by the action of alcoholic potash on o-bromglutaric ester. It 
does not yield an anhydride. 

Cydo-buiane Croup. 
Cydo-butane, CSh was obtained by R. VVillstfitter (Bcr., 1907. 
40, p. 3979) by the reduction of cyclobutcne by the Sabatier aiuS 
benoerens method. It is a colourless liquid which boils at 11-12* C, 
and its vapour bums with a luminous flame. Reduction at 180- 
300* C. by the above method gives R-butane. 

Cyclo-butene, C«H6, formed by distilling irimethyl-cyc£9-butyl- 
ammonium hydroxide, boils at 1.5-2.0" C. (ace N. Zclinsky, ibKL, 
p. 4744; G. Schwctcr, ibid., p. 1601). 

When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide 
the chief product is ethyl penune tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene 
l.i-dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free 
acid may be obtained on hydrolysis. It melts at 154-1^* C, 
losing carbon dioxide and passing into cyc/o-butane carboxylic acid, 
CiHTCOtH. This basic acid yields a monobrom derivative which, 
by the action of aqueous potash, gives the corresponding hydroxys- 
cyc/o-butane carboxylic acid, C«Hc(OH)*CO|H. Attempts to dimi- 
nate water from this acid and so produce an unsaturated acid were 
unsuccessful; on warming with sulphuric acid, carbon monoxide 
is eliminated and cyc/o-butanone (keto-tetramethylene) is probably 
formed. 

The truxittic actds, CuHm04, which result by the hydrolvtic spUt- 
ting of truxilline, CmHmNjQi, are phenyl derivatives of e3K/0-butane. 
Their constitution was determined by C. Licbermann (Ber., 1888, 
31. p. 3342 ; 1889, 22, p. 124 seq.). They are polymers of cinnamic 
addf, into which they readily pass on distillation. The a-acid 
on oxidation yieMs benzoic add, whilst the /9-acid yields benxO 
in addition. The a-acid is diphenyl-2.4-c>c/o-butane dicarboxylk 
acid -1.3; and the /8-acid diphcnyl-3.4-cyclo-butane dicarboxylic 
acid -1.3. By alkalis they are transformed into sterco-isomos, 
the »4cid giving v-truxillic acid, and the /9-add <-truxillic acid. 
The a-add was synthesized by C. N. Riiber (Ber., 1902, 33. p. 241 1; 


1904, 37, p. 327|0, by oxidizing diphenyl-2.4-«yc/o-butane-bismethv- 
lene malonk acid (fron cinnamic aldehyde and malonic acki in tne 
presence of quinoliae) with potassium permanganate. 

Cyclo*p«ii/aiie Croup. 
Derivatives may be prepared in many cases by the breaking down 
of the benzene ring when it contains an accumulation of negative 
atoms (T. Zincke, B<r., 1886-1894: A. Hantzsch, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 
2780; 1889, 22. p. 1238), thb type of reaction being generally brought 
about by the action of chlorine on phenols in the presence of alkalis 
(see Chemistry: Organu). A somewhat related example is seen in 
the case of croconk acid, which is formed by the action of alkaline 
oxidizing agenu on hexa-oxy benzene. — 

HO.C.C(OH):C(OH) HOCCOCO HOCCOv^ 

HO-CC(OH) : C(OhT HOCCO CO* HO-CCO^^ 
Hexa-oxybenzene. Rhodizonic acid. Croconk add. 
Cydo-pentane, CiHio. is obtained from ryrio*pentanone by reducing 
it to the corresponding secondary alcohol, converting this into the 


by F. Wreden {Ann., 1877, 187, p. 163) by the action of hydriodk 
acid and red phosphorus on benzene, and considered to be hexidiydro- 
benzenf!, b obtained synthetically by the action of s^ium on 1*5 
dibromhexane; and by the action of magneuum on acetylbutyl 
iodide (N. Zelinsky, Ber., 1902, 35, p. 3684). It is a liquid boiling 
at 72* C. Nitrk acid (sp. er. I-43) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic 
acids. Cyc\<ypente7U, CtHt, a liquid obtained by the action of 
alcoholk potash on iodo-«yc/o-pcntane, boils at 45* C. Cydo- 
pentadiene, C»H«, is found in the first runnings from crude benzene 
distillations. It is a liquid whkh boils at 41^ C. It. rapidly po!y> 
merizes to di-cyc/0-pentadiene. The 'CHf group is very reactive 
and behaves in a similar manner to the grouping •CO*CHi*CO* in 
I open chain compounds, e.g. with aldehydes and Intones it gives the. 


POLYMETHYLENES 


3* 


ftMtmes, substances characterixed by their intense orangc-rid cotour 

HC:CH 
(J. Thiele. Ber., 1900. 33. p. 669). Pkenylf uhen, | ^C :CHPh, 

HC : CH 
oiKAined from benzaldehvde and c^^Jo-pentadiene, forms dark red 
plates. Diphenj4fubeH, from benzophenone and eyrlo-pcntadiene, 
crvstalliaes in deep red prisms. Dimetkylfuhen is an orange- 
cxJourcd oil which oxidizes rapidly on exposure. Concentrated 
sulphuric add converts it into a deep red tar. 

Cyclo-pe]«toiMm«, CsH/), first prepared pure by the distillation of 
calcium adipate (J. Wisliccnus, Ann., 1893, 375, p. 312), is also ob- 
tained by the action of sodium on the esters of pimelic acid ; by the 
distillation of calcium succinate: and by hydrolysis of the cyclo- 
pentanone carboxylic acid, obtained by condenwng adipic and 
oxalic esters in the presence of sodium ethylate. Reduction gives 
Ovio-pentanol, CtH«OH. 

Croccmic acid (diox>^>c2»>pentene-trione). C»H^», is formed when 
triquinoyl is boiled with water, or by the oxidation of hexa-oxyben- 
xene or dioxydiquinoyl in alkaline solution (T. Zincke. Ber., 1887, 
20. p. 1267). It has the character of a quinone. On oxidation it 
yields o*c^pcntane-pentanone (Uuconic acid). 

Derivatives of the cydo-pentznt group are met with in the break- 
ing-down products of the terpenes (q.v.). 

CampkoUuUme, CtHiiOi. is the lactone of trimethyl-2>2*3-o«'0- 
pentanol-s-carboxylic acid-3. For an isomer, isocampholactont 
(the Lactone of trimethyl-2'2*^-c;Kc^pentanol-3-carboxyIic acid-i) 
see W. H. Peridn, jun., Proc. Ckem. Soc., 1903. 19. p. 61. Laurondic 
mcid, CtHi/V is trimethyl-2*2*3-<ycto-pentene-4-acid-i. IsUaurih 
ndic add, C^H^Oi, is trimcthyl-2*2*3-c)wA>-pentene-3-acid*4. 

Camphoiic acid^ CiaHi^. is tetramethyl-i*2>2>3-c>e/o-pentane 
acid-3. Campkononic acid, CtHiiOt. is trimethyl-2*2-3-cycto-penta- 
none- 1 -carboxylic add-3. CampkorPkoroHt, CfHuO, is methyl-2- 
isobuty-lene-5-<>c/0-pentanone-l. Isotkujoiu, C|»H|/), is dim- 
ethyl-i'2-isopropyl-3-cyc<o-pentene-i-one-5. (F. W. Semmler, Ber., 
1900. 33. P- »75-) 

L. Bouveault and G. Blanc (CompUs rendus, 190^, 136. p. 1460), 
prepared hydrocarbons oC the cyc/o-pentane sencs from cyclo- 
iiexanc compounds by the exhaustive methylation process of A. W. 
Hofmann (see Pyridine). For phenvl derivatives of the cycUh 
pentane group see F. R. japp, Jour. Cnem. Soc., 1897, 71. pp. 139. 
14A: H. Scobbe, Ann., 1901, 314, p. in; 315. p. 319 seq.; 1903, 
520, p. 347. 

Cydo-hexane Croup. 

H^fdrocathous. — Cydo-AcxaM, or hexahydro beniene, C«Hii, is 
obtained bv the action of sodium on a boiling alcoholic solution of 
i-6-dibffomnexaiie, and by passing^ the vapour of benzene, mixed 
wit h hydrogen, over findy divided nickel. It is a liquid with an odour 
like that of benzene. It boils at 80-81* C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to 
adipic add. When heated with bromine in a sealed tube for some 
days at 150-200* C. it yields i-2-4-s-tetrabrombenzene (N. Zelinsky. 
Btr.,' 1901, 34, p. 2803). It is stable towards halogens at ordinary 
temperature. Bemene kexachUnide, C«HcCl«, is formed by the 
action of chlorine on benzene in sunlig^ht. By recrystallizatton 
from hot benzene, the « form is obtained m large prisms which melt 
at 157* C, and at their boiling-point decompose into hydrochloric 
acid and trichlorbenzene. tne fi form results by chlorinating 
boiling benzene in sunlight, and may be separated from the « variety 
by distillation in a current of steam. It sublimes at about 310* C. 
Similar varieties of benzene hexabromkie are known. 

Hexakydrecymtne (methyl- 1 -isopropyl-4-£yc/o-hexane), Ci«H», b 
important since it is the parent substance of manv terpenes {q.v.). 
It is obtained by the reduction of i '4 dibrommentnane with sodium 
0- de Montgolfier, Ann. chim. pkys., 1880 [g], 19. p. 158), or of 
cymene, limonene. Ac, by Saoatier and Senderens's inethod. 
It b a colouricss lk)uid which boils at 180* C. 

Cydo-AoBfiM (tetrahydrobenzene). C«Hit. was obulned by A. v. 
Baeyer by removii^ the elements of hydriodic acki from iodo- 
cyd^hexznt on boiling it with quinoline. It is a liquid which boils 
at 82 * C. Hypochk>rous add converts it into 2<hlor-cy(i0-hexanol- 1 , 
whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to oc/o-hexandi-ol. 

Cycky-kexadient (dihyorobenzene), C«H«. — ^Two isomers are pos- 
sible, namdy cyci0-hexadiene-i*3 and c>c/a-hexadiene-i*4. A. v. 
Baeyer obtained what was probably a mixture of the two by 
heating 1*4 dibrom-cydo-hexane with quinoline. C. Harries {Ann., 
1003, 328. p. 88) obtained them tolerably pure by the dry distillation 
of the phosphates of i*3-diamino and i'4-daroino-cyc^hexane. 
The 1*3 compound boib at 81-82* C. and on oxidation vields succinic 
and oxalic adds. The 1*4 compound also boils at 81-83* C. and on 
oxidaiion gives sucdnic and malonic acids. 

AUokids. — Cyck>-ikexaiM/, C«HiiOH. is produced by the reduction 
of the co rre spo nding ketone, or of the KMhydrin of quinite. Nitric 
acid oxidises it to adipic add. and chromic acid to evc/o-hoxanonc. 
guiniu (o«i^hexanediol-i -4) is prepared by reducing the correspond- 
uig ketone with sodium amalgam, m-, and /raiu-modifications 
being obtained whkh may be separated by their acetyl derivatives. 
PUiro^ucHe (cyici<Khcxane-triol-i'3'0 b obtained by reducing an 
aqueous solution of ohloroglucin with sodium (W. Wislicenus. Bcr., 
1894. ^7* P- 457)- Qttcrcile (cwto-hexane-pentol-i*2>3-4-5), isolated 
from acorns in 1849 by H. Bracoonot {Ann. chim. pkys. [3], 27. 


p. 392). crysuUizes in colourless prisms which melt at 234* C. When 
heated in vacuo to 240* C. it yields hydroquinone, quinone and 
pyrogallol. It b dextro-rotatory. A laevo-form occurs in the 
leaves of Cymnoma sytveslro (F. B. Power, Joum. Cktm. Soc., 1904, 
85. p. 624). 

InosUo (cydo-hexane-hexol), C«H«(OH)«. — ^The inactive form occurs 
in the muscles of the heart and in other parts of the human body. 
The J-form is found as a methyl ether in pinite (from the iuice of Ptniti 
lambertina, and of caoutchouc from i/a<eza rorUina of Madagascar), 
from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid. 
The i-form is also found as a methyl ether in quebrachite. By 
mixing the d- and /- forms, a racemic variety melting at 253* C. is 
obtained. A dimethyl ether of inactive inosite b dambonite which 
occurs in caoutchouc from Gabon. 

Ketones. — Cyclo-Aexaium<, CcHi/), b obtained by the distillation 
of caldum pimebte, and by the electrolytk reduction of phenol, 


using an alternating current. It b a colourless liquid, possessing 
a peppermint odour and boiling at 155* C. Nitric add oxidizes it 
to aaipic acid. It condenses under the influence of sulphuric acid 


to form dodecahydrotriphenylene, CisHm, and a mixture of ketones 
(C. Mannul, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 15A). J/efJh^i-cyclo-Acxoiiofie-3, 
CHfC«H/), b prepared by the hydrolvsb of pulegone. It is an 
optically active liquid which boib at 108-169* C. Homok>gues of 
menthone may be obtained from the ketone by successive treatment 
with sodium amide and alkyl halides (A. Haller, CompUs rendust 
1905, 140, p. 127). On oxidation with nitric add (sp. fc. 1*4) at 

60-70* C., a mixture of — and methyl adipic acids is obtained 

(W. Markownikoff, Ann., 1905. 136, p. 299). It can be transformed 
into the isomeric melkyl-i-cyclo-Kexanono-3 (O. Wallach, Ann., 1904, 
3^> P* 368). For meMyf-i-cydo-Aexan<m«-4, obtained by distilling 
T-methyl pimelate with lime, see O. Wallach, Ber., 1906. 39, 
p. 1492. 

Cjn:\o-tuxane-dione't'% (dihydroresordn), C«H/)t. was obtained 
by G. Merling (i4nii., 109^ 278, p. 28) by reducing resorcin in hot 
alcoholic solution with sodium amalgam. Cyc\o-kacanc-dione-i'^ is 
obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester. On reduction 
it yields quinite. It combines with benzaldehyde, in the presence 
of hydrochloric acid, to form 2-benzyl-hydroquinone. Cyclo- 
kexane-lrione-l-ys (phlorogludn) b obtained by the fusion of many 
resins and of resorcin with caustic alkali. It may be prepared 
synthetically by fusing its dkarboxylic ester (from malonic ester 
and sodio malonic ester at 145* C.) with potash (C. W. Moore, 
Joum. Chem, Soc,. IQ04, 85, p. 165). It crystallizes in prisms, which 
melt -It 218* C. \Viih feme chloride it gives a dark vblet 
col nr.it ion- It exhibits tautDmrri^ition, since in many of its 
rciic 1 lona it showi tbe propcrtica M a hydroxylic substance. 
Rhfydismk a£id {dioxyd\q,uinoy\), C|H|0«, is probably the enolic 
form of an oxypenijkcto-ryffci-licvane. It b formed by the 
reduction of triqumoy] by aquc^ui sulphurous add, or in the form 
of hi potaflAiijm iait by wnshwg put q 7 slum hexa-oxybenzene with 
alruhof {R. Met ski. Btr., 1885^ 18, pp. $1%, 1838). Triquino^ 
(hi:\A\iJ:io-cych-ht%Ane) C|0<-8H^t i-; lorraeo on oxidizing rhooi- 
zonic aciid or hcxa-oxybcnztn*. Stannous chloride reduces it to 
he^ta-^r^cybeiuene, and whi^n boilird viich water it yields croconic 
add (dio*y-£>i/tf-pcnlPTie-trioncJ. 

Cyclo- AexTH^Hfj. — Two typn of ketones are to be noted in this 
group, namely the afi and 0y ketones, depending upon the positwn 
of the double linkage in the molecule, thus: 

.CH,:CH^ ^CHCH,^ 

"•^<CH..CH.>° «^<CH..CH;«» 

(o^) ifiy) 

These two classes show characteristic differences in properties. 
For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic jpotash, the afi 
compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, 
the fi^ being unaffected; the 0y series react with hydroxylamine 
in a normal manner, the afi ykid oxamino-oximes. 

Af«<Ayl-i-cyclo-A*x«w-i-one-3, CHi'C»HtO. b obtained by condens- 
ing sodium aceto-acetate with methylene iodkle, the ester so formed 
being then hydrolysed. Isocampkorphoronc, C»H|40, b trimethyl 
i-6*6.-£yd^hcxene-i-one 6. Isocamphor, Ci«Mi/), b roethyl-i- 
isopropyl-3-cyc/o-hexene-i-one 6. 

Adas. — Hexahydrobentoic acid, C«HirC0tH. is obtained by the 
reduction of benzoic acid, or by the condensation of 1*5 dibrompen- 
tane with disodio-malonic ester. It crystallizes in small plates which 
melt at 30-31* C. and boil at 2^-7y^* C. (J. C. Lumsden, Joum. 
Chem. Soc.t 190^. 87. p. 90). The sulphochloride of the acid on 
reduction with tin and hydrochloric ado gives kexahydrotkiopkenol, 
C«HiiSH, a colourless oil whkJi boib at 158-160* C. (W. Borschc, 
Ber., 1906, 39. p. ^02). 

Qiitiiic acid, C6H7(0H)«C0iH (tetra-oxy-cycto-hexane carboxylic 
add), is found in coffee beans and in gumia bark. It crystallizes 
in colouriess prisms and is optically active. When heated to about 
250* C. it is transformed into quinide. probably a lactone, which on 
heating with baryta water gives an inactive quinic acid. 

Hexakydrophtkalic acids. C.H„(C0|H), (cycte-hcxancdicarboxylic 
adds).— Three adds of this group are known, containing the Carb- 
oxyl-groups in the I '2. 1-3, and 1*4 positions, and each exists in two 
stereo-bomeric forms {cis- and trans-). The anhydride of the cu-i'2 


32 


POLYMETHYLENES 


acid obtained byhettlnffihtanHydrHkfrf the ^njBj'flftJ. forma prisms 
which melt at 192* C. When ht^^icd wjih hydre»chbric: add h passes 
into the Irani-variety. The r^iccmk lraru-a.eid is prodtictd by the 
reduction of the dihydruhmmide of ^*-ietrahy'dmf}tiih,a.lic acid or 
A*'* dihydrophthalic ao<i. It U tpliit inta its aciive components 
by means of its ouininc sjIl (A. Iwrner and H. E. Conrad, Ber., 
I099. 3*1 p- 3<>4o)« H''^-*ihydToiiophihQli€ mtdi (fyda'heManf'i-3- 
dicarboxylic acids) are ol'i jinud by the act ion of mcthyEene iodide on 
disodio-pentane tetracarinjxylic ester tW. H, i'crkin, Joum, Chem. 
Soc., 1891, 59, p. 798); by ih^r action of trifncthylcne bromide on 
disodio-propane tetracartx>Kylic cater; and by ihc rniuction of 
isophthalic add with sodiunt amalgam, ihc Kmtskhydro acidi Bret 
formed being converted iatc hydrubrumidiri and further reduced 
(A. V. Baev-er and V. \ iUi^cr. Ann.. 1S93, 776, p 355). Them- 
and trans- lorms can be '»:F>ar;itc^l bv meant of their lodium salts. 
The /raiu-acid is a racer ~'r — ^ ". hich on healing with acetyl 

chloride gives the anhydu,:^: hj. ...« .;. .<..d. 

Hexak:fdroUrephthafic acids (cyc/o-hexane-i*4-dicarboxylic adds). 
These acids are obtained by the reduction of the hydrobromides of 
the di- and tetra-hydroterephthalic acids or by the action of ethylene 
«Kbromide on diaodio-butane tetracarboxylic acid. An important 
derivative is succino-sucdnic acid, CtH/)y(COiH)i. or c>c^bexane- 
dione-3'5-dicarboxylic add-i*4, which is obtained as its ester 
by the action of sodium or sodium ethylate on sucdnic ester (H. 
Fehllng, Ann., 1844. 49. p. 192; F. 
Hermann, Ann., 1882. 211. p. 306). 
It crystallizes in needles or prisms, and 
dissolves in alcohol to form a bright 
blue fluorescent liquid, which on the 
addition of ferric chloride becomes 
cherry red. The acid on heating loses 
COi and nves cyc/o-hexanedione-i*4. 

Tetrakydrobensoic acid (cvrlo-hexene- 
|-carboxylicadd-i),C«HfCO>H. Three 
structural isomen are possible. The 
A^ add results on boiling the A* acid 
with alkalis, or on eliminating hydro- 
bromic add from i-brom-cyc/o-hexane> 
carboxvlic add-i. The A* add is 
formea on the reduction of benzoic add 
with sodium amalgam. The A* add is 
obtained by eliminating the elements of 
water from 4-oxy-<vao-hexane-Karb- 
(W. H. Perkin, jun., Joum. 


with itttic aahvdrkJfc When boned »iih CAUStic soda it t 

to a mixturt^ ol th* A'* and fi'* <ilihydrD;;ihchalic acids. TheA*** 
add i* obtained by boiling xhe dihydrobroniiiJe of the^^'** add with 
alcoholic potash or by conilnaca boiling of the ^*'* add with 
cau&tic 100*. 

The A'^ add I9 formed when phtbolk add is reduced in the cold by 
sodium amalgam or by heating theA*'^ And ^*'* adds with caustic 
soda. The fraRj-modincarionaT a* ^ add ift produced when phthalic 
acid is reduced by sodium amalgam in the presence of acetic add. 
When heated lor some time with acetic anhydride it changes to the 
CfJ'fcifm. The traru-^icid has been rescilved by means of its 
stryehnine salts into two optically active is^merides, both of which 
reaidity pA» 10 a*"* dihydropbthalic acid (A- Neville, Joum. Chenu 
Sgc, ti$D6, Aci, p. 17+4)- 

or the dihydroierephihalEc acid*, the A'* add is obtained by heat- 
ini: t he d ibtom ide ol i h e A* t ei r^Jh yd ro acid ^ i th alcoholic potash. It 
canndt be prepared by a direct cirduction ol terephthalic acid. On 
waj-mifig with caustic soda it is converted into the A*'* add. The A*** 
acid is also obtained by the dirtct rednciion of terephthalic acid. 
Il is the mo4t stable of tht dihydrti acids. The A'** acid is obtained 
by boiling the cu- and franj- a'' acids with water, which are obtained 
on reditcmg teirphthalic: aciti with sodium amalgam in faintly alka* 
line lolutionr The rclationehipi rxLsting between the various 
hydrafihthalkC aeidi tnay be shown ai tollowa^— 


(M 


. Pamuuc AOD - 


fcU 


a9 sad a« TknuavDRO^— 


(M 


TnmAavBSO 


JAiTRmAavi 
HcxAavoiQ 


Dnvoso ( ■ — 

IByinhnmUtwItk 


lAmkfMitwUk 


ilk*-* DnVMtO (TSANS.) 
A** Duivoao (as.) 


|/«iatf>«aattM 


MDunroBO^ 


oxylic add (W. H. Perkin, jun, 
Chem. Soc., i<)04, 85, p. 431). Shikimie 
acid (t-4.6-tnoxy-A*-tctrahydrobenxoic 
acid) IS found in the fruit of JUicium 
rdifiosuM. On fusion with alkalis it 
yields para-oxybenzoic add, and nas- 
cent hydrogen reduces it to hydro- 
shikimie add. Sedanolic acid, CitH«Oa. 
which is found along with sedanonic 
acid, CiiHigOt, in the higher boiling 
fractions of celery oil, is an ortho- 

oxyamyl'A*-tetrahydrobenzoic acid, sedanonic add being ortho- 
vaIeryUA*-tetrahyarobenzoicadd(G. Ciamician and P. Silber, Ber., 
1897, y>, pp. 492, 501, 1419 seq.). Sedanolic acid readily decom- 
poses into water and its lactone aedanolid, CuHi^, the odorous 
constituent o( ctU c^' oil. 

Tetmkydritphiindn ccidi Uyth * he^ene dicarbojtylic acids), 
CtHitCOjHIij^ or the ortho-serict four acids are known. The 
A' 4cid is obtained as its anhydride by heatine the A* add to 
no' C-t or by dii^iimng hydropyromelliiic acid. Alkalirw potassium 
pcrma]ngnn4.[c ossidize* it to adipic acid. The a' acid is formed 
along with the A* acid by reducing phthalic acid with sodium 
amargsm in hot solutions^ The A^ add ejiiita in iis- and Irans- 
forms. The rrdJii-vanclj^ is produced by reducinj^ phthatic acid, 
and the fti-adU hy Tctlucm| A* * dihydmphthalic acid. 

In the mcta-si-rie*, four acidi arc al5i> known- The a* arn' :* f'^rmed 
along with the ^* (ni) add bj; reducitig isophihallr he 

t«j|f A* odd 19 fonncd by hcauns the cuidd with i, ric 

acid undcf pn-saurt. The A' scid is formed when tht ^^ j^ Jc 
c( tetfahydro rim^raid afid is distiUed tW. H* Perkin* junr., Jirum. 
Chtat. Strc., 1905, 87. p. J9j)* 

In th<? para-teriei^ three add* are- known. The A\>dd h formed 
by the direct reduction of terephthalic at id 3 by boiUng the A* acid 
With caustic Eoda; and by the reduction (in ihehcaDof A^-^ Jihydro- 
tercphihalk at id. The ^l-adrl cm^h in cit- and imts- forms; these 
are pr...iliL.:-tHl *,i,Mnif/inf,v.i^.iv in : J..- reductionof A*"* Of A*"' dibydfo- 
terephthalic adds by sodium amalgam. 

There are five possible dihydroBenzoIc adds. One was obtained 
in the form of iu amide by the reductkm of benzamide in alkaline 
solution with sodium amakam (A. Hutchinson. Ber., 1891, 34, 
p. 177). The A**' add is oStained oa oxidizing dihydrobenzalde- 
byde with silver oxide or by the reduction of mcu-trimcthyl- 
aminobenxoic add (R. WUlstitter, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1859). 

Of the dihydrophthalic adds, five are known in the ortho^eries, 
two of which are stereo-isomcrs of the cis- and Irans-typt, and a 
similar number are known in the para-serics. The A*** add is 
obtained as iu aabydride by beatiiig A*** dihydrophthalic aabydrido 


AMDOIVDM 

Ai-» DinvDio 

4. 

asTexbasvok 


S4dimm 

mmalitm 
U»0 


II Z>l»fM 
\tUokMc 
1* DlHTDSO^ 


Dnnmiit-i- 


\nydf*inmU9 


-HZXABYDSO 


n Brjfm 

Cycio-keplane Croup. 

Cyciohrptant (suberane). CtHh. obtained by the rrdiiciEon of 
subcnr'I iodidt.% is a liquid which buik at 117' C^ On treat ti^cnc 
with bromine in the presence of Aluminium bromide it give* thicliy 
pcntabrom toluene. When heated with hydriotJic acid to Sjo* Cf+ 
It gives nicthylheju methylene. On oxidation with nitric aci^J 
(sp. gr. 1-4) it yieldi pimclie acid. Disuberyl, CpHuCtHn* a thick 
oily liquid, boifing at 290-291^ C, Li obtained by llie reduction of 
subcr^l bromide. 

Cycio Afpfewe. QH^j, is obtained fiy the action of alcoholic potaih 
on su beryl iodide; And from fyc/^-heptane cartKin^vHc acidi the amide 
of which by the action of sodium hypubromiEe is converted into 
cyc/i7-heptanamine„ wEiich, \n its turn» is desiructive!y methylated 
(R. WillstJttcr, Ber., 1901. 54. ni). CvcU>A^p/jrfiefl£ iv CtH,* 
is obtained from ryc/e-heplene (Willstitter, Ix. aJ.), tt is idcntkaJ 
with the hydralropUidine^ which resulEs by the destructive meihyb- 
tion of tropane. 

Eider pent (t ri met hyl- 1 ' 4 ^-cj^J^-heptad iene i -5) , Ci dH 1 1 is prepared 
from dihydroeycarvctjL By the action of hydrobromk add (in 
glacial acetic add solution J and reduction of the resulting product 
It yields I'J-dimeihyl-^-cthylbcnjtcre CA, v. Baejxr, Btr.^ tft^?, lO, 
p. J075). tZyt.\^hfpLUrkn£ (uopilidine), CiH*. is formed on dis- 
tillinn tmpine with baryta: Jind from cvtiiivhcptadiene by forming 
its addiiton product with bfomiiic md heating this with quiooline 
to 150-160" C {R, Witliiiltten /«. CI/.). Chromic acid oJtidi«* it 
to benwic add and bcniaJdehyde. With bromine it forrr* a di- 
bromide, which %h^^ heated to ilo* C descompoaes into liydrt^ 
bromic add and bennl bromide. 

Cyclofci/Mcetwf, CiHi/)H, ii formed by the reduction of subenooe, 
and by the action of siK'cr nitrite on the hydrochloride of cydo- 
hetanamlne [N. Demjanow, CcJtiralblati, 1904^ i. p. T3I4). 

Cy<l<>fitpujn^ni {suberone). CiHi,0. is formed oi> tbe dis- 
till atidci of suberic add witli lime, and from A-broTfi-O'do- heptane 
carboiylic odd by treatment «ith baryta and subsequent diitilila- 
tien ovcf kad pcrrHcide (K. Vi-'lllsiUtter, B^r^ 1S98, jt* p, 3507). 
It is a colouHm liquid having a peppermint odour, and boiling 
at 17% ,^179-5^ C. Nitric acid oxadixcs it u» R-pimclii: adC 


POLYNESIA 


33 


TVv^ibM. CtHwO. 19 obtained in small quantities by tbe disttllation 
of c-methyltTopine metliyl liydroxide, and 1^ tlie liydrolyns ol fi- 
oethyltropidine witli dilute hydrochloric acid. It is an oOy liquid, 
with an odoitr resembling that of benzaldehyde. It fonns a benxal 
compound, and gives an oyxroethvlene denvative and cannot be 
ondoed to an aad, reactions which |>oint to it being a ketone con- 
taining the grouping -CHfCO-. It is thus to be regarded as a 
QKZo-heptene- 1 -ooe-7. 

Cyclo-JhrMiM carboxylic acid (suberanic acid), CtHiiCOiH, is 
obtained by the reduction o( epfc/o-heptene-i-carboxylic acid; 
from bnMn-cydo-heptane by the Gnenard reaction; and by the re- 
duction of hvdrotroptlidine carboxyfic acid by sodium in alcoholic 
solution (R. wilUtSLtter, ficr., i8g8, 31, p. aso^- '^^^ corresponding 
oxyadd is obtained by the hydrolysis 01 the nitrile, which is formed 
by the addition of hydrocyanic acid to suberone (A. Spiegel, Ann., 
1882, 311, p. 117). 

Four cjnOff-heptene carboxylic adds are known. CydO'kef4efU-i- 
carboxjdic add-t is prepared from oxysuberanic aod. This acid 
when neated with coiKcntrated hydrochloric add to iao-130* C. 
yields a chlor-add, which on warming with alcoholic potash is tnuis- 
tormed into the cyeb-heptene compound. Cycio-hepint€'2-carbox:^ic 
add-i is formed by the reduction of cycfo-heptatriene a-4-6<arb- 
oacylic acki-i. On boiling with caustic soda it isomerises to the 
corresponding i-add. 

Cytio^ptairiau earboxylic acids, CtHtCOsH. All four are 
known. According to F. Bucbner {Ber„ 1898, 31, p. 3342) they may 
be represented as Follows :— 

<3 6 6 6 


The A-octii (a-isophenylacetic add) is obuined by the hydrolysis 


: ester m an 


acid is foiroed bv strongly heating pseudophcnyla<xtic 

air-free sealed tube and nydrolysing the resulting /^isophenvlacetic 

ester. y-lMpkeitylaceiic acid is obuined by heating the fi and 8 


r with dilute caustic soda (A. Einhom, Ber., 1893, 26, 

Ninneroas amimMlerivatives of the c>«lo-heptane series have been 
prepared l^ R. V^lstfttter in the course of his investigations on the 
oocistitution of tropine (q.v.). AmituxyclO'keptaiu (suberylamine) 
is obtained fav the reduction of suberone oxime or by the action of 
todtnm bypoDromite on the amide of cydoheptane carboxylic add. 

Cydo-cctane Croup, 
Few members of this group are knowm By tbe distillation of the 
" " 163) 


late to oxysubcric add. It is apparently c>do-octanone 
also W. Miller and A. Tschitschkin, Centraiblatt, 1899. 3., 
p. 181). 

Pteudopdletierine (methyl granatonine). GHuNO, an alkaloid of 
Che jtonegranate, is a derivative of ey^o-ocune, and resembles 
tropine in that it contains a nitrogen bridge between two carbon 
atoms. It is an inactive base, and also has ketonic properties. 
On coddation it yidds methyl granatic ester, which, by the exhaustive 
methyiatioo process, is convoted into homopiperylene dicarboxylic 
cater, HOiC-CH:CH-CHi<:H,<:H.-CHCO.H, from which suberic 
add may be obtained on reduction. When reduced in alcoholic 
solutioa Dv means of sodium amalgam it yields methyl granatoline, 
QHiK>H-NCHi; this substance, on oxidation with cold potassium 
permanganate, is converted into granatoline. QHitNO, which on 
iSstiUatioa over doc dust yields pyridine. Methyl granatoline on 
treatmeot with hydriodic add and red phosphorus, followed by 
cansdc pottsh, jri^ls methyl gtanatinine, CvHiiN, which when heated 
with hydriodic add and phosphorus to 340* C. is converted into 
methylnanatanine, CaHt4-NCHi. and granatanine, QH14NH. The 
bydroduoride of the latter base when distilled over aoc dust yields 
•-pn^y! pyridine. By the dectrolytic reduction of pseudopellet- 
ienxK, i\r-methyl granatanine is obtained, and this by exhaustive 
methylation is converted into A\{»-dimethyI granatanine. This 
Utter compound readily forms an iodmethylate, which on treatment 
widi silver onde yidds the corresponding -ammonium hydroxide. 
Tlse ammonium hydroxide on distillatioo decom p oses into trinethyl- 
Moiae. matar and eydatxtauHeat'i 3. 

CHi-CH— CHt CHiCH— CH. CH, — CH--CH. 
CHiNMe Co -*tHaKMe CHt -*(JHsHO I^MeiCHt -« 
CttttH-^Ht <SH,-CH-CH, CHt— <iH-CH. 
i/-methyl 


CHi-CH-CH« CH, — CH-CH, CHa-CHiCH 
CHt (^Me CHs-CHdaO- KMeiCHtt-CHt CH 

CHtCH-CH CH, — Ch-Ch Ch,<:h,<:H 

A-^d»-methyl fytioK)ctadiene 

granatanine 

CycHo-octadienet QHup as above prepared, is a strong-smelling oil 
which decolorises potassium permanganate solution instantaneously. 
It readily polymerizes to a di-cyc/(^octadiene and polymer (C|Hi«)» 
(R. Willst&tter. Ber., 1905, 38, pp. 1975, 1984; G. Ciamidan and P. 
Silber. Ber., 1893, 36, p. 2750; A. Picdmni, CTdss., 1902, 33. 1 p. 260). 
0-cydxhcctadiaia has been prepared from methyl granatinine 
iodmethylate. 

Cydo-oetane, QHm is obtained by the reduction of tbe above 
unsaturated hydrocaibon by the Sabstier and Senderens's method. 
It is a liquid which boils at 146-3-118* C. and possesses a strong 
camphor odour. On oxidation it yields suberic aad (R. Willstatter, 
Bcr., 1907, 40, pp. 95^). 0. Doebner (B«r., 190a, 35, op. 2129, 


3538; 1903. 36. p.' 4318) obtained compounds,' wliich'in'all probaln- 
lity are cycio-octadienes, by the distillation <^ ^vinylacryiic acid. 


sorbic acid, and dnnamenyl acrylic add with anhydrous bvyta. 
Cydo-n^fwiie Group, 
According to N. Zelinsky (Ber., 1907, 40, p. 780) eycJommancnct 
C«HnO; a luiuid boiling at 95^97* C, is formed on distilling sebadc 
add with lime, and from tlus, by reduction to the corresponding 
secondary alcoholj conversion 01 tbe latter into the iodide, and 
subsequent reduction of this with sine, cydo-fuwaiM, CiHii, a liquid 
boiling at 170-173* C. is obtained. 

POLYNESIA, (Gr. roX6s, many, and i^trof, island), a term 
sometimes used to cover the whole «f tbe oceanic islands in 
the central and western Pacific, but properly for tbe eastern 
of the three great divisions of these islands. The chief groups 
thus included ard Hawaii, the Ellice, Phoenix, Union, Manihiki 
and Marquesas groups, Samoa and Tonga, the Cook, Sodety, 
Tubuai and Tuamotu groups, -and many other lesser islands. 
(See PAanc Ocean, section on I^nd, and separate artides 
on the principal groups, &c.) 

The Polynesian Race. — For tbe etbnological problems offered 
by Polynesia no thoroughly satisfactory solutions have yet been 
found. By some the term Polynesian has been treated as a 
synonym for Malayo-Polynesian, and has been made to indude 
ail the brown races of Malaysia, Melanesia, Micronesia and 
Polynesia. Linguistically, physically and mentally this view 
is untenable. Vi/liatever be the origin of the Polynesians, tbey 
are not Malays, though, themsdves of mixed blood, they have 
probably certain racial dements in common with the latter, 
who are undoubtedly hybrids. There is every reason to be- 
lieve that the Polynesians axe ethnologlcally a far older race 
than the Malays, who, as they now exist, are a comparatively 
modem people; and thus Friedrich Miiller's and D. G. Brinton's 
theory, that they form a branch of the Malays, fails. Joseph 
Deniker dedares the Polynesians a separate ethnic group of 
the Indo-Padfic area, and in this view he is followed by A. H. 
Keane, who suggests that they are a branch of the Caucasic 
division of mankind who possibly migrated in the Neolithic 
period from the Asiatic mainland. Of the migration itself no 
doubt is now felt, but the first entrance of the Polynesians into 
tbe Padfic must have been an event so remote that ndther by 
tradition nor otberwise can it be even approximately fixed. 
The Journey of these Caucasians would naturally be in stages. 
Their earliest halting place was probably tbe Malay Archi- 
pelago, where a few of their kin linger in Uie Mentawi Islands 
on the west coast of Sumatnu Thence at a date within historic 
times a migration eastward took place. Tbe absence of San- 
skrit roots in the Polynesian languages appears to indicate that 
this migration was in pre-Sanskritic times. Whether anything 
like a definite date can be fixed for it may well be questioned. 
Abraham Fomander' has, however, with great probability, 
traced back the history of the Hawaiians to the sth century. 
He has studied the folk-lore of those islands exfaaustivdy, and 
from this source comes to the condusion that the Polynesian 
migration ^m the Indian Archipelago may be approximatdy 
assigned to thft dote qf the ist or to the snd .century. The 
traditions of many of the Polynesian peoples .tend to make 
Savaii, the largest of the Samoan Islands, their ancestral home 
in the East Padfic, and linguistic and other evidence goes to 
*An AeeotuUefAePalynesiam Race (1878). L 168. 


34 


POLYNESIA 


support the theory that the first Polynesian settlement in the 
East Pacific was in Samoa, and that thence the various branches 
of the race made their way in all directions. Most likely Samoa 
was the first group permanently occupied by them. Owing 
to the admixture of the Pol3mesian8 with the Papuans in Fiji 
some authorities have thought the first settlement was in 
those islands, and that the setUen were eventually driven thence 
by the Papuan occupiers. We can, however, account for the 
presence of Polynesian blood in Fiji in another way, viz. by the 
intercourse that has been kept up between the people of Tonga 
and Fiji. If the first resting-place of the Polynesians was in 
that group, there is good reason to believe that Samoa was the 
first permanent home of the race. 

It used to be doubted whether these people could have gone 
from the Indian archipekgo so far eastward, because the pre- 
vailing winds and currents are from the east. But it is now 
well known that at tipies there are westerly winds in the region 
over which they would have to travel, and that there would be no 
insuperable difficulties in the way of such a voyage. The Poly- 
nesians are invariably navigators. There is ample evidence 
that in early times they were much better seamen than they 
are at present. Indeed their skill in navigation has greatly 
declined since they have become known to Europeans. They 
used to construct decked vessels capable of carrying one or two 
hundred persons, with water and stores sufficient for a voyage 
of some weeks duration. These vessels were made of planks 
well fitted and sewn together, the joints being caulked and 
pitched.^ It is only in recent times that the construction of 
such vessels has ceased. The people had a knowledge of 
the stars, of the rising and setting of the constellations at 
different seasons of the year; by this means they determined 
the tavoxurable season for making a voyage and directed their 
course. 

The Polynesians were by no means a savage people when 
they entered the Pacific. Indeed their elaborate historical 
legends show that they possessed a considerable amount of 
civilization. Those who are familiar with these legends, and 
have studied native manners and customs, see many unmis- 
takable proofs that the Polynesians had, at their migration, 
considerable knowledge and culture, and that the race has 
greatly deteriorated. 

The Polynesians are physically a very fine race. On sonie 
islands they average 5 ft. 10 in. in height. De Quatrefages, 
in a table giving the stature of different races of men,* puts the 
natives of Samoa and Tonga as the tallest people in the world. 
He gives 5 ft. 9*92 in. as their average height. They are well 
developed in proportion to their height. Their colour is a brown, 
lighter or darker generally according to the amount of their 
exposure to the sun— being darker on some of the atolls where 
the people spend much time in fishing, and among fishermen 
on the volcanic islands, and lighter among women, chiefs and 
others less exposed than the bulk of the people. Their hair 
is dark brown or black; smooth and curly, very different from 
the frizzly mop of the Papuan or the lank straight locks of the 
Malay. They have very little beard. Their features are gen- 
erally fairly regular and often beautiful; eyes invariably black, 
and in some persons oblique; jaws not projecting, except in a 
few instances; Ups of medium thickness; the noses are naturally 
long, well shaped and arched, but many are artificially flat- 
tened at the bridge in infancy. Their foreheads are fairly high, 
but rather narrow. The young of both sexes are good-looking. 
The men often have more regular features than the women. 
Formerly the men paid more attention to personal appearance 
than the women. Polynesians generally are of singularly 
cleanly habits, love bathing, and have a taste for neatness and 
order. Their clothing is simple: a loin cloth for the men and 
for the women a girdle or petticoat of leaves. Sometimes 
women cover the Moulders, and on great occasions the men 
robe themselves in lapa^ bark-doth. The men are usually 

> G>co>nut fibre and the gum which exudes from the bread-fruit 
tree are generally uted for " caulking " and " pitchins " canoes. 
* Tk» Human Species (International Scientific Series), pp. S7-6o. 


tattooed in elaborate designs from the navel to the thigh, and 
often aroimd mouth and eyes. 

As a race the Polynesians are somewhat apathetic An 
enervating climate and lavish natural resources incline them to 
lead easy lives. On the more barren islands, and on those more 
distant from the equator, they show more energy. Under 
certain circumstances they become excitable, and manifest a 
kind of care-for-nothing spirit. As savages they were strict 
in their religious observances and religion came into almost 
every action of life, and they have been, in most instances, easily 
led to accept Christianity. Their essential trait is their per- 
ennial cheerfulness, and their fondness for dance and song and 
every soit of amusement.* They are shrewd, intelligent an(f 
possess much conmion sense. Where they have from early 
years enjoyed the advantages of a good education, Polynesian 
youths have proved themselves to possess intellectual powers 
of no mean order. They are almost invariably fluent speakers; 
with many of them oratory seems to be a natural gift; it is also 
carefully cultivated. An orator will hold the interest of his 
hearers for hours together at a political gathering, and in his 
speech he will bring in historical allusions and precedents, and 
will make apt quotations from ancient legends in a manner which 
would do credit to the best parliamentary orators. Many of 
them are very brave, and think little of self-sacrifice for others 
where duty or family honour is concerned. 

Pf^iyneuan society h d!vidt?fJ inro the family and the dan. Each 


cktt h^ a lump which is uau^VIv Liorne by one of the oldest members, 
who Is the chitrf or head for Lnc time being. This dan sj^stem no 
doiibt gt-nemll^ prfvullcd in cidy Limes, and was the origin of the 
prWit-ial chiclcaLiuhip& But clKingea have been made in mo6t of 
thf i^axuJa. ](i. vsvnc the head of one dan has become king over 
se^'cral Iri many ca%^ EarEv cling have been divided into sections 
under «cconUaiy hcdd^. and hav^: e\en been subdivided. 

A» 4 niTe near rvbtJon* du nciL jcitermarry. In some islands this 
rule ii ri&dly adhcdod to, Thtro liave been exceptions, however, 
especiilly in the oljc of hieh chWi>-. but usually ereat care is taken 
to p^rvt^nc the uniDn of xho^ v,hh\n the prescnbed limits of con- 
saiiEumity. Chdd.ren gencraJty dwtll with their kin on the father's 
side, but tbry ha^-^i^Ljal right » on the mother's side, and sometime 
tbay take up their abode with thdr mother's family. The only 
nainn used to express paititru^ar rdationships are father and 
m<jthcr, son and d.jughter, brothf^r and sister. There is usually 
n& rJi>jiinct]on botwecn bnintheo l^^r sisters) and cousins, all the 
chtldruJi of brothen aad sUteis ipesk of each other as brothers and 
sisters, and they call uncles and aunts fathers and mothers. Above 
the relationship of parents all are simply ancestors, no term bdng 
used for grandfathCT which would not equally apply to anj^ more 
remote male ancestor. In the same way there is no distinctiv'e 
term for grandchild. A man speaks of his grandchild as his son 
or daughter, or umply as his child.* Polygamy was often practised, 
especially by chiefs, and also concubinage. In some places a widow 
was talnn oy the brother of her deceaised husband, or. failing the 
brother, by some other relative of the deceased, as an additional wife. 
Divorce was an easy matter, and of frequent occurrence; but, as a 
rule, a divorced wife would not marry again without the consent of 
her former husband. An adulterer was always liable to be killed 
by the aggrieved husband, or by some member of his dan. If 
the culpnt himsdf could not be reached, any member of the dan 
was liable to suffer in his stead. In some islands female virtue was 
highly rqEarded, Perhaps of all the groups Samoa stood hishest 
in this respect. There was a spedal ordeal through which a bride 
paned to prove her virginity, and a proof of her immorality brought 
disgrace upon all her rdatives. But in other islands there was much 
freedom in the relations of the sexes. Owing to the almost promis- 
cuous intercourse which prevailed among a portion of the race, in 
some groups titles descended through the mother and not through 
the father. In Hawaii there was a peculiar system of marriage 


* Wrestling and boxing, a kind of hockey and football, canoe and 
foot races, walking-matches, swimming, archery, cockfigfating, 
fishing-matches and pigeon-catching are among their pastimes. 
Of indoor eames they have a number, many being of a gambling 
nature. Aluch time is spent, especially after the evening meal, 
in asking riddles, in rhyming, &c The redtal of songs and myths 
is a common amusement, and on special occasions there is dandng. 
The night-dances were generally accompanied by much indecency 
and immorality. 

* Dr Lewis H. Morgan, in Ancient Society,pp. 419-423. makes the 
Polynenans to have mstinctive terms for ^ndfather, grandmother. 


grandson and granddaughter. In this he is mistaken. It is evident 
from his own lists that the Hawaiian kupuna means 
ancestor. In like manner moopuna simply means a < 


POLYNJESIA 


35 


teU tSwu Mp,** brathcfi with their wives, and nttera with their 
hnabandt, pownwring eadk other in common." There also, espedally 
In the case of chkii and chieftaineflses, brothen and tistera aome- 
timea intermarried. . But these customs did not prevail in other 
groupa. It is almost certain that they did not prevail in Hawaii in 
eady times, but that they were the result of that deterioration in the 
face which thdr traditions and many of their customs indicate.^ 

Women have always occupied a relatively high position among 
the Polynesians. In most groups they have great iniBuence and are 
treated with much respect. In some cases they take hereditary 
titles and hold high offices. As among their congeners in Mada- 
gascar, so also in parts of Polynesia, there may be a queen or a diief- 
tainess in her own r^ht ; and a woman in high posation will command 
as much r e sp e ct , and will exer cis e as s;reat authority, as a man would 
in the same positicKU ^ Everywhere ufantKide prevailed; in some 
<tf the smaller islands it was regulated by law in order to prevent 
over-population.' It was aUo a very common practice to dntroy 
the foetus, but parents were affectionate towards their children. 
The practice of adopting children was, and still i^ common. Often 
there is ^n exchange made between members of the same dan; 
but sometimes there is adoption from without. Tattooing gennally 
prevailed amon^ the men, different patterns bein^ followed m differ- 
ent graopa of islands. In some a larger portion of the body is 
tattooed than in others. A youth was consdered to be in his 
minority until he was tattooed, and in former times he would have 
no chance of marrying until he had, by submitting to this process, 
proved himsdf to be a num. Puberty m the other sex was generally 
marked by feasting, or some other demonstration, among the female 
friends. Old age is generally honoured. Often an inferior chief 
will give op his title to a younger man, vet he himself will lose but 
fittle by so doing. The neglect of aged persons is extremely rare. 

Property belonginc to a clan is held in common. Each clan 
ttSttally p o sse sBc a land, and over this no one member has an exclusive 
right, out all have an e^ual right to use it. The chief or recognized 
head ai the dan or section alone can properly dispose of it or assign 
its use for a time to an outsider; and even be is expected to obtain 
the conse nt of the heads of families before be alienates the '^'^ — "" 


Thus land is handed down through successive generations un(_ . 
nominal control of the recognized head of the dan. Changes 
have been made in many islands in this respect: but there can oe 
little reason to doubt that the joint ownership of prope rt y in dans 
was common among the entire race in former times. 

In early times the head of each dan was supreme among his 
own peofMe, but in all matters he -had associated with him the 
_: 1 v-^j- ^ families in the dan. Thdr united 


aotfaonty extended over all the members and the possessions of the 
dan, and they were independent of every other dan. There are in 
some places vestiges of this primitive state of sodety still remaining: 
the transition to a limited or to a despotic monarchy may be traced 
by means of the ancient legends in some islands, and in others it is 
a matter of recent history. One dan bdng more numetous and 
strmfler than another, and its chief being amtntious, it b easy to 
see how by conquering a ndghbouring dan he increased the import- 
ance of his dan and extended his own power. In some of the islands 
this transhion process has hardly yet devebped into an absolute 
monarcliy. We may even see two or three stages of the progress. 
In one instance a certain clan has the ri|;;ht to nominate the prindpal 
chief over an entire district; tlMMtgh it is known aa the ruUng dan, 
its rale is mainly confined to this nomination, and to decision for or 
acaipat war. In all other respects the district eniojrs the privile^ 
Of sdf<govcmment. In another case the nominal king over a dis- 
trict, or over an entire island, can be dected onlv from among the 
members of a certain dan, the monardiy being ekctive within that 
alone; but this king has little authority. In other cases a more 
despotic monarchy has grown up^he prowess of one man leading 
to the subjugation of other dans. Even in this case the chiefs or 


> Mor^n has founded one of his forms of fiamily-'the consanguine 
—on the supposed existence in former times among the Mala3rs and 
Polynesians of the custom of " intermarria^ of brothers and sisters, 
own and collateral, in a group." All the evidence he finds in support 
of thb is (i) the existence of the custom above mentioned in Hawaii; 
and (a) the absence of spedal terms for the rdationship of uncle, 
aunt and cousin, this indicating, he thinks, that these were regarded 
as fathefv, mothers, brothers and sisters. He admits that " the 
taages with respect to marriage which prevailed when the system 
was formed may not prevail at the prnent time." But he adds, 
*' To sustain the deduction it is not necessary that they should ' 
(Ancieut Society, p. 408). Mocgan has given special terms for grand- 
father and grandmother, because it wmild prove too much to show 
that the people had no grandfathers, &c. But these terms are used 
for ancestors of any generation. The terms used for grandchildren, 
in fike manner, are used for any generation of de s c en da n ts. He 
says (p. 406) the terms of husband and wife are used in common by 
a group of snters or brothers, but the fact is that the words used for 
KwKq.u-l (gd vife in Hawaii simply mean male and female. In 
some islands there are terms used for wife in the most strict sense. 
The word wife is not used more exduaively among us than among 
#MW Polynesian people. 


heads of clans sometimes still hold thdr proper ty and rule over thdr 
own people, only rendering a kind of feudal service and paying 
tribute to' the king. 

The Polynesians are exceedingly fond of rank and of titles. Much 
deference is paid to dtiefs %nd to persons of rank; and special 
terms are generally employed in addressing these. Every part of a 
chief's body and aiU hb bdongings have names different from those 
employed tor common people.> The grade of rank which a person 
occupies will often be indicated by the language in which he is 
addressed. .Thifs, in Samoa there are four different terms for to 
come: • sau b f or a common man; maliu mat is a respectful term 
for a person without a title; susu mat for a titled dud; and afio 
met for a member of the royal family. In addressing chiefs, or 
others to whom one wishes to be respectful, the singular number 
of the personal pronoun b rarely used ; the dual b employed instead^ 
—the dual of dignity or of respect. 

Offices and titles are seldom hereditary in our sense of the term, 
aa descending from father to son. They are rather elective within 
the limits of the dan, or the division of a clan. A common practice 
b for the holder of a high title to nominate a successor; and hb 
nomination b generally confirmed by the chids, or heads of house- 
holds, with whom the right of elecUon rests. In ancient times the 
authority of a high chief or king did not usually extend to any 
detaib ol government. But in Hawaii there are tnEditions of a wise 
king who mterestod himself in promotin|; the sodal well-bdng of 
the people, and made good Uws for their guidance.* Usually all 
matters affecting a district or an island were settled by the cniefa 
of the dbtrict, while those of a sinele village were settled by a 
council consbting of the chiefs and heads of households in the vilbge. 
In some islands each clan, or each villagCj would feel itself at liberty 
to make war on another dbn or village without consulting the views 
of any higher authority. Indeed the rule was for each clan or dis- 
trict to settle its own affairs. In the case of offences against 
individuals, dther the person injured, or another member of hb 
clan, woukl avenge the injury done. For most offences there was 
some generally recognized punbhment — such as death for murder 
or adultery: out often vengeance would fall upon another person 
instead of the wrongdoer. In avenging wrong, a member of the 
vilbge or of the dan to which the offender belonged would serve 
equally well to satisfy their ideas of justice if the culprit himself 
could not be eanly reached. Sometimes all the memben of the 
family, or of a vtllafe, to which a culprit belonged would flee from their 
homes and take refuge in another village, or seek the protection of a 
powerful chief. In some places, in cases of crime, the members of 
the family or vilb^ would convey the culprit bound — sometimes 
even carrying him like a pig that b to be killed— and place hipi with 
apfrfo^ies before those against whom he had tranq:TeMed. The 
ignoimny of such a proceeding was generally considered sufficient 
atonement for the gravest offences. There were slaves in many 
blands, dther persons conquered in war, or those who hid been 
condemned to lose their personal liberty on account of evil conduct. 

Pottery was not manufactured by the Polynesians: a fact which, 
it has been argued, goes far to prove the remoteness of tlw Poly- 
nesian migration from the Maby Archipebgo, where there b not a 
single trim which does not possess the art. It may, however, be 
that| moving among small coral blands for scores of generations and 
thus without materiab, they lost the art. Those of them who 
po s se s s e d pottery obtained it from the Papuans. In most of their 
manufactures they were, however, in advance of the Papuans. 
They made use of the vegetable fibres abounding in the blands, the 
women manufacturing doth, chiefly from the Dark of the paper 
mulberry (Morus fapyrifera), but also in some blands from the 
bark of the bread-fruit tree and the hibiscus. Thb in former 
times furnished them with most of their dothing. They also made 
various kinds of mats, baskets and fans from the leaves of the pan- 
danus, the bark of the hibiscus, from spedes of b6hmeria or other 
Urticaoeous plants. Some of their mats are very beautifully made, 
and in some islands they are the most valuable property the people 
possess. The people also use the various fibre-produdng plants lor 
the manufacture of ropes, coarse string and fine cord, and for making 
fishing nets. The nets are often very large, and are netted with a 
needle and mesh as in hand-netting among ourselves. 

The Polynesians, who have always been entirdy without metab, 
are clever workers in wood. Canoe and house buikiing are trades 
usually confined to certain families. The large canoes in which they 
formerly made long voyages are no tonger built, but various kinds 
of smaller canoes are made, from the. commonest, which b umply 
a hoUowcd-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built 
upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces bdng nicely fitted, and 
the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk, of coco- 
nuts. Some of the laiger canoes are ornamented with rude carving ; 
and in some islands they are somewhat ebborately decorated with 
inlaid mother-of-peari. The houses are generally well and elabor- 
ately made, but neariy all the ornamentation b put on the inside of 
thereof. 

They manufacture several wooden utennb for household use. 


*^See a remarkable example in pomander's AceouaU of tJu Poly- 
fMiioii iSocf, iL 89. 


36 


POLYNESIA 


such as dishes or deep bowls, head-mti ftod ttooli. Havltif no 
metal or other vessels in which to boil watLT, aU cooking Is done by 
baking, generally in holes in the ground- 1 hey al4 nulcc wooden 
gongs, or drums. They used to make wuodcn 6»hhook>, club^ij 
spears and bows. They still make wooden Ash<p<:4r« and curved anJ 
inlaid combs. The)r employ the bhrnbcK^ Tor making drums ami 
flutes. Formerly knives were made of ba.mtx>o» whith is Etill some- 
times used for that purpose. In the mani,]raciure of thrK thini^s 
they employed adxes made of stone, sheU or hafd wiwd, and a wooden 
drill pointed with stone, shell or bone. I'hi'y marlc moihcr-cf pc^rl 
fishhooks, and thejr still use a part of tho^ old liiookd— or artihcial 
bait — in combination with steel hooks, ihc rucive-made port id a 
being generally shaped like a small fnh For water- vtshtIsk &c., 
they employ gourds and large coco-nut ilicM?. in pirpQring which 
they pour in water and allow the pulp or tlir kcmrl to dcc^y, so that 
it may be removed without breaking the riad or&hrlL Thtir drinU- 
ing cups are made of half a coco-nut sJictl. Sharks' tctriTi, she Mi 
aiM bamboo were formerly generally used ai cutting in&trumcm:! 
for shaving and surgical operations. Tbvy employ ve^ciablc d>t'i 
for painting their bark-doth, calabasbn^ &c. tn gome itianda :hcy 
also use a red earth for this purpose. Their cloth it generally 
ornamented with geometrical patterns. Any drawings of animals 
&c., which they make are exceedingly in^nistic, and no aitcmpt 
is made at pe r spe ct ive. Their musical in^irunicnti are few and rude 
— consisting of the drums and flutes alivjdy mentioned, and slicll 
trumpets. 

The Polynesians were all polytheists. Without doubt many of 
their gods are deified men; but it is clear that some are the [urci s 
of Nature personified, while others appear to le present hui:: li 
passions which have become identified with particular per^na v^ho 
have an existence in their historical mythj.^ But the concept vn 
which they had of Tangaloa (Taaroa and [\:iiMloa in some i&lanJ ) 
is of a higher order. Among the Tah]ii.in9 he was reg-irdcd as 
"the first and principal god, uncreated and existinE trom the 
beginning, or from the time he emerged irom pa. or the *or]d of 
darkness."* " He was said to be the father ol all the rocIj, ami 
creator of all things, yet was scarcely reckoned an object o£ worship."* 
Dr Turner says, " the unrestrictra, or wnconditiancd, may fairly 
be regarded as the name of this Samoan Jupiti:rr/'4' 

The worship of certain of the great s^i was ci^mmon to all the 
people in a group of islands. Others were Eoda. of vtlbees or of 
families, white others were gods of individuals. The godi of dans 
were probably the spirits of the ancestors in their own line. In 
some islands, when tne birth of a child was expected, the aid o\ the 
TOds of the family was invoked, beginning with x he god of the father. 
The god prayed to at the instant of birth bee j me the ^od of the 
child. In other places the name of the E:hiLd'!i god w:t^ declared 
when the umbilical cord wa« severed. The genii were suppoied to 
dwell in various animals, in trees, or even in inanimate objects, as a 
•tone, a shell, &c. In some islands idols bearing more or less resem- 
blance to the human shape were made, bui in all ca^s the material 
objects were regarded simply as the abodes of the immaterial spirits 
of the gods. 

Their temples were either nationally for a single vilhge, or for 
the god of a family. They were sometimes larpe stQUc cncloiaures 
Imarae), sometimes a grove, or a house. The principal prieiti were 
a particular order, the priesthood beinp he red it a r>. Ici tome caws, 
however, the father of a family waspnest in his own hoUKhold and 
presented offerings and prayers to the faxnilv god. 

In some islands human sacrifices were of frequent occurrtnce; in 
others they were offered only on very rare and exceptional otcaiiona, 
when the demand was made by the priests for something sptcijlty 
valuable. The usual offerings to the ^od a were food. The system 
of taboo was connected with their reUfiioua rltei. There were two 
ways by which things might become tnhLw: (i) by contact with 
anything belonging to the god, as his vitLblt repreacnnitioii or his 
priest. Probably it was thought that a port ion of the sacred essence 
of the god, or of a sacred person, was dinjcity communicable to 
objects which they touched, (a) Things wck made Uibo^ by being 
dedicated to the god ; and it is this form of ratm* w hkh h it ill kept up. 
If, «.f., any one wishes to preserve his coconut* from being taken. 
he will put something upon the trees to indicate that t hey are sacred 
or dedicated. They cannot then be used umc I! the talim it removed. 
Disease and death were often connected with the viobtion of iabco, 
the offended gods thus punishing the [jflcnders. Dismm was 
generally attributed to the anger olthe god ^. He nee offi n n g*, £; c ,, 
were made to appease their anger. The fynit-fruiti of a crop v.t re 
usually dedicated to the gods to prevent them from bcmg angry j 
and new canoes, fishing-nets, &c, were drxlii atcd by prayrri :ind 
offering, in order that the gods might be proptnoiia lo their owners 
in theu* use. 


•The following books may be consulted on ihi* subject: Re v. 
W. W. Gill's Myths and Songs from tht Souih F^cifu: Dr Turner s 
S^imoa; and Mr Shortland's liaori ^^igton and Myikalogy. bir 
Q«>rge Grey, Polynesian Mythetogy,- 

* Polynesian Researches L 323. 

* Tahitian Dictionary^ 
'" . p. 5*. 


The Polynesians invariably believe in the existence of the spirit 
of man after the death of the body. Their traditions on the condi« 
tion of the dead vary considerably in different groups; yet there is a 
general agreement upon main points. Death is caused by the 
departure of the spirit from the body. The region of the dead is 
subterranean. When the spirit leaves the body it is conveyed by 
waiting spiriu to the abode of spiriu. In most islands the place 
of descent is known. It is generally towards the west. In some 
traditions there is a distinction between chief and common people 
in the spirit worid. In others all are much alike in condition. Some 
traditions indicate a marked distinction between the spirits of 
warriors and those of others: the former go to a place where they 
are happy and are immortal, while the latter are devoured by the 

fjods and are annihilated. In some, however, the spirits are said to 
ive again after being eaten. Some speak of the abode of spirits 
as being in darkness; but usually the condition of things is similar 
to that which exists upon earth. Amongst all the people it is 
believed that the spirits of the dead are able to revisit the scenes of 
their earthly life. The visits are generally made in the night, and 
are often greatly dreaded, especially when there mav be any supposed 
reason for spite on the part of tne dead towards living relatives. 
Some writers have connected Polynesian cannibalism with religion. 
In the Cook and Society Islands, when a human being was offered 
as a sacrifice, the priest presented an eye of the victim to the king, 
who either ate it or pretended to do so. Probably the earliest 
human sacrifices were the bodies of enemies slain in battle. As 
it was supposed by some that the spirits of the dead were eaten by 
the gods, the bodies <^ those slain in battle may have been eaten by 
their victors in triumph. Mr Shortland appears to think that 
cannibalism among the Maories of New Zealand may have thus 
originated.* Among the Polynesians generally it appears to have 
been the practice at times to eat a portion of a slain enemy to 
make his degradation the greater. But where cannibalism was 
practised as a means of subsistence, it probably originated in times 
of actual want, such as may have occurred during the long voyages 
of the people. 

The Polynesian race has been continuously, tnd in some 
places rapidly, decreasing since their first contact with Euro- 
peans. Doubts have been thrown on the current statements 
regarding the rate of decrease, which some good authorities 
believe to be not so great as is commonly represented. They 
hold that former estimates of the nimiber of inhabitants in the 
various insular groups were mere guesswork. Thus it is pointed 
out that Cook's estimate of 240,000 for the Society Archipelago 
(Tahiti) was at the time reduced by his associate, Forster, to 
iSo,ooo, so that the 300,000 credited by him to the Sandwich 
Islands should also be heavily discoimted. That is probably 
true, and it may be admitted that, as a rule, the early calcula- 
tions erred on the side of excess. But when full allowance is 
made for all such exaggerations, the following facts will show 
that the decrease has been excessive. The Tahitians, 150,000 
in Z774, fell from 17,000 in 1880 to 10,300 in 1899; uid in this 
group, while the pure stock appears to be dying out, there is 
a small increase amongst the half-breeds. When New Zealand 
was occupied (1840) the Maori were said to number 120,000, 
and were doubtfully sUted to be still 56,000 in 1857; since then 
the returns of the 1881 and 1891 censuses gave 44,000 and 40,000 
respectively. During the last two decades of the 19th century 
the decrease has been from 30,000 to 17,500 in Tonga; from 
1 1,500 to 8400 in the Cook group; from 8000 to 3600 in Wallis; 
from z6oo to zoo in Manahiki; from Z400 to zooo in Tubuai; 
and from 600 to zoo in Easter Island. A genend decline seems 
thus to be placed beyond doubt, though it znay be questioned 
whether it is to be attributed to a decayed vitality, as some 
hold, or to external causes, as is the more general opinion. The 
prevalence of elephantiasis and the occurrence of leprosy, for 
instance, in Hawaii, would seem to point at least in some places 
to a racial taint, due perhaps to the unbridled licentiousness of 
past generations. On the other hand, such a decrease as has 
occurred in Tahiti and Tonga, can be accounted for only by an 
accumulation of outward causes, such as wars, massacres, and 
raidings for the Australian and South American labour mar- 
kets before this traffic was suppressed or regulated. Other 
destructive agendes were epidemics, such espedally as measles 
and small-pox, which swept away 30,000 Fijians in Z875; ^^'^ 
introduction of strong drinks, including, besides vile spiriu, 
a most pernicious concoction brewed in Tahiti from ocangeSt 

* Maori ReUgian and Mythohgy, p. a6. 


POLYP— POLYPHEMUS 


37 


Grand, Au Pays des 

Polynesian Mytholagy 

aux tUs du Grand 


the too ndden «do|»tion of European dothing, rendering the 
body npetseoaitive to changes of temperature; lastly, the action 
of ovcrnseahms missionaries in suppressing the dances, merry- 
mahing and free joyous life of pagan times, and the preaching 
of a sombre type of Christianity, with deadening effects on the 
booyaat temperament of these children of Nature. Most o! 
these abases have been checked or removed, and the resulu 
may perhaps be detected in a less accelerated rate of decline, 
which no longer proceeds in geometric proportion, and seems 
even almost amsted in some places, as in Samoa and New 
Zealand. If such be indeed the case, perhaps the noblest of all 
primitive races may yet be saved from what at one time seemed 
inevitable extinction; and the Maori, the Samoans, and Tahi- 
tians may, like the Hawaiians, take their place beside the 
Europeans as free citizens of the various states of which they 
are now subjects. 

AoTBoarriBS.— Jean L. A. de Quatrefages, Let Pdynhuns et lew 
miffoHoHM (Paris, 1866); G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia 
(LoadoKL i86x): Pierre Adolphe Lesson, Let Polynisiens, leur 
ariime, Ac (nria, 1880-1884); Henri Mager, Le Monde polynisien 
(Paris. 1909); Masdmtlien Albert H. A. Le r 
CBMMcr (nris, 1893)1 ^ George Grey, / 
(London, 18S5); T. A. Moerenbout, Voyatfis 
OUam, Ac (Paris, i8;t7): Abraham Fornander. An Account of the 
Poiymeriau Race (1878). The account given above reprxxluces the 
maiB dcacimdve pasnges in the Rev. S. J. Wbitmce's article in the 
9th ed. of the Ency.BfiL 

FOLTPv the name ^ven by zoologists to the form of animal 
especially characteristic of the subphylum Cnidaria of the 
Coelenteim (f.*.)* In the subdivision Anthosoa, comprising the 
aea^«nemoncs and corals, the individual is always a polyp; in 
the Hydroeoa, however, the individual may be either a poljrp or a 
medusa (f.s.)* 

A good example of « polyp may be seen in a common 
sea-anemone or in the wdl-known fresh-water polyp, Hydra 
(fig. x). The body may be roughly compared in structure to 
a sac, the wall of which is 
composed of two layers of 
cells. The outer layer is 
known technically as the 
ectoderm, the loner layer 
as the endoderm. Between 
ectoderm and endoderm is 
a supporting layer of struc* 
tureless geUtinous substance 
termed mesogloea, secreted 
by the cell-layers of the 
body-wall; the mesogloea 
may be a very thin layer, or 
may reach a fair thickness, 
and then sometimes contains 
skeletal elements formed by 
cells which have migrated 
into it from the ectoderm. 
The sac-like body built up 
in this way is attached 
usually to some firm object 
by its blind end, and bears 
at the upper end the mouth 
Fk& i.--J9fWrofifJ!iii, the fresh- surrounded by a drde of 
wrtwpolyp. The animal isattached tenUdes. Each tentacle is 

:i£5^tl'bS!?*^^tih'ssf ^--^'^^ ri^- 

■ppermost: the mouth, not actuaUy mg of the whole wall of the 
seen in the drawing, is atthelower sac and contains typically 
SSSS^n/SS.S^'TotS^ * prolongaUon of iu internal 
S^SSf^^^^^ •"^' cavity, so that primarily the 
tentades are hollow; but in 
some cues the tentade may become solid by obliteration of its 
cavity. The tentades are oigans which serve both for the UctOe 
sense and for the capture of food. By means of the stmgmg 
Bcttfe-odls or nematocysu with which the tentades are thickly 
covered, living oiganisms of various kinds are finnly hdd and at 
the same time paralysed or killed, and by means of longitudinal 
mmmhr fibrils fonned from the ceQs of the ectodenn the 



tentacles are contracted and convey the food to the mouth. 
By means of drculariy disposed muscular fibrils formed from 
the endoderm the tentacles can be protracted or thrust out 
after contraction. By muacte-fibres belonging to the same two 
systems the whole body may be retracted or protruded. 

We can distinguish therefore in the body of a polyp the 
column, drcular or oval in section, forming the trunk, resting 
on a base or foot and surmounted by the crown of tentades, 
which enclose an area termed the ^eru^ome, in the centre of whtdi 
again is the mouth. As a rule there is no other opening to the 
body except the mouth, but ip some cases excretory pores are 
known to occur in the foot, and pores may occur at the tips of 
the tentades. Thus it is seen that a polyp is an animal of very 
simple structure. 

The name polyp was given to these organisms from their 
supposed resemblance to an octopus (Fr. povlpe), with iU 
drde of writhing arms round the mouth. This com p a ri son, 
though far-fetched, is certainly more reasonable than the common 
name " coral-insects " applied to the polyps which form ooraL 
It cannot be too emphatically stated that a coral-polyp is as 
far removed in organization from either an octopus or an 
insect as it is from man himself. 

The external form of the polyp varies greatly in different 
cases. In the first place the coltmm may be long and slender, 
or may be, on the contrary, so short in the vertical direction that 
the body becomes disk-like. The tentades may number many 
hundreds or may be very few, in rare cases only one or two, or 
even absent altogether; they may be long and filamentous, or 
short and reduced to mere kno1» or warts; they may be simple 
and unbranched, or they may be feathery in pattern. All these 
types are well illustrated b^ different species of British sea- 
anemones. The mouth may be level with the surface of the 
peristome, or may be projecting and trumpet-shaped. As regards 
internal structure, polyps exhibit two well-marked types of 
organization, each characteristic of one of the two dasses, 
Hydrozoa and Anthozoa. 

It is an almost universal attribute of polyps to possess the 
power of reprodudng themsdves non-sexually by the method 
of budding. This mode of reproduction may be combined 
with sexual reproductiveness, or may be the sole method by 
which the polyp produces offspring, in which case the polyp 
is entirely without sexual organs. In many cases the buds 
formed do not separate from the parent but remain in con- 
tinuity with it, thus forming agonies or stocks, which may 
reach a great sire and contain a vast number of individuals. 
Slight differences in the method of budding produce great varia- 
tions in the form of the colonies, which may be distinguished 
in a general way as spreading, massive or arborescent. The 
reef-building corals are polyp-colonies, strengthened by the 
formation of a firm skdeton. For further details of colony- 
formation the reader is referred to the artides Anibozoa 
arid Hydroxedusae. 

For figures of polvps see P. Goese, A History of the British 5^ 
Anemones and Coro/s (London, i860); A. Andres. " Le Attinie," in 
Fattna and Flora des Coif es. von Neapel, ix. 1 (Leipzig, 188^); G. J. 
Allman, A Monof^ph of the CymnobUuHt or TwnUarian Hydroids 
(Ray Society, 1871-1872). (E. A. M.) 

POLTPBRCHON (incorrectly Polysperchon), one of Alex- 
ander's generals, and the successor of Antipater as regent in 
Macedonia in 3x9 B.C. He was driven out by Cassander m 
317 B.C. (See PHoaoN.) 

POLYPHEMUS, in Greek mythology, the most famous of the 
Cyclopes, son of Poseidon and the nymph ThoOsa. He dwdt 
in a cave in the south-west comer of Sicily, and was the owner 
of large flocks and herds. He was of gigantic stature, with 
one eye in the middle of his forehead, a consumer of human 
flesh, without respect for the laws of god or man. Odysseus, 
having been cast ashore on the coast of Sicily, fell into the hands 
of Polyphemus, who shut him up with twdve of his companions 
in his cave, and blocked the entrance with an enormous rock. 
Odysseus at length succeeded in making the giant drunk, blinded 
him by plunging a burning stake into his eye while he lay 
asleep, and with six of his friends (the others having been 


38 


POLYPODIUM— POLYTECHNIC 


devoured by Polyphemus) made his escape by cUngmg to the 
bellies of the sheep let out to pasture. Euripides in the Cyclops 
essentially follows the Homeric account. A later stoiy asso- 
ciates Polyphemus with Galatea (see Acis). 

Homer, Odyssey, be; Ovid, lietam. xlu. 749; Theocritus xL 
See W. Grimin. Die Sage von Potyphem, (1857); G. R. Holland. 
In Leipaiger Studien (1884), viL 139-312. 

POLTPODIUM, in botany, a Jarge genus of true fens (q.v.), 
widely distributed throu^out the world, but specially developed 
in the tropics. The name Is derived from Gr. voX6s, many, 
and T65cor, a little foot, on account of the foot-like appear- 
ance of the rhizome and its branches. The spedes differ greatly 
in size and general appearance and in the character of the frond; 
the sori or groups of qx>re-€ases isporaugia) are borne on the 
back of the leaf, are gbbose and naked, that is, are not covered 
with a membrane {indusium) (see fig. z). The common poly- 
pody (fig. 2) (P. vidgare) is widely diffused in the British Isles, 
where it is found on waiUs, 
banks, trees, &c.; the creep- 
ing, densely-scaly rootstock 
bears deeply pinnatdy cut 
fronds, the fertile ones bear- 
ing on the back the bright 
yellow naked groups of 
sponuqgia {sort). It is also 
known as adder's foot, 
golden maidenhair and 
wood-fern, and is the oak- 
fern of the old herbals. 




Fio. I. — Portion of a pinna Fio. 2. — Pdypoditan vulgare, 
of \eai of Potypodiutn bearing common polypody (about \ nat. 
•ori, s, on iu back. size). 

I . Group of spore^aaes isorus) on 
back of leaf. 

There axe a large number of varieties, differing chiefly 
in the form and division of the pinnae; var. cambrkum (origin- 
ally found in Wales) has the pinnae themselves deeply cut 
into narrow segments; var. comubiense is a very elegant plant 
with finely-divided fronds; var. cristaium is a handsome variety 
with fronds forking at the apex and the tips of all the pinnae 
crested and curled. P. dryopterist generally known as oak- 
fern, is a very graceful plant with delicate fronds, 6 to 12 in. 
long, the three main branches of which are themselves pinnately 
divided; it is found in dry, shady places in mountain districts 
in Great Britain, but is very rare in Ireland. P. pkegopteris 
(beechfem) is a graceful spedes with a black, slender root-stock, 
from which the pinnate fronds rise on long stalks, generally 
about Z2 in. long, induding the stalk; it is characterized by 
having the lower pinnae of the frond deflezed; it is generally 
distributed in Britain, though not common. Many other 
spedes from different parts of the world are known in green- 
house cultivation. 

POLYPUS, a term signifying a tumour which is attached by 
a narrow neck to the walls cMf a cavity lined with mucous 


membrane. A polypus of polypoid tumour may belong to any 
variety of tumour, dther simple or malignant. The most com- 
mon variety is a polypus of the nose of simple character and 
easUy removed. Polypi are also met with in the ear, larynx, 
uterus , bla dder, vagina, and rectum. (SeeTuicoua.) 

POLYTECHNIC (Gr; toX6s, many, and rkxrn, an art), a 
term which may be hdd to designate any institution formed 
with a view to encourage or to illustrate various arts and sdences. 
It has, however, been used with different appUcations in several 
European countries. In France the first icolt polyUchnique 
was founded by the National Convention at the end of the i8th 
century, as a practical protest against the almost exdusivc 
devotion to literary and abstract studies in the places bf higher 
learning. The institution is described as one " oii Ton instruit 
les jeunes gens, destin^ i entrer dans les fcoles spfdales 
d'artillerie, du g6nie, des mines, des ponts et chaussies, cr££ en 
1794 sous le nom d'£coIe centrale des travaux 4>u^liques, et 
en 1795 sous celui qu'elle porte aiijourdliui " {LiUr£). In Ger- 
many there are nine technical colleges which, in like mlnner, 
have a special and industrial rather than a gieneral educational 
purpose. In Switzerland the principal educational institution, 
which is not maintained or administered by the communal 
authorities, but is non-local and provided by the Federal govern- 
ment, is the Polytechnikum at Zurich. In all the important 
towns of the Federation there are trade and technical schools 
of a more or less special character, adapted to the local indus- 
tries; e.g. schools for silk-weaving, wood-carving, watchmaking, 
or agriculture. But the Zurich Polytechnikum has a wider and 
more comprehensive range of worL It is a college designed 
to give instruction and practical training in those sciences which 
stand in the dosest relation to manufactures and commerce 
and to skilled industry in general and its work is of university 
rank. 

To the English public the word pdytechnk has only recently 
become familiar, in connexion with some London ^istitutions of 
an exceptional character. In the reign of William TkeFint 
IV. there was an institution in London called after Pabruetakm 
the name of his consort—" The Adelaide Gallery " "B^^'ma 
— and devoted rather to the display of new sdentific inven- 
tions and curiosities than to research or to the teaching of 
sdence. It . enjoyed an ephemeral popularity, and was soon 
imitated by an institution called the Polyt<M±nic in Regent 
Street, with a somewhat more pretentious prognunme, a diving- 
bell, electrical and mechanical apparatus, besides occasional 
illustrated lectures of a popular and more or less recreative 
character. In the popular mind this institution is inseparably 
associated with " Professor " Pepper, the author of The Boy's 
Playhooh of Scicnu and of Pepper's Ghost. Both of these 
institutions, after a few years of success, failed financially; and 
in 1880 Mr (^uintin Hogg, an active and generous philan- 
thropist, purchased the disused btiilding in Regent Street, and 
reopened it on an altered basis, though still retaining the name 
of Polytechnic, to which, however, he gave a new signifiotnce. 
He had during sixteen years been singularly successfid in 
gathering together yoimg shopmen and artisans in London in 
the evenings and on Sunday for rehpous and social intercourse, 
and in acquiring their confidence. But by rapid degrees his 
enterprise, which began as an evangelistic effort, developed into 
an educational institution of a novel and comprehensive char- 
acter, with classes for the serious study of sdence, art, and 
literature, a gymnasitmi, library, reading drdes, laboratories 
for physics and chemistry, conversation and debating dubs, 
organized country excursions, swimming, rowing, and natural 
history sodeties, a savings bank, and choral singing, besides 
religious services, open to all the membera, though not obli- 
gatory for any. The founder, who from the fint took the 
closest personal interest in the students, well describes his own 
aims: " What we wanted to develop our institute Into was a 
place which should recognize that God had given man more than 
one side to his character, and where we could gratify any reason- 
able taste, whether athletic, intellectual, spiritual or social. 
The success of this effort was remarkable. ^ In the first winter 


POLYTECHNIC 


39 


6800 membefs joined, paying fees of 3s. per term, or xos. 6d. per 
year; and the members sttadily increased, witil in 1900 they 
readied a total of 15,000 The average daily attendance is 
4000; six hundred dasses in different grades and subjects are 
held weekly; and upwards of forty clubs and societies have been 
formed in connexion with the recreative and sodal departments. 
The precedent thus established by private initiative has since 
been followed in the formation of the public institutions which, 
under the name of " Polytechnics," have become 
I so prominent and have exercised sudi beneficent 
influence among the working population of London. 
The principal resources for the foundation and 
maintmmify of these institutions have been derived from two 
fondar— that administered under the City Parochial Charities 
Act of 1883, and that furnished by the London County Council, 
at first under the terms of the Local Taxation (Customs and 
Exdse) Act of 1890, and the Technical Instruction Act 1889, 
but since the xst of May 1904 under the Education Act 1902, 
as applied to London by the act of 1903. More detailed refer- 
ence to these two acts seems to be necessary in this place. 

The royal commission of inquiry into the parochial char- 
ities ci London was appointed in 1878, mainly at the instance 
of Mr James Bryce, and under the presidency of 
the Duke of Northumberland. Its report app<»red 
in 1880, giving particulars of the income of the 
parishes, and revealing the fact that the funds had 
largely outgrown the original purposes of the endowments, 
whkli were ill adapted to the modem needs of the class for 
whose benefit they were intended. The act of parliament of 
1883 was designed to give effect to the recommendations of 
the oommissionen. It provided that while five of the largest 
parishes were to retain the management of their own charitable 
funds, the endowments of the remaining Z07 parishes in the 
dty. should be administered by a coiporate body, to be en- 
titled " the Trustees of the London Parochial Charities" (other- 
wise known in relation to the polytechnics as " the Central 
Governing Body" ), this body to include five nominees of the 
Crown and four of the corporation of London. The remaining 
members were to be chosen under a subsequent scheme of the 
charity conunission, which added four nominees of the Lon- 
doa County Council, two of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
and one each appointed by the university of London, Univer- 
sity College, King's College, the City and Guilds institute, and 
the governing bodies of the Bishopsgote and the Cripplegate 
foundations. For the purpose of framing the scheme, a special 
cmnmiaaoner, Mr James Anstie, Q.C., was temporarily attached 
to the charity commission, and it thus became the duty of the 
commission to prepare a statement of the charity property 
possessed by the X07 parishes, distinguishing between the secular 
and the ecclesiastical parts of the endowments. The annual 
income derived from the ecclesiastical fund was £35,000, and 
that from the secular portion of the fund £50,000. The 
scheme assigned capital grants amounting to £155,000 to the 
provistoD of open spaces, and £149,500 to various institutions, 
incfaiding free libraries hi Bishopsgate and Cripplegate, the 
People's Palace, the Regent Street and Northampton Institutes, 
and the Victoria HalL A capital sum of £49,355 out of the 
ecdesastical fund was devoted to the repair of city churches; 
and the balance of the annual income of this fund, after 
allowances for certain vested interests, was directed to be paid 
tothe Ecdestastical Commissioners. This balance has varied by 
slight increases from year to year, and amounted in 1906 to 
£30375. 1^ remaining fund thus set free for sccuUr purposes 
was by the scheme largely devoted to the erection and main-s 
tenaaoe of polytechnic institutions, or " industrial institutes," 
as they were at first called. It was the opinion of Mr Anstie 
and his fellow-commissioners that in this way it would be possible 
to meet one of the most urgent of the intellectual needs of the 
Bietropolb, and to render service nearly akin to the original 
purposes of the obsolete charitable endowments. For the year 
1906-1907 the giants made to the polytechnics and kindred 
I (the Working Men's College, College for Working 


Women, &c.) by the Central Governing Body amounted to 
£39,140, and the total amount contributed by the Central 
Governing Body since its creation amounts to £543,ooa 

The general scope and aims of the institutions thus con- 
templated by the commissioners are defined in the ^ ry»tai 
" general regulations for the management of an Indus- Se£w^ 
trial institute," which are appended as a schedule to tiadtrth* 
the several schemes, and which run as follows: — ^^^ 

The object of this institution i» the promotion of the industrial 
skill, general knowledge, health and well-being of young men and 
women belonging to the poorer classes by the foUowix^ means;— 
L Instruction in— 

o. The general rules and principles of the arts and sciences 

applicable to any handicxait, trade or business, 
ft. The practical application of such general rules and 

principles in any handicraft trade or business. 
«. Branches or detaUs of any handicraft, trade or budness, 
facilities for acquiring the knowledge of which cannot 
usually be obtained in the workshop or other place 
of business. 
The classes and lectures shall not be designed or arranged so as 
to be in substitution for the practical experience of the workshop 
or jplace of business, but so as to be supplementary thereto, 
u. Instruction suitable for persons intending to emigrate, 
iii. Instruction in such other branches and subjects of art, 
sdence, language, literature and general knowledge as may be 
approved by the governing body. 

IV. Public lectures or courses of lectures, musical and other 
entertainments and exhibitions. 

V. Instruction and practice in gymnastics, drill, swimming and 
other bodily excrdses. 

vi. Facihties for the formation and meeting of clubs and societies. 

vii. A library, museum and reading room or rooms. 

>^thin the limits prescribed, the governing body may from time 
to time, out of the funds at their disposal, provide and maintain 
buildings and grounds, Including workshops and laboratories suit- 
able for all the purposes herein specified, and the necessary furniture, 
fittings, apparatus, models and books, and may provide or receive 
by jgitt or on loan works of art or scientific construction, or objects 
of interest and curiosity, for the purpose of the institute, ana for 
the purpose of temporary exhibition. 

Other provisions in the scheme require: (1) that the educa- 
tional benefits of the institute shall be available for both sexes 
equally, but that common rooms, refreshment rooms, gymnasia 
and swimming-baths may be established separately, under such 
suitable arrangements as may be approval by the governing 
body; (2) that the fees and subscriptions shall be so &ted as to 
place the benefits of the institute within the reach of the poorer 
classes; (3) that no intoxicating liquors, smoking or gambling 
shall be allowed in any part of the buildii^g; (4) that the build- 
ings, g^und and premises shall not be used for any political, 
denominational or sectarian purpose, although this rule shall 
not be deemed to prohibit the discussion of political subjects 
in any debating society approved by the governing body; (5) 
that no person under the age of sixteen or above twenty-five 
shall be admitted to membership except on special grounds, 
and that the number thus specially admitted shall not' exceed 
5 % of the total number of members. 

These and the like provisions have formed the common basis 
for all the metropolitan polytechnics. In 1890 a large stun 
was placed by the Local Taxation (Customs and ,,,_^_^ 
Excise) Act at the disposal of the county and county ^^^^ ^ 
borough councils for the general purposes of tech-o/iA«" 
nical education, and in 1893 the London County' 
(^tmdl determined to devote a considerable portion J 
of this revenue to the further devebpment and sus- 
tentation of polytechnics. While the funds granted by the 
Central (joveming Body may be employed in aid of the social 
and recreative as well as the educational purposes of the 
various institutes, it is a statutory obligation that the sums 
contributed by the London County Council should be applied 
to educational work only. 

Dr William Gamett, the educational adviser of the London 
County Councfl, has, in a published lecture delivered before 
the mtemational congress on technical education hi June 
1897, thus 'described the conditions under which the council 
offers finann'sl help to the London polytedmics:— 


40 

The objects which the technical education baud has had in 
view in iu dealings with the polytechnic* have been;— 

I. To allow to the Kveral governing bodies the neatest possible 
freedom in the conduct of social, recreative and even religious 
work within Um provisioDa of th« schemes of th« Charity Com- 


POLYTECHNIC 


2. To secure to each polytechnic the services of an educational 
principal, who should be responsible to his governing body for 
the ofiQiuuation and oondua of the whole of the work ol the 
institution. 

3. To provide in each polytechnic a permanent staff of teachers, 
who should be heads ol their respective departments and give 
their whole time to the work of the institution, and thus to 
esublish a corporate or collegiate life in the polytechnic 

4. To ensure that all branches of experimenul science are Uught 
experimenully, and that the studenu have the opportunity of 
carrying out practical laboratory work, at an inclusive fee not 
exceeding ten shillings for any one subject. 

^ To provide cffident workshop instruction in all practical trade 
subjects* 

6. To secure that the number of students under the charge of 
any one teacher in laboratory or workshop classes, or in other 
classes in which personal supervision is of jaramount importance, 
ahall not exceed a stated limit (fifteen in the workshop, or twenty 
in the laboratory). 

7. To exclude from classes students who. for want of prehnunarv 
training, are incapable of profiting by the instruction provided; 
and to this end to restrict the attendance at workshop classes to 
those who are actually engaged in the trades concerned, and have 
thus opportunities of aoaulnng the necessary manual dexterity in 
the oerf ormanoe of their diaily duties. 

8. To furnish an adequate fixed stipend for all teachers, in place 
of a contingent interest in fees and grants. 

9. To encourage private subscriptions and donations. 
' la To establish an efficient system of inspection. 

' II. To facilitate the advertisement of polytechnic clsiisei; and 
especially to invite the co^peratkm of trade societies in supporting 
their re spe c t ive clinscii 

' 12. To encourage the higher development of some spedal branch 
of study in each polytechmc 

13. To utilise the pdytechnic buildings as far as possible in tlie 
daytime by the establishment of technical day schools, or otherwise. 

14. To secure uniformity in the keeping of accounta. 

The reguladoDS under which the coundl has 
attempted to secure its objects by means of 
grants have been changed from time to time as 
the work of the polytechnics has developed, 
but they provide that the council's aid should 
be partly in the form of a fixed grant to each 
institution, partly a share of the salaries of the 
principal and the permanent teachers, partly 
a grant on attendance, the scale depending on 
the subject and character of the instruction, and 
partly a subsidy (15%) on voluntary contri- 
butions. In addition to the annual grants for 
maintenance, substantial granU for buikiing 
and equipment are made from time to time. 

I The scale of grants adopted by the cooncQ for the 
session 1907-1908 was the following: — 

i. A fijKd grant asdgned to each polytechnic. 

ii. Three-fourths of the salary of the principal 
(subject to certain conditions). 

iiL Fifty per cent, of the salaries of 
departments. 

IV. Ten per cent of the salaries of other teachers. 


representatives of the Centrsl Governing Body, the tnrhnical 
education board of the London County Council, and the 
Gty and Guilds of London Institute, and its duty was to consult 
as to the appropriation of funds, the ^ir-*— -f mfna 
tion of teaching, the holding of needful examina- P*ti 't»rh ma t 
tions, and the supervision <^ the work generally. ^■■'* 
After ten years of work the London polytechnic council 
was dissolved in the summer of 1904 in consequence of the 
abolition of the technical education board of the London 
County Council, when the coundl became responsible for all 
grades of education. A statement below shows the number 
and names of the several institutions, and the extent to which 
they have been severally aided by the Central Govemhig Body 
and the London County CeundL 

The " People's Palace" owes iU origin in part to the popu- 
larity of a novel by Sir Walter Bcsant, entitled AU SorU and 
CondUians of Men, in which the writer pointed out n» 
the sore need of the inhabitants of East London A wpfc ' s 
for sodal improvement and healthy recreatioii, '^■^b^ 
and set forth an imaginaiy picture of a " Palace of DeUght," 
wherein this need might be partly satisfied. Much public 
interest was awakened, large subscriptions were given, and 
the Central Governing Body aided the project; but the 
munificence of the drapeit' company in setting aside £7000 a 
year for its permanent maintenance released the London (>>unty 
(^undl from any obligation to make a grant. Apart from the 
sodal and recreative side of this, popular institution, the edu- 
cational section, under the name of the East London Technical 
College, steadily increased in numbers and influence under the 
fostering care of the drapers' company and has now been re- 
cognised as a "school" of the university of London under 
the title of " The East London College" and is being utilised 
by the London County Coundl in the same way as other ** schools 
of the univeiaity." . 


Grants to the London Pblytechnics during the Session 1906-1907.' 



Central (Governing Body. London County CoundL | 

Under 
Sdieme. 

Voluntary 
Grants. 

BuiMings 

and 
Equipment.. 

Main, 
tenance. 

Battersea Polytechnic . . 
Birkbeck College . . . . 
Borough RoadPolytechnk . 
City olLondon College . . 
East London College . . 
Northampton Institute . . 
Northern Polytechnic . . 
Regent Street Polytechnic . 

WoolwKh Polytechnic . . 
Sir John Cass's Insritute . . 

Total .... £ 

2.500 
1,000 
2.500 
1,000 
3,500 
3.350 
1.500 
3.500 

•r 

nU 

1,701 
1.005 

1,563 
901 
224 

I.55S 

3,183 
3.916 
2,091 
1,000 
50 

1.545 

965 
1.275 
a.535 
510 

4.760 

m 

5495 
2,400 

20.350 

16.189 

14,675 

47JI5 


beads of approved 


v. Fifteen per cent, on (voluntary) annual subscriptions or 


vL Attendance giants on evening classes varying from id. to 
6d. per student-hour (subject to certain conditwos of minimum 
attendance, eligibiUty, oc.). 

viL Special grants not exceeding £50 for courses of lectures on 
particular subjects required or approved by the ooundL 

viii. Special grants towards any departments which the coundl 
may desire to see established or maintained. 

ix. Equipment granu and building giants in aooonlanoe with 
the ^)eciaf requirements of the institutions. 

The above giants are independent of any contributions whidi 
the coundl ma^ make towaLrds aeooodary day schools or day 
schoob of domestic economy or training ooUeges oidopMstic economy 
in the polytechnic!. 

With a view to a due division of labour, aa4 alio to the co- 
operation of the public bodies concerned, the *^ London Poly- 
technic Coundl" was created in 1894. It was composed of 


In the above table the grants are given to the nearest pound. 
Up to July Z907 the total expenditure of the council upon the 
polsrtedinics, apart from the day schools, training colleges, &c., 
conducted in them, was about £535,000, almost exactly the 
same as that of the Central (joveming Body. The voluntaiy 
granu from the central governing body indude a contribution 
towards a compassionate fund, and a pension fund based oa 
endowment assurances for all permanent officers of the poly-> 
technics in reodpt of salaries of not less than £100 a year. 

The grants reodved from the board of education amount 
to about £30,000 a year, while the fees of students ahd memben 
produce about £45iOoa Voluntazy subscriptions, indudlng 
those from dty companies and other sources of income, pro- 
duce about £30,000 in addition, to that out of a total expendi- 
ture of about £200,000 a year the coundl now conti^utea 30%, 
the Central Govwning Body 18%, feet 22)%, the board 
of education 15% and dty companies and -other wibacriben 
15%. 


POLYTECHNIC 


41 


Tlie GoUsmkhs' Infltitute aC New Crott owed its existence 
and iUanttoal maintenance to the generous initiative of the 
anckntdty gild whose name it bore. It was therefore entirely 
independent ot pecuniaiy subsidy from any other public body. 
la the year 1900 the number of class entries to this institute 
was 7574. In 1904 the goldsmiths'* company presented the 
premtes, together with an annual subsidy, to the university of 
Loadoo for the poriMses of a training college for teachers, so 
that from that date it ceased to be one of the London poly- 
technics, although, pending the provision of other premises, many 
of the technical evening classes have been continued imder 
the London County Council by permission of the university 
with the approval of the company. The dothworkers' com- 
pany has also contributed £18,000 to the Northern Polytechnic 
at HoOoway. 

In all these institutions the general aims have been practically 
the same, although special features have been differentiated 
Aim9*m4 in order to meet the local needs and the wishes of 
■"'•■*■ the inhabitants. In all there are laboratories and 
kctuie rooms, trade classes, art studios, gymnasia, provision 
for manual training and domestic economy and applied science. 
In nearly all, at first, mechanical and manual instruction 
were the prominent objects in view, partly owing to the 
conditions under which grants were made by the science 
and art department. But of late increased attention has been 
paid year by year to literary and humaner studies, and to 
general mental cultivation, pursued pari passu with technical 
and scientific training. The aid of the London organization for 
university extension, now a department of the university, 
has been especially serviceable in providing courses of lectures 
and classes in literary subjects at nearly aU the polytechnics. 
As subsidiary to thdr main worlc, some of them have estab- 
fished junior continuation schools, with a view to provide 
sniubk instruction for scholars who have left the public ele- 
mentaxy schools and are not yet prepared to enter the technical 
and trade classes. Although the workshops and the classes for 
artisans are used chiefly in the evenings, there is an increasing 
number of day students : e.g. at the Northampton Polytechnic 
Institute in Clerkenwell there is a very important day school 
of cngiseering conducted on the "sandwich system, " the 
students entering engineering works for the summer months 
and returning to the polytechnic for the winter session; at the 
Battersea Pcdytechnic there js a very important training tiol- 
Icffe for teachers of domestic economy; at Regent Street there 
are day schools in engineering, architecture, photo-process and 
carriage-building; at the South-Westem Polytechnic there are 
important schook of mechanical and electrical engineering and 
a training college for women teachers of physical excrdscs; 
at the Northern Polytechnic, as at Battersea, there is a training 
colkge for teachers of domestic economy, and there are 
departments of commerce and of physics and chemistry, while 
the Woolwich Polytechnic recdves in the daytime, by spedal 
artangeraent with the war office, a large number of en^neering 
apprentices emptied in the arsenal In short, the schemes of 
the several institutions are so elastic that the governing bodies 
are at liberty to open any classes or to try any educational or 
recreative csperiment for which they can find a genuine local 
demand. The toid number of scholars in the polytechnics 
and their branch institutions Is variously estimated at from 
40,000 to 50.000, and the totd number of regular scholars in the 
evening sdiools of the council does not excMd 100,00a These 
figisxcs may be usduUy compared with the census returns, 
which show that within the metropoHun area there are 
704,414 persons between the ages of thirteen and twenty- 
one. It is a noteworthy fact that, whereas in the population 
statistics for the whole of England and Wales the number 
at each year of age is regularly diminished by death from 
eigfit years onwards, there is a steady increase in London, 
year by year, from fourteen up to the age of thirty. This fact 
is owing to the constant immigration of young men and women 
from tbie provinces to the metropolis. The census commis- 
iiooera in their report for igoi (p. 15) computed that more than 


one-third of the population o( London were not natives. They 
show dso that, if all England and Wales be taken together, 
the number of persons between twenty and twenty-one is less 
by 12*8% than the num^r between thirteen and fourteen; 
but that, taking London done, the number of persons between 
twenty and twenty-one is greater by 14*4% than the number 
between thirteen and fourteen. Hence, the proportion of the 
inhabiunts who are of an age to benefit by pdytechnics and 
continuation schools is in London exceptiondly large. It 
would not be right for Londoners to complain that there is thus 
cast upon them the duty of providing suitable instruction for so 
many immignints, for if the great dty drains the rurd districts 
of some of their best brdn and muscle, she gains much from 
their industry and productive power. The figures, however, 
point to the necessity for taking every means possible to 
raise the standard, both physical and intellectual, of the 
London boy. The immigration Into London of youths and 
young men means to a great extent the substitution of the 
provindally trained improver or artisan for the less fit London 
boy, who consequently falls Into the ranks of the unskilled, 
then of the unemployed and ultimately of the unemployable. 

But it follows from the particulars thus given that neither 
the supply of suitable provision for mental improvement and 
rationd recreation for the wage-earmng classes, nor the demand 
for such provision on the part of the workers themsdves Is 
commensurate with the moral and inteUectud needs of a com- 
munity of nearly seven millions of people (four and a hdf 
millions within the administrative county). The provision in 
evening schools. Institutes, classes and polytechnics is still in 
some respects far Inferior to that which is to be found In most 
German and Swiss towns, and needs to be greatly increased. 
In matters relating to the higher life, demand does not dways 
precede supply; it is dmply which is needed not ody to satisfy 
the public demand, but to create it. As new and well-devised 
opportunities for mentd culture are placed within reach, 
they will be more and more appreciated, new and healthier 
appetites will be stimulated, the art of employing leisure 
wisely and happily will be more systematically studied, and the 
polytechnics will become still more important centres of. 
dviUdng and educating influence than they have hitherto 
been. 

In particular, the reconstituted university of London has 
been placed in new and most helpfd relation to the best of the 
polytechnics. By the statutes the senate of the university is 
empowered to indude in the list of ** schools of the university " 
all institutions which are duly equipped and able to furnish 
suitable instruction of an advanced and scholarly type; and 
also to recognize all thoroughly qualified professors in thdr 
severd faculties and subjects as " teachers of the univeruty," 
although some of their classes may meet in the evemng only, 
and no student is to be prevented from taking a degree as an 
internal student of the university solely because he can attend 
classes only in the evening. There is thus a way open for the 
due recognition of the polytechnics as part of the teaching 
maehinery of the university, and for the admission of the best 
studenU as undergraduates, with all the righu of intemd 
students. The great possibilities of the metropolitan univer- 
sity under its new conditions were at first hardly reveded or 
accurately foreseen. But there were during the session 1906-1907 
no less than eighty-six recognized "teachers of the university" 
on the staffs of the London polytechnics and more than 750 
students who were working for London Umversity degrees 
in the polytechnic classes. There Is no reason to fear that 
the recreative, socid, manud and industrid traming, to which 
at first the spedd attention of the founder of the Regent Street 
Polytechnic was directed, will suffer from a fuller expansion 
of the academic and literary dde of " polytechnic " life. Rather 
it may be hoped that the due co-ordination of the practicd with 
the purdy InteUectud purposes of these institutions will serve 
to give to all the students, whatever their future destination 
may be, a truer and broader conception of the vdue of mental 
culture for its own sake. 


42 


POLYXENA— POLYZOA 


See also a paper by Mr Sidney Webb. Thf Lin^hn Fulykfhnic 
Jnstilutes, in the second voluitic^ ai ipeckil reports i>n edyiiiuoiial 
subjects (1898) issued by the Bdutaiion Dc|iirtinFTit: the Htf-.trl. 
of the Cenirai Governing Body of iMe Lomtttn Parochial Chof.ut^S', 
tne Annual Reports of the London Couniy dtu-nciii ihis Poiyt^ihnie 
Magazine, published From time to time at the institute in Kiv^^nt 
Street; ana various memoirs and papciTi conf jtnefl in the Pf<}^-i'd- 
ings of the Jnternational Co*ii[rejt on Trthfiffni Edaiation [iy\)7), 
especially two— that by Mr C^uiniin llirigi^, deL^iiing his o^n rirly 
experience in founding the first polyTcrhnic, and ih^t of Dr VVtlliim 
Gamett, then secretary of the Technical Education Ba.\rd. 

U.G^f; W.G.) 

POLYXENA, in Greek legend, daughter of Priam, king 0! 
Troy, and Hecuba. She had been betrothed to Achilles, who 
was slain by Paris in the temple of Apollo Thyrobraeus, where 
the marriage was to have been celebrated (Hyginus, Pab. no). 
The shade of Achilles afterwards appeared to the returning 
Greeks in the Thracian Chersonese and demanded the sacrifice 
of Polyxcna, who was put to death by Neoptolcmus, ion of 
Achilles, on his father's grave (Ovid, Metam. xiii. 440 sqq.)- 
The tragic story is the subject of the Hecuba of Euripides, the 
Troades of Seneca and the Polyxena of Sophocles, of which only 
a few fragments remain. According to Philostratus {Heroica, 
30, 18), Polyxcna fled to the Greeks after the murder of Achilles 
and committed suicide on his tomb. 

POLYZOA, in zoology, a term (introduced by J. V. Thompson, 
1830) synonymous with Bryozoa (Ehrenberg, 1831) for a group 
commonly included with the Brachiopoda in the Molluscoidea 
(Milne Edwards, 1843). The correctness of this association is 
questionable, and the Polyzoa are here treated as a primary 
division or phylum of the animal kingdom. They may be 
defined as aquatic animals, forming colonies by budding; with 
ciliated retractile tentacles and a U-shaped alimentary canal. 
The phylum is subdivided as follows. 

Class I. Entoprocta (Nitsche). Lophophore drcular, in- 
cluding both mouth and anus. Tentacles infolded, during 
retraction, into a vestibule which can be 
closed by a sphincter. Body-wall not 
calcified, body-cavity absent. Definite 
excretory organs present. Reproductive 
organs with ducts leading to the vesti- 
bule. Zooids possessing a high degree 
of individuality. Loxosoma Pediceiiina 
(fig. i), UmateUa. 

Class II. EcTOPROCTA (Nitsche). 
Lophophore circular or horseshoe 
shaped, including the mouth but not 
the anus. Tentacles retractile into an 
introvert (" tentacle-sheath "). Body- 
wall membranous or calcified, body- 
cavity distinct. Specific excretory 
organs absent, with the doubtful excep- 
tion of the Phylactolaemata. Repro- 
ductive organs not continuous with ducts. 
Zooids usually connected laterally with 
their neighbours. 

Order i. Gviinolaemata (Allman).— 
Lophophore circular, with no epistome. 
Fic. X. — Part of the Body<avities df zooids not continuous 
creeping stolon, with with one another. Body-wall not muscular, 
zooids, of Pediceiiina Suborder 1. Trepostomata (Ulrich); 
belgica. Fossil.— Zooecia. long and coherent, pris- 

a c. Stalks of zooids matic or cylindrical, with terminal orifices, 
of different ases* b, ^^^^ ^^'l ^l)>" ^"^ simple in structure 
bud. ' proxiroally, thickened and complicated 

distally. Cavity of the zooccium sutxlivided 
by transvAw diaphragms, most numerous in the distal portion. 
Orifices of the zooecia often separated by pores (mesopores). 

Sub-order a. Cryptostomata (Vine); Fossil. — Zooecia usually 
sho^^ Orifice concealed at the bottom of a vestibular shaft, sur- 
rounded by a solid or vesicular calcareous deposit. 

Sub-order j. Cyclostomata (Busk).— Zooecia prismatk: or 
cylindrical, with terminal, typkally circular orifice, not protected 
by any special organ. The ovicells are modified zooecia, and 
contain numerous embryos whkh in the cases so far investigated 
arise by fission of a primary embryo developed from an egg. Crisia 
(fig. 3). Tulndipora, Homera, Uchenotora. 
bubH>rder 4. Ctbnostomata (Busk).— Zooecia with toft uncalci- 



(After vin Bcaeden.) 


fied* walls, the external part of the introvert being closed during 
retraction by a membranous collar. Zooecia either arising from 
a stolon, without lateral connexion with one another, or laterally 
united to form sheets. Akyonidiun^ FluUrdla, Bowerbankia 
(fig> 3)f Fanella, VictoreOa, Paludicella. 



(AAcr HincLs.) 

Fic. 2.— Part of a Branch of Crina ehurnea. 
I, zooecia ; x, imperfectly developed ovicelL 

Sub-order -5. Chbilostomata (Busk).— Zooecia with more or 
less calcified walls. Orifice closed by a lid-like operculum. Poly- 
morphism usually occurs, certain indivkluals having the form of 
avkularia or vibracula. The 
ovkxlls commonly found as 
globular swellings surmounting 
the orifices are not direct 
modifications of zooecia, and 
each typkrally contains a single 
eeg or embrya Membranipora, 
fluslra^ Onychocellai LunU' 
tites, Steganopordla, Scrupo^ 
eellaria^ Menipea, Caberea, 
BicellariOt Bugula^ Beania, 




(After ICackU (After IGacks.) 

Fig. 3.— Part of a branch of Fic. 4.— Zooecia of Umbonida 
Bowerbankia pustidosa, showing payondla, showing a pair of 
the thread-like stolon from whkh minute avicularia on eitner side 
arise young and mature zooecia. of the orifice of each zooedum. 
The tentacles are expanded in 
some of the latter. 

Membranipordla, CribrUinOt Cettaria, Microfora, Sdenaria^ Urn- 
bonula fhg. 4), Lepralia, Schitoporella^ Lellepora, Mncronella, 
Smittia, Relepora^ CaieniceUOt MicroporeUa^ Adcona, 

Order a. Phylactolaemata (Allman).— Lophophore horse-shoe 
shaped, or in Fredericella circular. Mouth guarded by an epistome. 
Body<avities of zooids continuous with one another. Body-wall 
uncalcified and muscular. Reproduction sexual and by means of 
" statoblasts." peculiar internal buds protected by a chitinous shelL 
Fredericella, Plumatelta (fig. 5), Lophopus, Cristatella, Pectinatetta. 

Katschek (1888) treated the Entoprocta as a division of his 
group Scoledda, characterized by. the possession of a primary 
body-cavity and of protoncphridia; while he placed the Ecto- 
procta, with the Phoronida and Brachiopoda, in a distinct group, 
the Tentaculata. Against this view may be urged the essential 
similarity between the processes of budding in Entoprocta and 
Ectoprocta (cf. Seeliger, Zeitsckr. triss. Zool. xlix. 168; 1., 560), 
and the resemblances in the development of the two classes. 

Of the forms above indicated there is nopabeontologkral evidence 
with regard to the Entoprocta. The Trepostomata are in the 
main Palaeozoic, although Heteropora^ of whkh recent species exist, 
is placed by Gregory in this division. The Cryptostomata are also 
Palaeozok:. and include the abundant and widely-distributed 
genus FenesteUa. The Cyclostomau are numerous in Palaeozok: 
rocks, but attained a specially predominant position in the Creta- 
ceous strata, where they are represented by a profusion of genera 
and species; while they still survive in considerable numtwrs at 
the present day. The Ctenostomata are ill adapted for preserva- 
tion as fossils, though remains referred to this group have been 


* Cakrareous spkules have been dcKribed by Lomas in Alcyoni' 
dium gdatinosum. 


POLYZOA 


43 



(After 

Fig. 5. ' 
Plumatdla, with 
pand«d tentacles. 
Anus 


described from Pftlaeonuc strata. They constitute a small proportion 
of the recent Polyzoa. The Cheilostomata are usually believed to 
have made their appearance in the Jurassic period. They are the 
dominant group at the present day, and 
are represented by a larEe number of 
genera and species. The Phylactolaemata 
are a small group confined to fresh water, 
and possess clear indications of adaptation 
to that habitat. The fresh-water fauna 
also contains a representative of the 
Entoprocta (UmateUa), two or three 
Ctcnostomes, such as VictoreUa and Palu- 
dicella, and one or two species of Cheilo- 
stomata. With these exceptions, the 
existing Polyzoa arc marine forms, occur- 
ring from between tide-marks to abyssal 
depths in the ocean. 

The Polytoa are colonial animals, the 
colony (zoarium) originating in most 
cases from a frce-swimmins larva, which 
attaches itself to some solid object and 
becomes metamorphosed into the primary 
individual, or ancestrula." In the 
Phylactolaemata, however, a new colony 
may originate not only from a larva, but 
also from a peculiar form of bud known 
as a statoblast, or by the fission of a 
fully-developed colony. The ancestrula 
inaugurates a process of budding, con- 
tinued by its progeny, and thus gives 
rise to the mature colony. In Loxosoma 
the buds break off as soon as they become 
mature, and a colonial form is thus hardly 
br. Tentacles, arranged assumed. In other Entoprocta the buds 
on a horseshoe retain a high degree of individuality^ a 
shaped lopho- thread-like stolon giving off the cylindrical 
phore; stalks, each of which dilates at its end 

i, £ctocyst: into the body of a xooid. In some of the 

9, Caecum of stomach. Ctcnostomata the colony b similariy 
constituted, a branched stdon giving 
off the xooids, which are not connected with one another. In 
the majority of Ectoprocta there is no stolon, the tooids growing 
out of one another and being usually apposed so as to form con- 
tinuous dieets or branches. In the encrusting type, which is 
found in a Urge proportion of the genera, the zooids are usually 
in a single layer, with their orifices facing away from the sub- 
i^ratum; but m certain species the colony becomes multilaminar 
by the continued superposition of new zooids over the free surfaces 
of the older ones, whose orifices they naturally occlude. The 
zoarium may rise up into erect growths composed of a single layer 
of zooids. the orifices of which are all on one surface, or of two layers 
of zooids placed back to back, with the orifices on both sides of 
the fronds or plates. The rigid Cheilostomes whkrh have this 
habit were formeriy placed in the genus Esckara, but the bilaminar 
type is common to a number of |[enera, and there can be no doubt 
that it is not in itself an indication of affinity. The body-wall is 
extensvely caknficd in the Cyclostomata and in most Cheilo- 
stomata, which may form elegant ^etwork-like colonies, as in the 
onilaminar genus Ketepora, or may consist of wavy .anastomosing 
plates, as in the bilaminar Lepralta foliacea of the British coasts, 
q)ecimens of which may have' a diameter of many inches. In 
other Chcilofitoroes the amount of calcification may be much le^ 
the supporting skeleton being lai^gely composed of the organic 
material chitin. In Plustra and other forms belonging to this 
type, the zoarium is accordingly flexible, and either bilaminar 
or unilaminar. In many calcareous forms, both Cheilostomes and 
Cydostomcs, the zoarium is rendered flexible by the interposition 
of chitioous joints at intervals. This habit is cnaracteristic of the 
genera Crista^ CMaria^ Cateniceila and others, while it occurs in 
certain spedcs of other genera. The form of the colony may thus 
be a good generic character, or, on the contrary, a single genus or 
even species may assume a variety of different forms. While 
nearly all Polyzoa are permanently fixed to one spot, the colonics 
of CristaUUa and Lopkopus among the Phybctolaemata can crawl 
skiwly from place to place. 

Anatcmy. — The zooids of which the colonies of Ectoprocta are 
compo s ed consist of two parts: the body- wall and the visceral 
mass (fifs. 6, 9). These were at one time believed to represent 
two individuals of different kinds, together constituting^ a zooid. 
The visceral mass was accordingly termed the " polypide " and 
the body-wall which contains it the "zooecium." This view 
(kpended principally on the fact that the life of the polypide and 
of the zooecium are not coextensive. It is one of tne most re- 
markable facts in the natural history of the Polyzoa that a single 
ZDoedDm may be tenanted by several polypidcs, which successively 
deg e n era te. The periodical histolysis may be partly due to the 
absence of specific excretory organs and to the accumulation of 
pigmented e x cre t or y substances in the wall of the alimentary 
caaoL On the degeneration of the polypide, its nutritive material 
is appazeotly absorbed for the benefit of the zooid, while the pig- 


mented substances assume a spheroidal form, which either remains 
as an inert " brown body " in the body-cavity or is discharged to 
the exterior by the alimentary canal of the new polypide. This 
is formed as a two-layered " polypide-bud," which usually develops 
from the inner side 01 the zooecial wall, and soon occupies the place 
of the previous polypide. The inner layer of the polypide-bud 
gives rise to the structures usually regarded as ectodermic and 
endodermic, the outer layer to the mesodermic organs. 

The polypide consists of a " lophophore " bearing a series of 
ciliated tentacles by which Diatoms and other microscopic bodies 
are collected as food, of a U-shaped alimentary canal, and of a 
central nervous system. While the mouth is invariably encircled 
by the bases of the tentacles, the anus lies within the series in the 
Entoprocta and outside it in the Ectoprocta. The lophophore is 
a simple circle in all Polyzoa except in the Phylactolaemata, where 
it typically has the form of a horse shoe outlined by the bases of 
the tentacles. In FredericeUa belonj^ing to this order it is, however, 
circular, but the systematic position of the genus is sufficiently 
indicated by its possession of an " epistome," a lip-like structure 
guarding the anal side of the mouth in all Phylactolaemata and 
absent throughout the Gymnolaemata. The cavities of the hollow 
tentacles open into a circular canal which surrounds the oesophagus 
at the base of the lophophore. This is continuous with the general 
body<avity in the Phylactolaemata, while in the Gymnolaemata 
it develops in the bud as a part of the body-cavity, from which 
it becomes completely separated. In the Entoprocta the tentacles 
are withdrawn by being infolded into the " vestibule," a depression 
of the oral surface which can be closed by a sphincter muscle. In 
the Ectoprocta they are retractile into an introvert, the " tentacle- 
sheath " ^fig. 9), the external opening of which is the " orifice " of 
the zooecium. In the Cyclostomata. further distinguished by the 
cylindrical or prismatic form of their highly calcified zooccia, the 
orifice is typically circular, without any definite dosing organ. 
In the Cheilostomata it is closed by a chitinous (rarely calcareous) 
" operculum " (fig. 9, C), while in the Ctenostomata it is guarded 
by a delicate membrane similar to a piece of paper rolled into a 
longitudinally creased cylinder. During retraction this " collar " 
lies concealed in the beginning of the introvert. It becomes visible 
when* the polypide begins to 
protrude its tentacles, making 
Its appearance throueh the 
orifice as a delicate hyaline 
frill through which the ten- 
tacles are pushed. 

In the Phylactolaemata the 
outermost layer of the body- 
wall is a flexible, uncalcificd 
cuticle or "ectocyst," be- 
neath which follow in suc- 
cession the ectoderm, the 
muscular layers and the 
coelomic epithelium. In a 
few Gymnolaemata the ec^ 
tocyst is merely chitinous, 
although in most cases the 
four vertical walls and the 
basal wall of the zooecium 
are calcareous. The free 
(frontal) wall may remain 
membranous and uncalcified, 
as in Membranipora (figs. 
8 A, 9 A), but in many 
Cheilostomes the frontal 
surface is protected by a cal- 
careous shield, which grows 
from near the free edges of 
the vertical walls and com- 
monly increases in thickness 
as the zooecium grows older 
by the activity m the " epi- 
theca," a layer of living 
tissue outside iL The body- 
wall is greatly simplified in 
the Gymnolaemata, in cor- 
relation with the functional 
importance of the skeletal 
part of the wall. Even the 
ectoderm can rarely be recog- 
nized as an obvious epithe- 
lium except in regions where 
budding is taking place, while 
muscular layers are always 
absent and a coelomic epi- 
thelium can seldom be ob- 
served. The body-cavity is, 
however^ traversed by mus- 
cles, and by strands 01 meso- 
dermic " funicular tissue, 



(After/ 

Fic. 6.— Zooid of Paludketta 
artkulata (<■ ehrenbergi). 
a, Anus. 

br. Expanded tentacles. 
i, Ectocyst. 
m, A Parietovaginal muscles, 
mr, Retractor muscle. 
o. Ovary, 
or, Oesophagus. 
V, Caecum of stomach. 
/, testis. 
Xt x\ FuniculL 

usually irregular, but sometimes constituting definite funiculi ^%- 
6, X, %*). This tissue is continuous from zooecium to sooectun) 


POLYZOA 


through perforated " roaettc>pUtti " in the dividing walls. In 
the Pnylactolaemau a tingle definite funiculus passes from the body- 
wall to the apex of the stomach. This latter organ is pigmented 
in all Polyzoa, and is produced, in the Ectopixxta. 5eyond the 
point where the intestme leaves it into a conspicuous caecum 
(fig. 6, v). The nervous system is represented by a ganglion 
situated between the mouth and the anus. The ovary (o) and 
the testis (/) of Ectoprocta are developed on the bodv-wall, on the 
stomach, or on the luniculus. Both kinds of reproductive organs 
may occur in a single sooecium. and the reproductive elements pass 
when ripe into the body<avity. Their mode of escape is unknown 
in most cases. In some Gymndaeroata, polymdes which develop 
an ovary poisess a flask-shaped " intertentacular organ,'* situated 
between two of the tentacles, and affording a direct passage into the 
introvert for the eggs or even the spermatosoa developed in the same 
zooecium. In other cases the reproductive cells perhaps pass out by 
the atrophy of the polypide, whereby the bodv-cavity may become 
continuous with the exterior. The sUtoUasts of the Phylactolaemau 
originate on the funiculus, and are saul to be derived partly from an 
ectodermic core possessed by this organ and partly from its external 
mesoderm (Braem), the former giving rise to the chitinous envelope 
and to a nucleated layer (fig. 7, ect), which later invaginates to form 
the inner vesicle of the polypide-bud. The meaodermic portion 
becomes charged with a yolk-like material (y), and, on the germina- 
tion of the sutoblast, gives rise to the outer layer (ma) of the bud. 
The production of a polypide by the statoblast thus differs in no 
essential respect fn)m the formation of a polypide in an ordinary 
xooedum. The sutoblasts require a period of rest before germina- 
tion, and Braem has shown that their property of floating at the 
surface may be beneficial to them by exposiiw them to the action 
^^ of frost, which in some 

: ^* cases improves the ger- 

minating power. The 
occurrence of Phylac- 
tolaemata in the tropics 
would show, however, 
without further evidence, 
that frost is not a factor 
essential for germination. 
The withdrawal of the 
extended polypide is 
effected by the contrac- 
tion of the retractor 
muscles (fie. 6^ Mr), and 
must result m an in- 
crease in the volume of 
the contents of the body- 



(After BfMn.) 

Fic. 7. — ^Section of a Germinating 
Statoblast of CristaUUa mucedo. 
Ofw, Chitinous annulus; containing air- 
cavities which enable the stato- 
blast to float. 
9CU Thickened part of the ectoderm. 


which wflfgive rise to the inner cavity. The alternate 


layer of the polypide- bud. 
nuSt Mesoderm, forming the outer layer 

of the bud. 
«p, Anchoring spines of the statoblast. 
y. The yolk-like mesodermic mass. 


increase and diminution 
of volume is easily under- 
stood in forms with flex- 
ible cooecia. Thus in the 
Phylactolaemata the con- 
traction of the muscular 
body-wall exerts a pressure on the fluid dL the body-cavity and is 
the cause of the protrusion of the polypide. In the Gymno- 
laemata protrusion is effected by the contraction of the parietal 
muscles, which pass freely across the body-cavity from one part 
of the body- wall to another. In the branching Ctenostomes the 
entire body-wall is flexible, so that the contraction of a parietal 
muscle acts equally on the two points with which it is connected. 
In encrusting Ctenostomes and in the MemhrantporaAWat Cheilo- 
stomes (figs. 8 A. 9 A) the free surface or frontal wall is the only 

one in which any consider- 
able amount of movement 
can take place. The parie- 
tal muscles (^.m.}, which 
pass from the vertical walls 
to the frontal wall, thus 
act by depressing the latter 
and so exerting a pressure 
on the fluid 01 the body- 
Fic. 8.— Diagrammatic Transverse cavity. In Chcilostpmata 
Sections. *^th a ngkl frontal, wall 

A of Membranipcra' B of an J"*'*.'^" showed that pro- 
i.mmJ«*...m mr^nmt^UtwJT^ mJ /*V.jlm*i.*>« . tTUSion and retraction were 

immature aooecium 01 itnonumui j ■ -t,!, u„ »i._ 

^.M.. Parietal muscles. rendered possible by the 

1^.11.., rMicMu iiiuaus^ existence of a "oompensa- 

tlon-sac.*' in communication with the external water. 

In its most fully-developed condition (fig. 9. C) the compensation- 
sac ifij.) is a large cavity which lies beneath the calcified frontal 
wall ana opens to the exterior at the proximal border of the oper- 
culum (fig. 10). It is joined to the ngid body- wall by numerous 
muscle-hbres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on 
the fluid 6f the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide. 
The exchange of fluid in the sac may well nave a respiratory signifi- 
cance, in addition to its object of facilitating the movements of 
the tnitacles. 

The evolution of the arrangements for protruding the polypkle 
seems to have proceeded along several distinct lines: (i.) In certain 



species of Mtmbranipora the " frontal membrane," or membnnou* 


free-wall, is protected by a series oif calcareous HMnes. which start 
periphery and arch inwards. In CribriUna sin " 


from its 



Fig. 9.~Diagrammatic Longitudinal Sections of Cheilostomatotts 
Zooecia. 

Some 


A. Membranipora (after Nitsche); B, Cfi5nlfiia: C. 
liokf form - - - - 

ipensati / . 

which the tentacles are protruded, cp., OperculuoL ^.m.. Ptkrieul 


of the Lepraliokf forms, bx.. Body-cavity, tr., Cryptocyst. Ls„ 
Compensation-sac. /.m.. Frontal membrane. «.. Onfice, through 



muides. 1.1., Tentacle-sbeath. 

are developed in the young sooecium. but they soon unite with one 
another laterally, leaving rows of pores along the sutural lines 
(fig. 10). The operculum retains its oDi 
continuity with tne frontal membrane '*• 

(fig. 9, B) into which the parietal muscles 
are still inserted. As indications that 
the conditions described in Metnbranipora 
and CriMlina are of spodal significance 
may be noted the fact that the ancestrula 
of many genera which have well-developed 
compensation-sacs in the rest of their 
zooecia is a i/rm6fam^ora-like individual 
with a series of marginal calcareous q>ines, 
and the further fact that a considerable 
proportion of the Cretaceous Cheilos* 
tomes belong either to the Membrani- 
poridae or to the Cribrilinidae. (ii.) In 
ScrupoctUaria, Me»ipea and Cabierea a 
single, greatly dilated marginal spine, the p.. ,_ 7,,,,^..^ 
•• scutum " or " fornix." may protect the ^i'^^JST^S^.S 
frontal membrane, (iii.) In Umbontda «. *™r!^ !r^S* 
the frontal membrane and parietal i^i J?lf?£? ^ ^ 
muscles of the young aooecium are like f??E?S!S?luL »22 
those of Membranipora, but they become iJlKS.'^J?* ^ ^^ 
covered by the wowth. from the proximal op««"«M W)- 
and lateral sides, of a calcareous lamina covered externally 
by a soft membrane. The arrangement is perhaps derivable 
from a CH&ri/Ma-like condition in which the outer layer of the 
spines has become membranous while the spines themselves are 
laterally united from the first (iv.) In the MkToporidae and 
Steganoporellidae the body-cavity becomes partially subdivkied 
by a calcareous lamina (" c^tocyst,'* JuUien) which grows from 
the proximal and lateral sides in a plane parallel to the frontal 
membrane and not far below it. The parietal muscles are usually 
reduced to a single pair, which may pass through foramina 
("opesiules ") in thie cryptocyst to reacn their insertion. There ia 
no compensation-sac in these families, (v.) Many of the Lepralioid 
forms offer special difficulties, but the calcareous layer of the frontal 
surface is probably a cryptocyst (as in fis. 9. C). the compensatbn- 
sac being developed round its distal oorder. The " 


noticed above u in this case the persistent frontal membrane, 
(vi.) In Micropontta the opening of the compensation-sac haa 
become separated from the operculum by calcareous matter, and 
is known as the *' median pore." JuUien believed that this pore 
opens into the tentacle-sheath, but it appean probable that it really 
communicates with the compensation-sac and not with the tentacle- 
sheath. The mechanism of protrusion in the Cyclostomata is a 
subject which requires further examination. 

The most singular of the external appendages found in the 
Polysoa are the avicularia and vibracula of the Cbeilostomata. 
The avicularium is so called from itt resemblance, in its most 
highly differentiated conditbn, to the head of a bird. In ^itfiJd, 
for instance, a calcareous avicularium of thb type is attached by 
a narrow neck to each cooedum. The avicularium can move aa 
a whole by means of special musdes, and its chitinoua lower Jaw 


POLYZOA 


45 


am be opened and doe^ It b tested as a 
modified xooedum, the polypide of which has become vestigiaT, 
although it b commonly represented by a sense-organ, bearing 
tactile hairs, situated on what may be termed the' palate. The 
operculum of the normal aooecium has become the mandible, 
vhfle the ocdusor muscles have become enormous. In the vibra- 
culum the part representing the xooecium b relatively smaller, 
and the mandible has become the " seta," an elonrated chitinous 
lash which projects far beyond the zooecial portion of the structure. 
In Caberea, the vibracula are known to move synchronously, but 
co-ordination of thb kind b otherwise unknown in the Polysoa. 
The avkularia and vibracula give valuable aid to the systematic 
study of the Cheilostoroata. In its least differentiated form the 
avicdlarium occupies the place of an ordinary zooecium (" vicarious 
avicttlarium "}, from which it b distinguished by the greater 
devdopment of the operculum and its muscles, while the polypide 
b normally not functional. Avicularia of thb type occur in the 
common nustra Jtdiacea^ in varioua species of Membranipora, and 
in particular in the Onychocellidae, a renMrkable family common 
in the Cretaceous period and still ekbting. In the majority, of 
ClMilostomes, the avicularia are, so to speak, forced out oi the 
ordinary series of zoocda. with which they are risidly connected. 
There are comparatively few cases in which, as in Bugulat they are 
mounted on a movable joint. Although at first sisht the arrange- 
ment oi the avicularia in Cheilostomes appears to loUow no general 
law some method b probably to be made out on doser study. 
Tlwy occur in particular in relation with the orifice of the zooedum, 
and with that of the compensation-sac. Thb delicate structure 
b frequently giiardcd by an avicularium at Its entrance, while 
avicularia are also commonly found on dther side of the operculum 
or in other positions close to that structure. It can hardly be doubted 
that the function of these avicularia is the protection of the ten- 
tacles and compensation-sac The suggntton tnat they are concerned 
in feeding does not rest on any definite evidence, and is probably 
errooeooa. But avicularia or vibracula may also occur in other 

E laces— on the backs of unilaminar erect forms, along the sutural 
nes of the xooeda and on their frontal surface. These are probably 
important in checking overgrowth by encrusting organisms, and 
in particular by preventing larvae from fixing on the zoarium. 
\lbracuki are dt less fretiuent occurrence than avicularia, with which 
thev' may coexist as in ScrupouUana, where they occur on the 
backs of the unilaminar branches. In the so-called Selenariidae. 
probaUy an unnatural association of genera whkh have assumed 
a fr«e diacoidal form of soarium, they may reach a voy high degree 
of devdopment, but Busk's suggestion that in thb group they 
*' may be subservient to locomotion " needs verification. 

Dttd^pmeni and Afinities.— It is ::r -r 'I- , '-; • i that the 
larva of the Entoprocta (fig. 11} baij the struciufe of n. Tru^tio- 
sphcrr. This appears to \n6k ite 
that the Polyzoa are remoMily 
allied to other phyla in which 
this type of li^vv^ prevails, and 
in partuciilar to the MoIIuka and 
Ch,iciopoda, as wtU aa to the 
RoHfemt which art regarded as 
pt;r»i»lent TnKhosphcfc*, The 
pracDrnl portion (lower in fig;. 11) 
COn^CEtutca the greater part of 
the lan'a and contain! most of 
the viscera. It is terminated' by 
a wdl-developed^ structure f/« 
corresponding ■a-ith the apical 
•cnsc-OT^n of ordinaxy Trccho- 
spheres, and an excretory qr]gan 
(npA) of the type familiar in 
these larvae occurs on the ventral 
side of the stomach. The central 
nervous system (x) b highly 
developed, and in Loxosoma bears 
a pair of eyes. The brva swims 
(AfMlUbdKk.) by a ring of dlia, which corre- 

Fic 1 1.— Larva of PtdicOUna. sponda with the praeoral drdet 
AniH. ™ * Trochosphere. The oral 

fl A^^i ■■..— ■■nun aurface, on which are situated 

fc iS^S^^^ th. mouA («) and .n«. (a), i. 

TJj. P,~^««f.«. ment to the maternal vestibule in 

V^ bSS^^^ ^^^^ devdopment takes place, 

X, onw. ^^^ permanent fixation is enected 

by the oral aofface. Thb b followed by the atrophy of many of the 
larval onpuis, induding the brain, the sense-organ and the dliated 
ring. Tfie alimentary canal persbts and revolves in the medbn 
plane throogh an angle of 180 , accompanied by part of the larval 
vesttbole, the mace tormed by the retraction of the oral surface. 
The vesdbttle breaks through to the exterior, and the tentacles, 
which have been devdoped within It, are brought Into relation 
with the external water. 
U the oomnon and wkidy-distributcd CheUostome, Mtmbram- 



pora pQosa, the pelagic larva b known as Cyphmihiiii. and tl lai 
a' structure not unlike that of the larval FfdntUina. The princ^i^ 
differences are the complication of the <: iUated band, the absenee of 
the excretory organ, the great lateral comprtssion of the body, 
the possession of a pair of shdb protecting ihe sides, the pre&cjire 
of an organ known as the " pyrilorm arj^iin," and the occurrence 
of a sucker in a position corresponding whh the depression seen 
between (m) and (a) in fig. 11. Fixauon takes pbce by means of 
thb sucker, which b everted for the piirpo?!?, parr of its epithelium 
becoming the basal ectoderm of the ariCuatruli. The pyriJorra 
organ h^ probably assisted the larva to find an appropriate place 
for fixation (cf. Kupdwieser, 18); but, like the alimentary canal 
and most of the other larval organs, it undergoes a process of hbto- 


f rom a polypide-bud. 

The CypHoruuUes type has been shown by Prouho (24) to occur 
in two or three widely different species of Chcilostomata and Cteno> 
stomata in which the eggs are laid and develop in the external 
water. In most Ectoprocta, however, the development takes place 
internally or in an ovicell, and a considerable quantity of yolk b 
present. The alimentary canal, whuJi may be represented by a 
vestigbl structure^ is accordingly not functional, and the brva 
does not become pelagic. A pyriform organ is present in most 
Gymnolaemata as well as the sucker by which fixation b effected. 
As in the case of CypfumauteSt the larval organs degenerate and 
the larva becomes the ancestrula from which a polypide is developed 
as a bud. In the Cjrclostomata the primary embryo undergoes 
repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of 
the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses 
no alimentary canaU Finally, in the Phylactolaemata, the brva 
be strub before it b hatched, and one or several 

pc present when fixation is effected. 

h,c d'.\:2.-in....'nt of the Ectoprocta b intelligible on the hypo- 
thesis that the I'lntoprocta form the starting-point of the series. 
On the view that the PhyUctolaemata are nearly rebted to Pkoronis 
(see PiioROKtDRA), it b extremely difficult to draw any conclusions 
with regard to the significance of the facU of devdopment. If the 
Phyiactolaennain were evolved from the type of structure repre- 
sented by Flif>rnttis or the Pterobranchia (^.s.), the Gymnobemata 
should be a fimtjer modification of thb type, and the comparative 
study of the ini bryology of the two orders would appear to be 
meanint^lc^::?, U seems more natural to dr^w the conclusion that 
the n£ai:ii.u:aiu:c8 of the Phylactolaemata to Pkoronis are devoid 
oi phylogenetic significance. 

Bibliography. — ^For general accounts of the structure and 
development of the Polyzoa the reader's attention is specblly 
dirP' r,?,1 tr '^. T4, 6. 35, 1, 2y IJh 56, 18, 23, 3. in the list given below; 
fo; .l1 account to t ; fur a full bibliography <M the group, 

to 22: lor in??.h"vatcr forms^ to 1-3, 7-10, 17; for an indbpensable 
synonymic list of recent marine forms, to 15; for Entoprocta, to 
10, ti. 34: lor the clasaifi»t[on of Gymnolaemata, to ai, 14, 4, 
13. so: for Palaeontology, to a?, 22. 
Referencf^ to im port ant worka on the spedes of marine Polyzoa 
' Duak, Hi neks, Jul lien. Levinsen, NlacGillivray, Nordgaard, 
Drman. Waters and others are eiven in the Memoir hti) by Nickles 
and Bailer, {i) All man, " ^Io[logr• Fresh-water Polyzoa," Ray 
Set. (ia!^&). U) Brasm. " Bry. d. sOssen Wassers," BibL Zool. 
Bd. ii. Heft 6 (iSgo)^ Cs) Bnicm, " EntwickeL v. Plumatella," 
ibirj,, Jid. X. Heft 33 tiflO?)- (4) Busk. " Report on the Polyroa," 
" Ckanaiitr ' Rsp. pt- 3oix, (1884), 5© (1886). (5) Caldwell, " Phoro- 
nii" Frof. Roy. Soc. il^^^\. xJtxiv, 371. (6) Calvet, " Bry. Ecto- 
proctes Manns," 2f^. l,**i. Montpdlier (new series), Mim. 
8 (1900). (7) Cori. " Nephridien d. Cristatetta" ZeiUchr. wiss. Zool. 
(1893), Iv. 626. (8) Davenport, " CristateUa** BvU, Mus. Harvard 
(1 800-1891), jor. 101. <9)T>a%TnpflTt, " PaludUdla" \htd^ (1891-1802), 
xxiii I. (10) Davenport, " Unatella'' ibid. (iSq3)t Mtiv. i. fill 
Ehlers, " r«3icellincen," Abk. Cts. Gotiingen (iS^o), jourv-i. (iJ> 
Harmer. " Polyzoa/* Cambr. Nal. Hist. (1S06), li. 463: art. *' Poty- 
xoa." Ency. Brii. (toth cd., 190a), xxxi. ^26. (tj) Haimcr, 
" Morph. CheSloatDTnata/' Quart, Jcitm. UU. ScL (1903), xlvi. 
263. (14) Hlncks, " Hist. BriL Mar. PoJ.^^ 1860). (15J /dly. 
•' Syn. Cat, Recent Mar. Bry." (laftg). fi6) jullicn and Calvet, 
" Bryozoairot." Rls iamp. set. prime de Mcmaco (iqoa). >ouii* {17) 
Kraepelin.^ " I>eut3ch. SasawajKcr-Bry*/' Abh. Vet, Hambmrt 
(i887h X.: (1892). lii. (iS) KupelwiBer. " Cyphotfaiiia" Zschgito 
(1906), Bd- xix. Heft 17. (19) LifikesiCT^ arL " Polyioa " 
Eney. Brii. (9th ed.. iSSs), xix. 439. (jo) Lcvin*en. " Bf^oioai" 
Vid. Medd. Xaiurh. Foren. ((^cpcnhagtii. iQoj), (^1) MacGtHivray, 
" Cat. Mar Pol. Victoria. P, Roy. Soc, vicUfria (rSS?), jadii. il?, 
(22) Nickles ^nd Basakr. "Synopsis Amer* Post. Bry.," B^t, 
U.S. Geol. SuTtey (1900}, No. 173. {2^) Pace. *' Dev. Ftustntia;' 
Quart. Journ. Afu:. 5m. (190*)* 50. P*- 3r 435* 64) Prouho, *' L«xo- 
les," AnL Z^ol. Exp. (j) (1801). ix, 91. (25) Prouho, " Bryo- 
lires," it K i . (a) C 1 892) » x. $S 7- W SeehRCf- *' LaTvt n'u, Vcvmndt- 


jTc 


schaft. ' Zfiisthr. 

"F08« 

(1900). L as7. 


(27) Ulrich, 


Fossil Poly aoa,'' in Ziltd's r0^4»l oj Paiatontoiogy, Eng. ed. 


+6 


POMADE— POMEGRANATE 


POMADE, or Pomatum, a scented ointment, used formerly 
for softening and beautifying the skin, as a lip-salve, &c., but 
now principally applied to the hair. It was made originally 
from the juice of apples (Lat. pomum)t whence the name.. 

POMANDER (from Fr. pomme d^ambre, i.e. apple of amber), 
a ball made of perfumes, such as ambergris (whence the name), 
musk, civet, &c., and fonnerly worn or carried in a case, also 
known by the same name, as a protection against infection in 
times of pestilence or merely as a useful article to modify bad 
smells. The globular cases which contained the " pomanders " 
were htmg from a neck-chain or attached to the girdle, and were 
usually perforated and made of gold or silver. Sometimes they 
contained several partitions, in each of which was placed a 
different perfume. There is an early Spanish pomander set 
with emeralds, and a fine x6th-century one, dredged from the 
Thames, in the British Museimi. 

POMBAL, SEBASnXO JOSE DB CARVALHO B MELLO. 
Marquess of (1699-1783), Portuguese statesman, was bom 
at Soure near Pomba, on the X3th of May 1699. He was the 
son of Manoel de Carvalho e Athayde, a coimtry gentleman 
{fidalgo) and of his wife D. Theresa Luiza de Mendonca e Mello. 
He studied law at Coimbra University, served* for a short time 
as a private in the army, and afterwards lived the life of a man 
about town in Lisbon, sharing in the diversions of the " Mohocks " 
who then infested the streets. In 1733 he abducted and married 
D. Theresa de Noronha, a widow belong^ to one of the most 
distinguished families in Portugal. He then retired to Soure, 
where, on the recommendation of Cardinal de Motta, King John 
V. commissioned him to write a series of biographical studies. 
In 1739 he was sent as Portuguese ambassador to London, where 
he remained imtil 1745. He was then transferred to Vienna. 
His first wife having died on the 7th of January 1 739, he married, 
on the i8th of December 1745, Leonora Ernestine Daun, 
daughter of General Count Daim. In 1749 he was recalled to 
take up the post of secretary of state for foreign affairs and war. 
The appointment was ratified on the 3rd of August 1750, by King 
Joseph, who had succeeded John V. in that year. Carvalho's 
career from 1750 to 1777 is part of the history of PortugaL 
Though he came into power only in his 51st year, without 
previous administrative experience, he was able to reorganize 
Portuguese education, finance, the army and the navy. He also 
built up new industries, promoted the development of Brazil 
and Macao, and expelled the Jesuits. His complete ascendancy 
over the mind of King Joseph dates from the time of the great 
Lisbon earthquake (Nov. i, 1755). Though the famous words 
" Bury the dead and feed the living " were probably not spoken 
by him, they summarize bis action at this time of calamity. 
In June 1759 his suppression of the so-called " Tavora plot " 
gained for hhn the title of count of Oeyras; and in September 
1770 he was made marquess of Pombal. His severe adminis- 
tration had made many enemies, and his life had been attempted 
in 1769. Soon after the death of King Joseph, in 1777, Pombal 
was dismissed from office; and he was only saved from impeach- 
ment by the death of his bitterest opponent, the queen-mother, 
Mariana Victoria, in January 1781. On the x6th of Atigust a 
royal decree forbade him to reside within twenty leagues of the 
court. He died at Pombal on the 8th of May 1782. 

ScCj la additiDn ra the works dealing with the j^nod 1750-1777 
ud nuolcd uniJtr POKTUGALJ rtUUtry, 5- J CM. crombal), Fiidio 
«£r<TuiJd. Ac. (Parii. t7S^}; Uimthn of tht C^iuH of PorSiii^^i 4c. 
CLoDidon. 1755): Anrfdtfkj du tniniiitre de FambcJ C\V3fMw, ];>i' 
AdminutraiiaH du mar^uu dt Ppmbai (4 voU.< AmsrcrLi— i-'7 
CdrAu . . . du mmroites d* Pombal (j vol*.* Liib'ri. ; 4, 

J. Smith, Count of CarnfjEat Memeiri tff tht Mat^u- ial, 

&c. (Londoti, 1841)^ ^* ^* CtKiiOf jU Main^u dc J\-. Sec. 
(PariE, ia(5gj! 8- Duhr {S.J.I, Fifml^al, &c. (Freibupt i«« tir* 1 : au, 
iB^fl E C J+ de Mcnetea, (?i Jtsuilas e a nuirqun de Fombai r(i| ■ ito, 
iSg^j). !5cE also iifttdt4 tn ihi? Rn-w: dri ifnj ^lendf j ft«r &eprt-ii<ber 
IS70; the M^tnif iittnf (or ScptcmbCT iMg, and the IEtpim ki-ik/ripte 
for September 1895 and January 1896. 

POMEGRANATE. The pomegranate {Punica Cranatum) Is 
of exceptional interest by reason of its structure, its history, and 
its utility. It forms a tree of small stature, or a bush, with 
opposite or altenutte, shining, lance-shaped leaves, from the 


axils of some of which proceed the brilliant scariet flowers. 
These are raised on a short stalk, and consist of a thick fleshy 
cylindrical or bell-shaped calyx-tube, with five to seven short 
lobes at the top. From the throat of the calyx proceed five to 



Fig. I. — Pomegranate, Puttka Granatum, flowertng branch, half 

natural size. 

I, Flower cut lengthwise: the j. Same cut across, showing 

petals have been removed. seeds. 

3, Fruit, about one-third natural 4. Seed, natural size, 
sise. 

seven roundish, crumpled, scarlet or crimson petals, and below 
them very numerous slender stamens. The pistil consists of two 
rows of carpels placed one above another, both rows embedded 
in, and partially inscparate from, the inner surface of the calyx- 
tube. The styles are confluent into one slender column. The 
fruit, which usually attains the size of a large orange, consists 




(After SkUcr. fram Suubai«er'ft UMmk 4m BttamOt, bf peraiiiloo oC C«tev 
Ffachff.) 

Fic. 2. — Punka Granatum. 
A, Floral diagram. B, Longitudinal section of the ovary. 

of a hard leathery rind, enclosing a quantity of pulp derived 
from the coats of the numerous seeds. This pulp, filled as it is 
with refreshing add juice, constitutes the chief value of the tree. 
The more highly cultivated forms contain more of it than the 
wild or half-wild varieties. The great structural peculiarity 
consists in the presence of the two rows of carpels one above 
another (a state of things which occurs exceptionally in apples 
and oranges), and in the fact that, while in the lower series the 
seeds are attached to the inner border or lower angle of the cavity* 
they occupy the outer side in the upper series, as if during growth 
the upper whorl had become completely bent over. 

By Bentham and Hooker the Punka is included as an anoma- 
lous genus in the order Lythraceae; others consider it more 
nearly allied to the myrtles; while its peculiarities are so great as, 
in the opinion of many botanists, to justify its inclusion in « 


POMERANIA 


47 


tepuate onkr, Ponicaoeae. Not only is tbe fruit valuable in 
hot countries for the sake of its pulp, but the rind and the bark 
and the outer part of the root (containing the alkaloid pdU- 
Herint) are valuable as astringents. The bark of the root is 
likewise valued as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worm. 

The tree is wild in Afghanistan, north-western India, and the 
districts south and south-west of the Caspian, but it has been so 
k>ng cultivated that it is difficult to say whether it is really 
native in Palestine and the Mediterranean region. It has been 
dted as wQd in northern Africa, but this appears to be a mistake. 
Professor Bayley Balfour met with a wild spedes, heretofore un- 
known, in the island of Socotra, the flowers of which have only 
a sin^ row of carpels, which suggests the inference that it may 
have' been the source of the cultivated varieties. But, on the other 
hand, in Afghanistan, where Aitchison met with the tree truly 
wild, a douUe row of carpels was present as usuaL The antiquity 
of the tree as a cultivated plant is evidenced by the Sanskrit 
name Di^imba, and by the references to the fruit in the Old 
Testament, and in the Odyssey, where it is spoken of as cultivated 
in the gardens of the kings of Phaeada and Phxygia. The fruit 
is frequently represented on andent Assyrian and Egyptian 
sculptures, and had a religious significance in connexion with 
several Oriental cults, especially the Phrygian cult of Cybde 
(Amob. V. 5 seq.; see also Baudlssin, Studien, ii. 307 seq.). It 
was well known to the Greeks and Romans, who were acquainted 
with its medidnal properties and its use as a tanning material. 
The name given by the Romans, malum pumcumf indicates that 
they received it from Carthage, as indeed is expressly stated 
by Pliny; and.this circumstance has given rise to the notion that 
the tree was indigenous in northern Africa. On a review of the 
whole evidence, botanical, literary and linguistic, Alphonse de 
CandoDe (QrigiH of CuUivaied PUmls) pronounces against iu 
African origin, and deddes in favoui^of its source in Persia and 
the neighbouring countries. According to Saporta, the pomegra- 
nate existed in a fossil state in beds of the Pliocene epoch near 
Heximieuz in Burgundy. The pomegranate is sometimes met 
with in cultivation against a wall in England, but it is too tender 
to withstand a severe winter. The double-flowered varieties 
are specially desirable for the beauty and long duration of their 
flowers. 

POIIERANIA (German, Pommem), a territory of (Germany 
and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N. by the 
Baltic, on the W. by Mecklenburg, on the S. by Brandenburg, 
and on the E. by West Prussia. Its area is 11,630 sq. m., and 
the population in 1905 was 1,684,125, showing a density of 145 
inhabitants to the square mile. The province is ofiidally divided 
into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and KdsUn, but more 
historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommem and 
Hintcrpoouncm, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former 
being applieid to the territory to the west, and the latter to that 
to the east of the Oder. Pomerania is one of the flattest parts 
of Germany, although east of the (Xler it is traversed by a range 
of low hilla, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the 
west. Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of 
Rfigen, Uscdom and WoUin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is 
smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks. 
Besides the Oder and its afiSuents, the chief of which are the 
Peeoe, the Ucker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers 
flowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, 
but the greater number only carry rafts. Many of them end in 
small lakes, which are separated from the sea by narrow strips 
of land, throu^ which the water escapes by one or more outlets. 
The interior of the province is also thickly sprinkled with lakes, 
the combined area of which is equal to about one-twentieth of 
the entire surface. 

Tlie soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, 
but patches of good land are found here and there. About 55% 
of the whole b under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and 
pasture and sx % is covered by forests. The prindpal crops are 
potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and bariey are grown in the 
mope fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also 
coitivited.^ Agrioilture is still carried on in a somewhat 


piiniitive fashion, and as a rule the livestock is o| an inferior 
quality, though the breed of horses, of a heavy build and mostly 
used in agricultun, is held in high esteem. Large flocks of sheep 
are kept, both for their flesh and their wool, and there are in the 
province large numbers of homed cattle and of pigs^ Geese 
and goose feathers form lucrative artides of export. Owing 
to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an 
important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and 
lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of (jermany. 
With the exception of the almost inexhaustible layers of peat, 
the mineral woJth of the province is insignificant. Its industrial 
activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery » 
chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly 
in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as & 
domestic industry. Ship-building is carried on at Stettin and at 
several places along the coasL The commerce of Pomerania 
is in a flourishing condition, its prindpal ports being Stettin» 
Stralsund and Swinemflnde. Education is provided for by a 
university at Greif swald and by numerous schools. The province 
sends 14 members to the (jerman Reichstag, and 26 to the Prussian 
house of representatives. The heir to the Prussian crown bears 
the title of governor of Pomerania. 

History. — In prehistoric times the southern coast of the Baltic 
seems to have been occupied by Celu, who afterwards made way 
for tribes of Teutonic stock. These in their turn migrated to 
other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the 5th 
century of otir era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilai and the POmerani. 
The name of Pomore, or Pommem, meaning " on the sea," was 
given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of 
Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geo- 
graphical significance. Originally it seems to have denoted the ' 
coast district between the (Xler and the Vistula, a territory 
which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, 
towards the end of the xsth century, was ruled by two native 
princes, who took the title of duke about 1x70 and admitted the 
authority of the German king in xi8x. Afterwards Pomerania 
extended much farther to the west, while being correspondingly 
curtailed on the east, and a distinction was made between 
Slavinia, or modem. Pomerania, and Pomerellen. The latter, 
corresponding substantially to the present province of West 
Prussia, remained subject to Poland until X309, when it was 
divided between Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order. 
Christianity was introduced in the xsth century, a bishopric 
being founded in the Island of WoUin, and its advance went 
rapi^y hand in hand with the Germanizing of the district. 

The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, 
consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of 
territory among the different hncs of the ducal house, and of 
numerous expansions and contractions of territory through 
constant hostilities with the dector of Brandenburg, who 
claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, 
and with other neighbouring rulers. The names of Vorpom- 
mem and Hinterpommcm were at first synonymous with 
Pomerania proper, or Slavinia and Pomerellen, but towards 
the close of the 14th century they were transferred to the two 
duchies into wfiich the former was divided. In 1625 the 
whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke 
Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Branden- 
burg daimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571. 
In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated 
by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had 
taken possession of its towns and fortresses. At the peace of 
Westphalia they daimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector 
of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to 
content himself with eastem Pomerania (Hintcrpommera), and 
to see the western part (Vorpommem) awarded to Sweden. In 
1730, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was cur- 
tailed by extensive concessions to Pmssia, but the district to the 
west of the Pcenc remained in the possession of Sweden until the 
general European settlement of 1815. Then Sweden assigned 
her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, 
whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the oesson 


48 


POMEROY— POMONA 


of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole 
of Pomerania under her rule. 

For the history, see J. Bugenhuen, Pomerania^ edited by O. 
Heinemann (Stettin, 1900) ; von Bbnlen, Die Enoerbung Pommems 
durek die HohenwoUem (Berlin, 1865); H. Berghau», Landbuch des 
Henogtums Pommem (Berlin, 1 865-1 876); the Codex Pomeraniae 
diphmaticus, edited by K. F. W. Hasseltnch and J. G. L. Kose- 
nrten (Greifswald, 1862): the Pommersches Urkundenhuckt edited 
by R. Kkmpin and others (Stettin, i86a-i896); W. von Sommer- 
feld, Gesckichte der Cermanisierung des Henogtums Pommem 


(Leipzig, 1896) ; F. W. Barthold, Gesckichte von RUgen und Pommem 
(Hamburg, 1839-1845); K. Mass, Pommersche GesckichU (Stettin, 
1899) ; M. Wehrmann, GeschichU von Pommem (CK>tha, 1904-1906) ; 
and Uecker, Pommem in Wort und Bitd (Stettin, 1904). See also 
the publications of the Gesellsckaft fir pommersche Gesckichte und 

POMBROT* a village and the county-seat of Meigs county, 
Ohio, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 85 m. S.S.E. of Columbus. 
Pop. (1890) 4726; (1900) 4639, including 453 foreign-bom and 
380 negroes; (19x0) 4023. Pomeroy is served by the Hocking 
Valley and (across the river) Baltimore & Ohio railways, by 
Inter-urban electric railway, and by passenger and freight boats 
to the leading river ports. It occupies a strip of ground between 
the river and a range of steep hil^ Bituminous coal and salt 
abound in the district, and there are deposits of building stone, 
fireclay and glass sand. The first settlement here was established 
in x8z6, coal mining was begun three years later, and in 1827 a 
town waa laid out and named Nyesville. There was little pro- 
gress, however, until 1833, when Samuel W. Pomeroy (in whose 
honour the present name waa adopted) formed a company, 
which began mining coal on a large scale. Pomeroy was incor- 
porated as a village and was made the county-seat in 1841. In 
1850 the. first of several salt wells, from zooo to 1200 ft. in 
depth, was operated. 

POMFRBT. JOHN (1667-1702), English poet, son of Thomas 
Pomfret, vicar of Luton, was bom in 1667. He was educated 
at Bedford grammar school and at Queens' College, Cambridge. 
He became rector of Maulden, Bedfordshire, in 1695, and of 
Millbrook in the same county in 1702. Dr Johnson says that 
the bishop of London refused to sanction preferment for him 
because in his Choice he declared that he would have no wife, 
although he expressed a wish for the occasional company of a 
modest and sprightly young lady. The poet was married in real 
life all the same, and — ^while waiting to clear up the misimder- 
standing with the bishop— he died in November 1702. The 
Choice or Wish: 4 Poem written by a Person of Quality (1700) 
expresses the epicurean desires of a cultivated man of Pomfret 's 
time. It is smoothly written in the heroic couplet, and was widely 
popular. His Miscellany Poems were published in 1702. 

POMMEL (through O. Fr. pomelo from a diminutive pomeUus of 
Lat. pomum, fruit, apple), any rounded object resembling an 
apple, e.g. the rounded termination of a saddle-bow; in archi- 
tecture, any round knob, as a boss, finial, &c.; more particidarly 
the rounded end to the hilt of a sword, dagger or other hand 
weapon, used to prevent the hand from slipping, and as a balance 
to the blade. " Pommel " is also a term used of a piece of 
grooved wood used in graining leather. This word may be 
the same in origin, or more probably from Fr. paumeUe, from 
paume, the hand, palm. 

POMMER, or Bombaso (Fr. hauthois] Ital. homhardo^ bombar- 
done)t the alto, tenor and basses of the shawm or Schalmey 
family, and the forerunners respectively of the cor-anglais, 
bassoon or fagotto, and double bassoon or contrafagotto. The 
main difference to the casual observer between the medieval 
instruments and those of our orchestra which were evolved from 
them would be one of size. In the Pommers no attempt had 
been made to bend the tube, and its length, equal to that of an 
open organ pipe of the same pitch, was outstretched in all its 
unwieldiness in an oblique position in front of the performer. 
The great contrabass Pommer was 9 ft. long without the 
crook and reed, which, however, were bent downwards. It had 
five open fingerholes and five keys working inside a perforated 
case; in order to bring the holes within reach of the finger, they 
were cut obliquely through the tube. The compass extended 


from F below 8 ft. Cto Eor F in the baas sUve, two ocUves in alL 
The other members of the family were the bass Pommer, from 
8 ft. C to middle C, corresponding to the modem bassoon or 
fagotto; the tenor or basset Pommer, a fifth higher in pitch; the 
alto pommer or nicolo, a fourth or a fifth above the tenor; and 
the high alto, or Klein Alt Pommer, an octave higher than the 
tenor, corresponding approximately to the cor-anglais. 

For the hittory of the Pommer family see Obob and Bassoon. 

(K.S.) 

POMONA, an old Italian goddess of fruit and gardens. Ovid 
{Mel. xiv. 623) tells the story of her courtship by the silvaA 
deities and how Vertumnus, god of the turning year, wooed. 
and won her. Corresponding to Pomona there seems to have' 
been a male Italian deity, odled Pomunus, who was perhaps 
identical with Vertumnus. Although chiefly worshipped in the 
coimtry, Pomona had a special priest at Rome, the flunen Pomo- 
nalis, and a sacred grove near Ostia, called the PomonaL She 
was represented as a beautiful maiden, with fruits in her bosom 
and a priming-knife in her hand. 

POMONA, a dty of Los Angeles county, &i southern Cali- 
fornia, U.S.A., about 33 m. E. of the city of Los Angdes. Pop. 
> (1890) 3634; (1900) 5526 (567 foreign-bom); (19x0) 10,207. It is 
served by the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & 
Salt Lake, and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe raUways, 
and by an inter-urban electric line. The dty is about 850 ft. 
above sea-levd, and has a Carnegie library and several parks, 
induding Ganesha park (45 acres), which commands a fine view. 
At Claremont, about 3 m. north, is Pomona College (1888, co- 
educational), which in 1908 had 34 instructors and 488 students. 
Pomona is in the midst of a prosperous fruit region, devoted 
espedally to the growing of oranges. Orchards of oranges, 
lemons, apricots, peaches and prunes surround the dty for miles, 
and some olives are grown; alfalfa and sugar-beets are raised in 
large quantities in the immediate ndghbourhood. Pomona was 
settled by a colony of fruit-growers in 1875, and was chartered 
as a city in z88S^. 

POMONA, or Mainland, the central and hugest island of 
the Orkneys, Scotland. Pop. (z.901), 16,235. It is 25 nu long 
from N.W. to S.E. and 15 m. broad from E. to W.; area, xgo 
sq. m.; but where the coast is cut into, on the N. by Kiikwall 
Bay and on the S. by Scapa Flow, the land is less than 2 m. across. 
Consequently, the portion of the island to the west of the waist 
of Pomona is sometimes described as the West Island, and the 
portion to the East as the East Island. The west coast is 
almost imbroken, the bays of Birsay and Skaill being the only 
bays of any importance. The east and south shores, on the 
other hand, are extensivdy carved out. Thus on the east 
side are found Eynhallow Sound, Wood Wick, the bays of 
Isbister, Firth, Kirkwall, and Inganess and Dee Soi^nd, and on 
the south Holm Sound, Scapa Bay, Swanbisler Bay and Bay 
of Ireland. The highest points of the watershed from Costa 
Head to the Scapa shore are Milldoe (734 ft.) to the north-east 
of Isbister and Wideford Hill (740 ft.) to the west of Kirkwall. 
There are also a few eminences towards the south-west. Ward 
Hill (880 ft.) in the parish of Orphir being the highest peak in 
the island. There are numerous lakes, some of considerable 
size and most of them abounding with trout. Loch Harray is 
4I m. long by from | m. to about 2 m. wide, and Loch Stenncss 
3i m. long by from | to 2^ m. wide. Lochs Swannay, Board- 
house and Hundland are situated in the extreme north, while 
Loch Kirbister lies near the south coast and Loch Tankeracss 
adjoins Deer Sound. Off the cast coast lie the islands of Rousay, 
Egilshay, Vicra, Eynhallow, Gairsay and Shapinshay, and off 
the south Copinshay and Lamb Holm. The hilly country is 
mostly moorland, and peat-mosses are met with in some of the 
low-lying land, but many of the valleys contain fertile soil, and 
there are productive tracts on the eastern and northern seaboard. 
Kirkwall, the capital of the Orkneys, and Stromness are the only 
towns. 

In Harray, the only parish in the Orkneys not trenched at 
some point by the sea, Norse customs have survived longer than 
elsewhere in the group save in North Ronaldshay. In Deerness 


POMPADOUR, MARQUISE DE 


the most easterly poxiah in Pomona, were buried aoo Covenanters, 
taken pnsonets at the battle of Bothwell Brig/ They were 
caxried to Barbados, to be sold as slaves for the plantations, 
when the ship foundered in Deer Sound, and all were drowned. 
la SandsMe Bay, in the same parish, the fleet of Malcolm 
Canmore was d^ated by that of Jarl Thorfinn; and at 
Summexsdale, towards the northern base of the hills of Orphir, 
Sir James Sindair, governor of Kirkwall, vanquished Lord 
Sinc^ur nnd $00 Caithness men in 1539. 

fhe antiquities ol Pomona axe of great interest The eiamples 
of-Pictish remains include brocks or round towers, chambered 
mounds, or buildings of stone covered in with earth, and weems, 
or undcxgroimd dwellings afterwards roofed in. At Saverock, 
on the west wing of Kiricwall Bay,a good specimen of an earth- 
house will be found, and at Quantemess, i m. to the west of it, a 
chambered mound, containing seven rooms with 1>eehive roofs. 
Farther west and 5 m. by road north-east of Stromness, and 
frithih a mile of the stone circles of Stenness, stands the great 
bariDW or chambered mound of Maeshowe. The ttmiulus has 
the form of a blunted cone, is 36 ft. high, 300 ft. in circum- 
ference and 93 ft. in diameter, and at a distance of 90 ft. from 
its base is endrcled by a moat 40 ft. wide and from 4 ft. to 8 ft. 
deep. The ground-plan shows that it was entered from the west 
by a passage, 54 ft. long, from 3 ft. to 3 ft. wide and from 3| ft. 
to 4} ft. high, which led to a centrsl apartment about xs ft.. 
square, the walls of which ended in a beehive roof, the spring' 
of which began at a height of 13 ft. from the floor. This room 
and the passage are built of undresMd bk>cks and slabs of sand- 
stone. About the middle of each side of the chamber, at a 
height of 3 ft. from the floor, there is sn entrance to a small 
cell, 3 ft. hi^, 4I ft. wide and from si ft. to 7 ft. long. Mr 
James Farrer explored the mound in z86x, and discovered on the 
walls and certain stones rude drawings of crosses, a winged 
dragon, and a serpent curled round a pole, besides a variety of 
Runic inscriptions. One of these inscriptions stated that the 
tmnulos had been rifled by Norse pilgrims (possibly crusaders) 
on their way to Jerusalem under Jarl Rognvald in the xsth 
oenttkry. There can be little doubt but that it was a 
sepulchral chamber. Joseph Anderson ascribes it to the Stone 
Age (that is, to the Picts), and James Fergusson to Norsemen of 
the xoth century. 

The most interesting of all those links with a remote past aro 
the stone circles forming the Ring of Brogar and the Ring of 
Stcimess, often inaccurately described as the Stones of Stenness. 
The Ring of Brogar b situated to the north-west and the Ring of 
Stenness to the south-east of the Bridge of Brogar, as the narrow 
causeway d stone slabs is called which separates Loch Harray 
from Loch Stenness. The district lies some 4I m. north-east 
of Stromness. The Ring of Brogar, once known as the Temple 
of the Son, stands on a raised circular platform of turf, 340 ft. 
in diameter, surrounded by a moat about 6 ft. deep, which in 
turn is invested by a grassy rampart. The ring originally 
comprised 60 stones, set up at intervals of 17 ft. Only X3 are 
iww erect. Ten, still entire, lie prostrate, while the stumps of 
13 others can yet be recognised. The height of the stones 
varies from 9 ft. to 14 ft. The Ring of Stenness— the Temple 
of the Moon of local tradition— is of similar construction to the 
higer cude, except that its round platform is only 104 ft. in 
diameter. The stones are believed to have numbered Z3, 
varying in height from xs ft. to 17 ft. but only two remain up- 
right. In the middle of the ring may be seen the rdic of what 
was probably the sacrifidal altar. The Stone of Odin, the 
great monolith, pierced by a hole at a height of 5 ft. from the 
ground, which figures so prominently in Scott's Piratei stood 
xso yds. to the north of the Ring of Stenness. The stones of 
both rin^ are of the native Old Red Sandstone. 

POM PADOU B, JBANMB AMTOINBTTB POI880K LB KOR- 
MABT irjfrriOUS, Maeqitise de (1731-1764), mistress of 
Louis XV., was bom in Paris on the 39th of December X73x, and 
baptized as the legitimate daughter of Francois Poisson, an 
officer in the household of the duke of Orleans, and his wife, 
Madeleine de la Motte, in the church of St Eustache; but she 
XXII 2 


49 

was suspected, as well as her brother, afterwards marquis of 
Marigny, to be the child of a very wealthy financier and farmer- 
general of the revenues, Lc Nonnant de Touroehem. He at 
any rate took upon himself the charge of her education; and, as 
from the beauty and wit she showed from childhood she seemed 
to be bom for some uncommon destiny, he declared her ** un 
morceau de roi," and specially educated her to be a king's 
mistress. This idea was confirmed in her rhjMUh mind by the 
prophecy of an old woman, whom in after days she pensioned 
for the correctness of her prediction. In X74X she was married 
to a nephew of her protector and guardian, Le Nonnant d'£tioles, 
who was passionately in bve with her, and she soon became a 
queen of fashioiL Yet the world of the financiers at Paris was 
for apart from the court world, where she wished to reign; 
she could get no introduction at court, and could only try to 
catch the king's eye when he went out hunting. But Louis XV. 
was then imder the infliience of Mme de Mailly, who carefully 
prevented any further mtimacy with *' la petite £tioles," and 
it was not until after her death that the kmg met the fair queen 
of the financial world of Paris at a ball given by the city to the 
dauphin in X744f vkI he was immediately subjugated. She at 
once gave up her husband, and in 1745 was established at 
Versailles as " maltresse en titre." Louis XV. bought her the 
estate of Pompadour, from which she took her title of marquise 
•(raised in 1732 to that of duchess). She was hardly established 
firmly in power before she showed that ambition rather than 
love had guided her, and began to mix in politics. Knowing 
that the French people of that time were ruled by the literary 
kings of the time, she paid court to them, and tried to play the 
part of a Maecenas. Voltaire was her poet in chief, and the 
founder of the physiocrats, Quesnay, was her physician. In the 
arts she was even more succosful; she was herself no mean etcher 
and engraver, and she encouraged and protected Vanloo, Boucher, 
Vien, Greuze, and the engraver Jacques Guay. Yet this policy 
did not prevent her from being lampooned, and the famous 
poissardes against her contributed to the ruin of many wits 
suspected of being among the authors, and notably of the Comte 
de Maurepas. The command of (he political situation passed 
entirely into her hands; she it was who brought Belle-Isle into 
office with his vigorous policy; she corresponded regularly with 
the generals of the armies in the field, as her letters to the Comte 
de Clermont prove; and she introduced the Abb6 de Bemis into 
the ministry in order to effect a very great alteration of French 
politics in X 7s6. The continuous policy of France smce the days 
of Richelieu had been to weaken the house of Aiistria by alliances 
in Germany; but Mme de Pompadour changed this hereditary 
policy because Frederick the Great wrote scandalous verses on 
her; and because Maria Theresa wrote her a friendly letter she 
entered into an alliance with Austria. This alliance brought on 
the Seven Years' War, with all its disastera, the battle of Rosbach 
and the loss of Canada; but Mme de Pompadour persisted 
in her policy, and, when Bemis failed her, brought Cboiseul 
into office and supported him in all his great plans, the 
Facte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits, and the 
peace of VeruiUes. But it was to internal politics that 
this remarkable woman paid most attention; no one obtained 
office except through her; in imitation of Mme de Maintenon, 
she prepared all busmess for the king's eye with the 
ministera, and contrived that they should meet in her room; 
and she daily examined the letters sent through the post 
office with Janelle, the director of the post office. By this 
continuous labour she made herself indispensable to Louis. 
Yet, when after a year or two she had lost the heart 
of her lover, she had a difficult task before her; to maintain 
her influence she had not only to save the king as much trouble 
as possible, but to find him fresh pleasures. When he first 
began to weary of her she remembered her talent for acting 
and her private theatricals at fitioles, and established the 
" thtttre dcs petits cabinets," in which she acted with the greatest 
lords about Uie court for the king's pleasure in tragedies and 
comedies, operas and ballets. By this means and the " concerts 
spiritucls " she kept in favour for a time; but at last she found a 


so 


POMPEII 


surer way, by encouraging the king in his debaucheries, and Louis 
wept over her kindness to his various mistresses. Only once, 
when the king was wounded by Damiens in 1757, did she receive 
a serious shock, and momentarily left the court; but on his 
recovery she returned more powerful than ever. She even 
ingratiated herself with the queen, after the example of 
Mme de Maintenon, and was made a lady-in-waiting; but the 
end was soon tp come. " Ma vie est un combat," she said, 
and so it was, with business and pleasure she gradually grew 
weaker and weaker, and when told that death was at lumd she 
dressed herself in full court costume, and met it bravely on the 
X5th of April 1764, at the age of forty-two. 

See Capefisue, Madame la mortise de Pompadour (1858); 
E. and J. de Gonoourt. Let Mattresses de Louis XV., vol. iL (i860): 
and Campardon, Madame de Pompadour et la cour de Louts X V. 
au milieu du dix-kuiHhue sttde (1867). Far more valuable are 
Malasais's two volumes of correspondence, Correspondance de Madame 
de Pompadour onu son phe M. roisson, ei son f Are M. de VandOres, 
&c. (1878). and Bonhomme, Madame de Pompadour, gjtntral d'armie 
(1880}, containing her letters to the Comte de Clermont. For her 
artistic and theatrical tastes see particularly J. F. Leturcq, Notice 
sur Jacques Cuay, graveur sur pierres fines du rot Louts XV.: 
Documents inidits emanant de Cuay et notes sur les mares de gravure 
en laiUe douce et en pierres durs de la marqtUse de Pompadour (1873) ; 
and Adolphe JuUicn, Histoire du OUAtre de Madame de'Pompadour, 
dit Thidtre des Petite Cabinets (1874). See also P. de Nolhac. La 
Marquise de Pompadour (1903). 

POMPEII,* an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated near 
the river Samus, nearly 2 m. from the shore of the Bay of 
Naples, almost at the foot of Mt Vesuvius. Of its history before 
79 B.C. comparatively little is recorded; but it appears that it 
had a population of a very mixed character, and passed succes- 
sively into the hands of several different peoples, each of which 
contributed an element to its composition. Its foundation was 
^ascribed by Greek tradition to Heracles, in common with the 
neighbouring city of Herculanetmi, but it is certain that it was 
not a Greek colony, in the proper sense of the term, as we know 
to have been the case with the mora important cities of Cumae 
and Neapolis. Strabo (v. 4, 8), in whose time it was a populous 
and flourishing pUice, tells us that it was first occupied by the 
Oscans' (to whom we must attribute the Doric temple in the 
Foro Triangolare), afterwards by the Tyrrhenians (i.e. Etruscans) 
and Pelasgians, and lastly, by the Samnites. The conquest of 
Campania by the last-mentioned people is an undoubted historical 
fact, and there can be no doubt that Pompeii shared the fate of 
the nei^bouring cities on this occasion, and afterwards passed 
in common with .them under the yoke of Rome. But its name 
is only once mentioned during the wars of the Romans with 
the Samnites and Campanians in this region of Italy, and then 
only incidentally (Liv. ix. 38), when a Roman fleet landed near 
Pompeii in 309 B.C. and made an unsuccessful marauding 
expedition up the river valley as far as Nuceria.* At a later 
period, however, it took a prominent part in the outbreak of the 
nations of central Italy, known as the Social War (91-89 B.C.), 
when it withstood a long siege by SuUa, and was one of the last 
cities of Campania that were reduced by the Roman arms. The 
inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, but a military 
colony was settled in their territory in 80 B.C. by Sulla {Colonia 
Comdia Veneria Pompeianorum), and the whole population 
was rapidly Romanized. The municipal administration here, 
as elsewhere, was in the hands of two duoviri iure dicundo and 
two aediles, the supreme body being the dty council (deeuriones). 
Before the close of the republic it became a resort of the Roman 
nobles, many of whom acquired vfllas in the neighbourhood. 
Among them was Cicero, whose letters abound with allusions 
to his Pompeian villa. The same fashion continued under the 
empire, and there can be no doubt that, during the first century 
of the Christian era, Pompeii had become a flourishing place 

*The etymology of the name b uncertain^ the ancients derived 
it from Pompa or w\iaru (Gr. send), in allunon to the journey of 
Heracles with the oxen of Geryon, but modem authorities refer 
it to the Oscan pompa (five). 

* For the Oscan incriptions found in Pompeii see below ad An. 

' Pompeii was attacked as a member 01 the Nucerine League. 
See Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51 : J. Beloch, Campanien, and ed., 
p. 239. 


with a considerable population. Two events only arc reoorded 
of its history during this period. In aj>. 59 a tumult took place 
in the amphitheatre between the dtizens and visitors from the 
neighbouring colony of Nuceria. Many were killed and wounded 
on both sido. The Pompeians were punished for this violent 
outbreak by the prohibition of all theatrical exhibitions for 
ten years (Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 17). A characteristic, though 
rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a 
represenution of this event. 

Four years afterwards (aj>. 63) an earthquake, which affected 
all the neighbouring towns, vented its force especially upon 
Pompeii, a large part of which, including most of the public 
buildings, was either destroyed or so seriously damaged as* to 
require to be rebuilt (Tac Ann. xv. 2s; Seneca, QJf. vL i). 
From the existing remains it is clear that the inhabitants were 
still actively engaged in repairing and restoring the mined edifices 
when the whole dty was overwhelmed by the great eruption 
of A.D. 79. Vesuvius {q.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been 
slumbering for unknown ages, suddenly burst into violent 
eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the 
beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii 
under dense beds of cinders and ashes. It is singular that, while 
we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two 
letters of the^ounger Pliny {Epist. vi 16, so), he does not even 
notice the destruction of Pompeii or Herculaneum, though his 
unde perished in the immediate nci^bourhood of the former 
dty. But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its drcum- 
stances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in 
which the dty has been found. These were such as to conduce to 
its preservation and interest as a relic of antiquity. Pompeii was 
merely covered with a bed of lighter substances, cinders, small 
stones and ashes, which fell in a dry sute, while at Herculaneum 
the same substances, being drenched with water, hardened into 
a sort of tufa, which in places is 65 ft. deep. The whole of this 
superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from 
X 8 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials 
may be diivided generally into two distinct strata, the one 
consisting prindpally of cinders and small volcanic stones 
(called in Italian lapilli), and the other and uppermost layer of 
fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from 
above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such 
as dead bodies, woodwork, &c.), like clay or plaster of Paris. 
It was found impossible to rebuild the town, and its territory 
was joined to that of Nola. But the survivors returned to the 
spot, and by dif^g down and tunndling were able to remove 
all the objects of value, even the marble facing slabs of the large 
buildings. 

In the middle ages, however, the very site was forgotten. 
Two inscriptions were found in making an underground aqueduct 
across the site in 1 594-1 600, but it was not until 1748 that a more 
careful inspection of this charmd revealed the fact that beneath 
the vineyards and mulberry gTOimds which covered the site 
there lay entombed ruins far more accessible, if not more inter- 
esting, than those of Herculaneum. It was not till 1763 that 
systematic excavations were begun;, and, though they were 
carried on during the rest of the x8th century, it was only in 
the begixming of the 19th that they assumed a regular character; 
the work, which had recdved a vigorous stimulus during the 
period of the French government (x8o6-x8x4), was prosecuted, 
though in a less methodical manner, under the rule of the Bour- 
bon kings (X815-1861). Since x86x it has been carried on under 
the Italian government in a more scientific maimer, on a system 
devised by G. Fiorelli (d. 1896), according to which the town is 
for convenience divided into nine regions — thou^ this rests 
on a misconception, for there is really no street between the 
Capua and the Nocera gates — and the results have been of the 
highest interest, though the rate of progress has been very 
slow. 

The town was situated on rising ground less than a mile from 
the foot of Vesuvius. This eminence is itself due to an outflow 
of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in 
prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius bad 


POMPEII 


5' 


becB quiesoent ever since the first records of the Greek settle- 
ments in this part of Italy. Pompeii in ancient times was a 
prosperous seaport town situated close to the seashore* from 
whidi it is now nearly a m. distant, and adjoining the mouth 
of the river Samus or Samo, which now enters the sea 
neariy s m. from its site. The present course of this stream is 
due in part to modem alteration of its channel, as well as to the 
effects of the great eruption. The prosperity of Pompeii was 
doe partly to its commerce, as the port of the neighbouring 
towns, partly to the fertility of its territory, which produced 
strong wine, <dive ofl (a comparatively small quantity), and 
vegetables; fish sauces were made here. Millstones and pumice 
were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of 
Roccn Menfina was bter on preferred. 

Tlie area occupied by the ancient city was of an irregular 
oval form, and about 3 m. in circumference. It was sur- 
rounded by a wall, which is still preserved for more than 
two-thirds of its extent, but no traces of this are found on the 
side towards the sea, and there is no doubt that on this side 
it had been already demolished in andent times, so as to give 
room for the free extension of houses and other buildings in 
that direction.^ These walls are strengthened at intervals by 
numerous towers, occupying the full width of the wall, which 
occur in some parts at a distance of only about xoo yds., but in 
general much less frequently. They are, however, of a different 
style of construction from the walls, and appear to have been 
added at a later period, probably that of the Social War. Similar 
evidences of the addition of subsequent defences are to be traced 
also in the case of the gates, of which no less than eight are found 
In the existing circuit of the walls. Some of these present a 
very daborate system of defence, but it is evident from the 
decayed condition of othors, as well as of parts of the walls and 
towers, that they had ceased to be maintained for the purposes 
ol fortifiauion long before the destruction of the dty. The 
names by which the gates and streets are known are entirely of 
modem ongin. 

The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being 
generaUy straight, and crossing one another at right angles 
or neariy sOb But exceptions are found on the west in the street 
leading frtim the Porta Eroolanese (gate of Herculaneum) to 
the forum, which, though it must have been one of the prindpal 
tboroufl^ares in the dty, was crooked and irregular, as well as 
▼eiy narrow, in some parts not exceeding 12 to 14 ft. in width, 
indnding the raised footpaths on each side, which occupy a 
CDioidetable part of the space, so that the carriage-way could 
only have admitted of the passage of one vehicle at a time. 
The explanation is that it foQows the line of the demolished 
dty walL Another exception is to be found in the Strada 
Stabiana (Subian Street) or Cardo, which, owing to the existence 
of a natural depression which affects also the line of the street 
just east of it, is not paralld to the other north and south streets. 
The other main streets are in some cases broader, but rarely 
frrrrf!^ 20 ft. in width, and the broadest yet found is about 32, 
while the back streets running paralld to the main lines are only 
about 14 ft. (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard 
width of a Roman hi^^iroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself 
b about 14 ft.) Ihey are uniformly paved with large poly- 
gonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, 
though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage 
of vehicles in andent times. They are also in all cases bordered 
by ra^ed footways on both sides, paved in a similar manner; 
and for the convenience of foot-passengers, which was evidently 
a more important consideration than the obstade which the 
arrangement presented to the passage of vehides, which indeed 
were probably only aDowed for goods traffic, these are connected 
from place to place by stepping-stones raised above the level of 
the carriage-way. In other respects they must have resembled 
those of Oriental dties — the living apartments all opening 
towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards 


* It ooiuMtcd of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about 
IS ft. apart and s8 in. thick, the intervening sfnce being filled 
wkh earth, and there being an embankment on the inner skle. 


the street; while the windows were generally to be found only 
in the upper storey, and were in all cases small and insignificant, 
without any attempt at ardiitectural effect. In some instances 
indeed the monotony of their external appearance was broken 
by small shops, occupying the front of. the prindpal houses, 
and let off separatdy ; these were in some cases numerous enough 
to form a continuous facade to the street. This is seen especially 
in the case of the street from the Porta Ercolanese to the forum 
and the Strada Stabiana (or Cardo), both of which were among 
the most frequented thoroughfares. The streets were also 
diversified by fountains, smsdl water-towers and reservoirs 
(of which an especially interesting example was found in xgos 
dose to the Porta del Vcsuvio) and street shrines. The source 
of the water-supply is unknown. 

The first-mentioned of the two prindpal streets was crossed, a 
little before it reached the forum, by the street which led directly 
to the gate of Nola (Strada delle Terme, della Fortuna, and di 
Nola). Paralld to this hst to the south is a street which runs 
from the Porta Marina through the forum, and then, with a 
slight turn, to the Samo gate, thus traversing the whole area of 
the dty from east to west (Via Marina, Strada dell' Abbondanza, 
Strada dd Diadumeni). These two east and west streets are 
the two decumani. 

The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction 
cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have ex- 
ceeded 30,000. It was of a mixed character; both Oscan 
and Greek inscriptions are still found up to the last, and, though 
there is no trace whatever of Christianity, evidences of the 
presence of Jews are not lacking — such are a wall-painting, 
probably representing the Judgment of Solomon, and a scratched 
inscription on a wall, % Sodoma, Gomora." It has been estimated, 
from the number of skdetons discovered, that about aooo 
persons perished in the dty itself in the eruption of a.d. 79. 

Almost the whole portion of the dty which lies to the west of 
the Strada Stabiana, towards the forum and the sea, has been 
more or less completdy excavated. It is over one^half of the 
whole extent, and that the most important portion, inasmuch as 
it includes the forum, with the temples and public buildings 
adjacent to it, the thermae, theatres, amphitheatre, &c. The 
greater part of that on the other side of the Strada Stabiana 
remains still unexplored, with the exception of the amphi- 
theatre, and a small space in its immediate neighbourhood. 

The forum at Pompeii was, as at Rome itself and in all 
other Italian dties, the focus and centre of all the life and 
movement of the dty. Hence it was surrounded on all sides 
by public buildings or edifices of a commanding character. 
It was not, however, of large size, as cpmpared to the open 
spaces in modem towns, bdng only 467 ft. in length by 126 in 
breadth (exduding the colonnades). Nor was it accessible to 
any description of wheeled carriages, and the nature of its 
pavement, composed of broad Bags of travertine, shows that it 
was only intended for foot-passengers. It was adorned with 
numerous statues, some of the imperial faniily, others of dis- 
tinguished dtizens. Some of the inscribed pedestals of the latter 
have been found. It was surrounded on three sides by a series 
of porticos supported on columns; and these porticos were 
originally surmounted by a gallery or upper storey, traces of the 
staircases leading to which still remain, though the gallery 
itself has altogether disappeared. It is, however, certain 
from the existing remains that both this portico and the adjacent 
buildings had suffered severdy from the earthquake of 63, and 
that they were undergoing a process of restoration, involving 
material changes in the original arrangements, which was 
still incomplete at the time of thdr fiiml destruction. The 
north end of the fomm, where alone the portico is wanting, is 
occupied in great part by the imposing temple of Jupiter, Juno 
and Minerva being also worshipped here. It was raised on a 
podium zo ft. high, and had a portico with six Corinthian 
columns in front. This magnificent edifice had, however, been 
evidently overthrown by th<f earthquake of 63, and is in iu 
present condition a jnere ruin, the rebuilding of which had not 
been begun at the time of the eraption, so that the cult of 


52 


POMPEII 


the three Capitoline divinittes was then carried on in the so- 
called temple of Zeus Milichius. On each side of it were two 
arches, affording an entrance into the forum, but capable of 
being closed by gates. On the east side of the forudi were four 
edifices; all of them are of a public character, but their names and 
attribution have been the subject of much controversy. The 
first (proceeding from the north), once known as the Pantheon, 
is generally regarded as a mactUum or meat-market, consisting 
of a rectangular court surroimded by a colonnade, with a twelve- 
sided roofed building {tholus) in the centre. On the south side 


and Q. Catulus (78 B.C.), and therefore belongs to the Oscao 
period of the city, before the introduction of the Roman colony. 
It was an oblong edifice divided by columns into a central hall 
and a corridor ruzming round all the four sides with a tribunal 
opposite the main entrance; and, imlike the usual basilicae, it 
had, instead of a clerestory, openings in the walls of the corridor 
through which light was admitted, it being almost as lofty as 
the nave. The temple was an extensive edifice, having a com- 
paratively small cdlat raised upon a podium^ and standing in 
the midtt of a wide space surrounded by a portico of columns, 



(Radmm br pHaWoo faoB BudAa\ SmAtm tidy.) 


were shops, and in the centre of the east side a chapel for the 
worship of the imperial houae. Next to this comes the sanctuary 
of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and 
beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian. 
Beyond this again, bounded on the south by the street known 
as the Strada dcU' Abbondanza, is a large and spacious edifice, 
which, as we learn from an extant inscription, was erected by a 
priestess named Eumachia. Its purpose is uncertain — ^possibly 
a cloth-exchange, as the fullers set up a statue to Eumachia here. 
It is an open court, oblong, surrounded on all four sides by a 
colonnade; in front is a portico facing the forum, and on the 
other three sides there is a corridor behind the colonnade with 
windows opening on it. On the south side of the Strada dell' 
Abbondanza was a building which Mau conjectures to have been 
the Comitium. At the south end of the forum are three halls 
side by side, simikr in plan with a common facade — the central 
one, the curia or council chamber, the others the offices respec- 
tively of the duumvirs and aediles, the principal officials of the 
city; while the greater part of the west side is occupied by two 
large buildings— a basilica, which is the largest edifice in 
Pompeii, and the temple of Apollo, which presents its side to 
the fonmi, and hence fills up a large portion of the surrounding 
space. The former, as we learn from an inscription scratched 
<m its walls, was anterior in date to the consubhip of M. Lepidus 


out«de which again is a wall, bounding the sacred enclosure. 
Between this temple and the basilica the Via' Marina leads off 
direct to the Porta Marina. 

Besides the temples which surrounded the forum, the remains 
of five others have been discovered, three of which are situated 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the theatres. Of these by 
far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which 
is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation 
wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the 
most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the 
characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions 
that of the earliest temple of Sdinus, and probably of as remote 
antiquity (6th century B.C.). Unfortunately only the foundation 
and a few Doric capitals and other ardiitectural fragments 
remain ; they were coated with stucco which was brightly painted. 
In front of the temple b a monument which seems to have been 
the tomb of the founder or founders of the city; so that for a time 
thb must have been the most important temple. The period 
of its destruction b unknown, for it appears certain that it cannot 
be ascribed wholly to the earthquake of 63. On the other hand 
the reverence atuched to it in the later periods of the dty is 
evidenced by its being left standing in the midst of a triangular 
space adjoining the great theatre, which is surrounded by a 
portico, so as to constitute a kind of forum (the so-called Foco 


POMPEII 


53 


TViuifohre). Not far off, and to the north of the great theatre, 
ttood a small temple, which, as we learn from the inscription 
still remaining, was dedicated to Isb, and was rebuilt by a certain 
Popidiiis Cel^ous at the age of six (really of course by his parents), 
after the original edifice had been reduced to ruin by the great 
earthquake of 63. Though of small sixe, and by no means re- 
markable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only 
temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation 
of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became 
so popular under the Roman Empire. The decorations were of 
somewhat gaudy stucco. The plan is curious, and deviates 
much from the ordinary type; the internal arrangements are 
adapted for the performance of the peculiar rites of this deity. 
Close to this temple was another, of very small size, commonly 
known as the temple of Aesculapius, but probably dedicated to 
Zeus Milichius. More considerable and important was a temple 
which stood at no great distance from the forum at the point 
where the so-called Strada di Mercurio was crossed by the wide 
line of thoroughfare (Strada della Fortuna) leading to the gate 
of Nola. We learn from an inscription that this was dedicated 
to the Fortune of Augustus (Fortuna Augusta), and was erected, 
wholly at his own cost, by a citizen of the name of M. TuIIlus. 
This temple appears to have suffered very severely from the 
etrthquake, and at present affords little evidence of its original 
architectural ornament; but we learn from existing remains 
that lu walls were covered with slabs of marble, and that the 
columns of the portico were of the same materiaL The fifth 
temple, that of Venus Pompeiaiui, lay to the west of the basilica; 
traces of two earlier periods underlie the extant temple, which 
was in progress of rebuilding at the time of the eruption. Before 
the earthquake of 63 it must have been the largest and most 
splendid temple of the whole dty. It was surrounded by a 
large colonnade, and the number of marble columns in the whole 
block has been reckoned at 296. 

All the temples above described, except that ascribed to Her- 
cules, which was approached by steps on all four sides, agree in 
being raised on an elevated podium or basement-— an arrange- 
ment nsual with all simihir buildings of Ronuui date. Neither 
ia materiab nor in style does their architecture exceed what 
might r easona b ly be expected In a second-rate provincial town; 
and the same may be said in general of the other public buildings. 
Among these the most conspicuous are the theatres, of which there 
were two, placed, as was usual in Greek towns, in dose juxu- 
pontion with one another. The largest of these which was partly 
excavated in the side of the hill, was a building of considerable 
magnififmce, being in great part cased with marble, and fur- 
nished with seats of the same material, which have, however, 
been almost wholly removed. Its internal construction and 
arrangements resemble those ol the Roman theatres in general, 
though with some peculiarities that show Greek influence, and 
we learn from an inscription that It was erected in Roman times 
by two members of the same family, M. Holconius Rufus and 
If. Holoonius Cder, both of whom hdd important municipal 
offices at Fbmpeii during the reign of Augustus. It appears, 
however, from a careful examination of the remains that their 
work was only a.reoonstruction of a more andent edifice, the date 
of the original fopn of which cannot be fixed; while its first 
alteration betags to the *' tufa '* period, and three other periods 
in iu history'can be traced. Recent investigations in regard to 
the vexed <|uestion of the position of the actors in the Greek 
theatre have as yet not led to any certain solution.* The smaller 
theatre, which was erected, as we learn from an inscription, by 
two magistrates specially appointed for the purpose by the 
decurioncs of the dty, was of older date than the large one, and 
must have been constructed a little before the amphitheatre, soon 
after the establishment of the Roman colony under Sulla. We 
learn also that it was permanently covered, and it was probably 
used for musical entertainments, but in the case of the larger 
theatre also the arrangements for the occasional extension of an 
awmng {vdcrium) over the whole are distinctly found. The 

« See A. Man. Pomptii is Ubtn mni Ktaut (Ldpsig. 1908), pp. iSo 


smaller theatre is computed to have been capable of containing 
fifteen hundred spectators, while the larger could accommodate 
five thousand. 

Adjoining the theatres is a large rectangular endosure, sur- 
rounded by a portico, at first the colonnade connected with the 
theatres, and converted, about the time of Nero, into the barracks 
of the gladiators, who were permanently maintained in the dty 
with a view to the shows in the ampUtheatre. This explains 
why it is so /ar from that building, which is situated at the 
south-eastern angle of the town, about 500 yds. from the 
theatres. Remains of gladiators' armour and weapons were 
found in some of the rooms, and in one, traces of the stocks used 
to confine insubordinate gladiators. The amphitheatre was 
erected by the same two magistrates who built the smaller 
theatre, C. (Juinctlus Valgus and M. Pordus (the former the father- 
in-law of that P. Servilius Rulliis, in opposition to whose bill 
relating to the distribution of the public lands Cicero made his 
speech, De lege apraria), at a period when no permanent edifice 
of a similar kind had yet been erected in Rome itself, and is 
indeed the oldest structure of the kind known to us. But apart 
from its early date it has no special interest, and is wholly wanting 
in the external architectural decorations that give such grandeur 
of character to simiUr edifices in other instances. Being in 
great part excavated in the surface of the hill, instead of the 
seats being raised on arches, it is wanting also in the picturesque 
arched corridors which contribute so much to the effect of those 
other ruins. Nor are Its dimensions (460 by 345 ft.) such as to 
place it in the first rank of structures of this class, nor are there 
any underground chambers .bdow the arena, with devices for 
raising wild beasts, &c. . But, as we learn from the case of their 
squabble with the people of Nuceria, the games cdebrated in 
the amphitheatre on grand occasions would be visited by huge 
numbers from the neighbouring towns. The seating capadty 
was about 3o,ooo* (for illustration see AMPBnEEAiSE). 

Adjoining the amphitheatre was found a large open space, 
nearly square in form, which has been supposed to be a forum 
boarium or cattle-market, but, no buildings of interest being 
discovered around it, the excavation was filled up again, and 
this part of the dty has not been since examined. Between 
the entrance to the triangular forum (so-called) and the temple 
of Isis is the Palaestra, an area surrounded by a colonnade; 
it is a structure of the pre-Roman period, intended for boys, not 
men. 

Amoiig the more important public buildings of Fbmpdl 
were the public baths (tiurmae). Three different esublishmenti 
of this character have been discovered, of which the first, exca- 
vated in 1824, the baths near the forum, built about 80 b.c., wu 
for a long time the only one known. Though the smallest of 
the three, it is in some respects the most complete and interesting; 
and it was until of late years the prindpal source from which we 
derived our knowledge of this important branch of the economy 
of Roman life. At Pompeii the baths are so well preserved as 
to show at a gUmce the purpose of all the different parts— while 
they are among the most richly decorated of all the buildings 
in the dty. We trace without difficulty all the separate apart- 
menu that are described to us by Roman authors— the apody- 
l€rium,frigidariuM, Upidarlvm, cddarium, &c. together with the 
apparatus for supplying both water and heat, the places for de- 
positing the bather's dothes, and other minor details (see Baths). 
The greater thermae (the so-called " Stabian " baths), which 
were originally built in the 2nd century B.C., and repaired about 
80 B.C., are on a much more extensive scale than the others, 
and combine with the special purposes of the building a palaestra 
in the centre and other apartments for exercise or recreation. 
The arrangements of the baths themselves are, however, almost 
similar to those of the lesser thermae. In this case an inscription 
records the repair and restoration of the edifice after the 

*The interest taken by the Pompeians in the sports of the 
araphitheatre b shown by the contents of the numerous painted 
and scratched inscriptions relating to them which have been found 
in Pompeii — notices of combats, laudatory inscriptions, including 
even references to the admiration which gladiatori won from the 
fairiex,Ac. 


5+ 


POMPEII 


earthquake of 6j. It appears, however, that these two establish- 
ments were found inadequate to supply the wants of the in- 
habitants, and a third edifice of the same character, the so- 
called central baths, at the comer of the Strada Stabiana and the 
Strada di Nola, but on a still more extensive scale, intended 
for men only, while the other two had separate accommodation 
for both sexes, was in oouzse of construction when the town was 
overwhelmed. 

Great as is the interest attached to the various public buildingi 
of Pompeii, and valuable as is the light that they have in some 
instances thrown upon similar edifices in other ruined cities, 
far more curious and interesting is the insight afiforded us by 
the numerous private houses and shops into the ordinary life 
and habiu of the population of an ancient town. The houses 
at Pompeii are generally low, rarely exceeding two storeys in 
height, and it appears certain that the upper storey was generally 
of a sUjsht construction, and occupied by small rooms, serving 
as garrets, or sleeping places for slaves, and perhaps for the 
females of the famfly. From the mode of destruction of the dty 
these upper floors were in most cases crushed in and destroyed, 
and hence it was long believed that the houses for the most 
part had but one storey; but recent researches have in many 
cases brought to light incontestable evidence of the existence of 
an upper floor, and the frequent occurrence of a small staircase 
is in itself sufficient proof of the facL The windows, as already 
mentioned, were graerally small and insignificant, and contri- 
buted nothing to the external decoration or effect 9f the hotises, 
which took both light and air from the inside, tiot from the 
outside. In some cases they were undoubtedly dosed with 
glass, but its use appears to have been by no means general 
The priodpal Irving rooms, as well as those intended for the 
reception of guests or dients, were all on the ground floor, the 
centre being formed by the afrtMin, or hall, which was almost 
always open above to the air, and in the larger houses was gener- 
ally surrounded with odumna. Into this opened other rooms, 
the entrances to which seem to have been rarely protected by 
doors, and could only have been dosed by curtains. At the 
back was a garden. Later, under Greek influences, a peristyle 
with rooms round it was added in place of the garden. We notice 
that, as in modem Italy until quite recent years, elaborate 
precautions were taken against heat, but none against cold, 
which was patiently endured. Hypocausts are only found in 
connexion with bathrooms. 

All the apartments and arrangements described by Vitruvius 
and other andent writers may be readily traced in the houses 
of Pompeii, and in many instances' these have for the first time 
enabled us to understand the technical terms and details trans- 
mitted to us by Latin authors. We must not, however, hastfly 
assume that the examples thus preserved to us by a singular 
acddent are to be taken as representing the style of building 
in all the Roman and Italian towns. We know from Cicero 
that Capua was remarkable for iu broad streets and widespread 
buildings, and it is probable that the Campanian towns in 
general partook of the same character. At Pompeii indeed 
the streets were not wide, but they were straight and regular, 
and the houses of the better dass occupied considerable spaces, 
presenting in this respect no doubt a striking contrast, not only 
with those of Rome itsdf, but with those of many other Italian 
towns, where the buildings would necessarily be huddled to- 
gether from the circumstances of their position. Even at 
Pompeii itsdf, on the west side of the dty, where the ground 
slopes somewhat steeply towards the sea, Bouses are fouhd which 
consisted of three storeys or more. 

The excavations have provided examples of houses of every 
description, from the humble dwelling-place of the artisan or 
proletarian, with only three or four small rooms, to the sUtdy 
mansions of Sallust, of the Faun, of the Golden Cupids, of the 
Silver Wedding, of the VettH, of Pansa,> &c.— the last of which 
is among the most regular in plan, and may be taken as an almost 

' * It may be observed that the names ^ven in moec cases to the 
bouses are dther arfoitfary or founded m the first instance upon 
erroneous uif erences. 


perfect modd of a complete Roman house of a superior dasSw 
But the general similarity in their plap and arrangement is very 
striking, and in all those that rise above a very humble dasS the 
leading divisions of the interior, the atrium^ tabUnum, peristyle, 
&c. may be traced with unfailing regularity. Another peculi- 
arity that is found in all the more considerable bouses in Pompeii 
is that of the front, where it faces one of the principal streets, 
being occupied with shops, usually of small sixe, and without 
any communication with the interior of the mansk>n. In a few 
insunces indeed such a communication is found, but in these 
cases it is probable that the shop was used for the sale of artides 
grown upon the esute of the proprietor, such as wine, fruit, oil, 
&c., a practice that is still common in Italy. In general the 
shop had a very small apartment behind it, and probably in 
most cases a sleeping chamber above it, though of this the only 
remaining evidence is usually a portion of the staircase that led 
to this upper room. The front of the shop was open to the 
street, but was .capable of being dosed with wooden shutters, 
the remains of which have in a few insUnces been preserved. 
Not only have the shops of silversmiths been recognized by the 
predous objecu of that metal found in them, but large quantities 
of fruits of various kinds preserved in glass vessels, various de* 
scriptions of com and pulse, loaves of bread, psoulds for pastry, 
fishing-nets and many other objects too numerous to mention, 
have been found in such a condition as to be identified without 
difficulty. Inns snd wineshops appear to have been numerous; 
one of the latter we can see to have been a tkermopoUum, where 
hot drinks were sold. Bakers' shops are also frequent, though 
arrangements for grinding and baking appear to have formed 
part of every. large family esUblishment. In other cases, how- 
ever, these were oa a larger scale, provided with numerous 
querns or hand-mills of the well-known form, evidently intended 
for public supply. Another establishment on a laige scale was 
a fuUonica (fuUer's shop), where all the details of the business 
were illustrated by paintings still visible on the walls. Dyers' 
shops, a tannery and a shop where coburs were ground and 
manufactured— -an important business where almost all the 
rooms of every house were painted— are of special interest, as 
is also the house of a sutgeon, where numeoous suigical instm- 
ments were found, some of them of a very ingenious and elaborate 
description, but aJl made of bronze. Aiiother curiotis discovery 
was that of the abode of a sculptor, containing his tools, as wcU 
as blocks of marble and half-finished sutues. The number 
of utensils of variotis kinds found in the houses and shops is 
almost endless, and, as these are in most cases of toonie, they are 
generally in perfect preservation. 

Of the numerous works of art discovered in the ooune of the 
excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether 
in marble or bronxe, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, 
but some of the bronze statuettes are of ^quisite workmanship, 
while the profusion of ornamental works and objectr in bronze 
and the deganoe of their design, as well as the finished beauty 
of their execution, are such as to exdte the utmost admiration — 
more especially when it is considered that t!hese are the casual 
resulu of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, 
which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Hescu- 
laneum had not) after the eruption of 79. The same impression 
is produced in a still higher degree by the paintings with which 
the walls of the private houses, as well as those of the temples 
and other public buildings, axe adorned, and which are not merely 
of a decorative character, but in many instances present us with 
elaborate compositions of figures, historical and mythological 
sotnes, as well as representations of the ordinaiy life and manneis 
of the people, which are full of interest to us, though often of 
inferior artistic execution. It has until latdy been the practice 
to remove these to the museum at Naples; but the present 
tendency is to leave them (and even the movable objects 
found in the houses) in situ with all due precautions as to 
thdr preservation (as in the bouse of the Vettii, of the 
Silver Wedding, of the Golden Cupids, &c.), which adds im- 
mcnsdy to the interest of the houses; indeed, with the hdp 
of judidous restoration, thdr original condition is in large 


POMPEII 


55 


measure reprodoced.* In tome cues it has even been poisible 
to recover the original amagement of the garden beds» and to 
replaAt them accordingly, thus giving an appropriate frame- 
worfc to the statues, &c. with whkh the gardens mxt 
decorated, and which have been found in situ. The same 
character of eUborate decoration, guided abnost uniformly 
by good taste and artistic feeling, is dttplayed in the mosaic 
pavements, which in all but the humbler class of hotises 
frequently form the ornament of their floors. One of these, in 
the House of the Faun, well known as the battle of Alexander, 
preaents us with the most striking specimen of artbtic com* 
position that has been preserved to us from antiquity. 

The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting 
in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to 
that of the Roman Empire. The temples (as already observed) 
hsve always the Roman peculiarity of being raised on a podium 
of considerable elevation; and the same characteristic is found 
in most of the other public buildings. All the three orders of 
Greek architecture— the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian— are foimd 
freely employed in the various edifices of the city, but rarely 
in strkt accordance with the rules of art in their proportbns 
and details; while the private houses naturally exhibit still 
more deviation and irregularity. In many of these indeed we 
find varieties in the ornamentation, and even In such leading 
features as the capitals of the columns, which remind one rather 
of the vagaries of medieval .architecture than of the strict rules 
of Vitruvius or the regularity of Greek edifices. One practice 
which is especially prevalent, so as to strike every casual visitor, 
and dates from the early years of the empire, is that of filling 
np the flntingi of the columns for about one-third of their height 
with a thick coat of stucco, so as to give them the appearance 
of being smooth columns without flutings below, and only fluted 
above. The unpleasing effect of this anomalous arrangement is 
greatly aggravated by the bwerpart of each column being almost 
always coloured with red or yellow ochre, so as to render the con- 
trast between the two portions still stronger. Thearchiteaureof 
Pompeii suffen also from the inferior quality of the materials 
generally employed. ' No good building stone was at hand; 
and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either 
of volcanic tufa, or Uva, or Samo limestone, or brick (the latter 
only used for the comers of walls). In the private houses even 
the columns are mostly of brick, covered merely with a coat of 
stttCCD. In a few instances only do we find them making use 
of a whitish limestone wrongly called travertine, which, though 
inferior to the aimDar material so largely employed at Rome, 
was better adapted than the ordinary tujfa for purposes where 
great solidity was required. The portion of the portico sur- 
rounding the forum which was in the process of rebuilding at 
the time when the dty was destroyed was constructed of this 
material, whfle the earlier portions, as well as the principal 
temples that adjoined it, were composed in the ordinary manner 
of volcanic tufa. Marble appears to have been scarce, and 
was sparingly employed. In some instances where it had been 
freely iiOroduced, as in the great theatre, it would seem that the 
slabs must have been removed at a period subsequent to the 
entombment of the dty. 

These materials are used in several different styles of con- 
struction belonging to the six different periods which Mau 
traces in the architectural history of Pompeii. 

t. That of the Doric temple in the Foro Triangolare (6th century 
B.C.) and an old column built into a bou«e in Region vi.. Insula 5; 
also of the older parts of the dty walls— date uncertain (Sarno 
Kmestooe and grey tufa). 

a. That of the limestone atriums (outer walb of the houses of 
ashlar-work of Samo limestone, inner walb with framework of 
limestone Uocks, filled in with small pieces of limestone). Date, 
bdbcc 300 B.C. 

5. Gfcy tufa period ; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated ^h fine white 
stucco; rubble work of lava. The artistic character is still Greek, 
and the period coincides with the first (incrusUtion) style of mural 
decorstioo, whkh (probably originating in Alexandria) aimed at 

>Tbe paintings of the house of the Vettii are perhaps the 
bcsc-preservcd in Pompeii, and extremely fine in conception and 
^ — ■■.» ; .— «-»-^tiy the scenes in which Cupids take part. 


the imitation in stucco of tb« ftppearance q( a wall v e nee r e d with 
coloured marbles. No wiU pintiivgi atixt» but there are often 
fine floor mosaica, To thit bclDn^ ;» number of private houses 
(«.(. the House of thr Fjiun), and the cQlonnadf round the forumi 
the basilica, the tenaplrs ol Afk>1Io and Jupiter, the large theatre 
with the coloniuule5 tti \hc Foro TrUngoEare. and the barracks of 
the Radiators, the Stn^bi^n t>aths» :hc F^lacitTa, the exterior of 
the Porta Marina, ami ihc int^frrior of the other gates-^ the 
public buildings ituA^-^d teKCrpi the Doric ttruvplD mentioned under 
(i). which do not bt;l^ng to tnc tiice of the Raman ca/Unty). Date, 
and century b.c. 

4. The ''^ quasi-reticulate *' period— walling faced with masonry 
not yet quite so regular, as ppus ftUctdatmm^ and with brick quoins, 
coindding with the second period of decoration (the architectural, 
partly, imitating marble like the first style, but without relief, 
and by cobur only, and fiartly making use of architectural designs). 
It is represented by the small theatre and the amphitheatte. the 
baths near the forum, the temple of Zeus Milichius, the Comitium 
and the ori^nal temple of Isis. but only a few private houses. The 
ornamentation is much less rich and beautiful than that of the 
preceding period. Date, from 80 b.c. until neariy the end of the 

5. The period from the last decades of the Republic to the 
earthquake of a.d. 63. No homogeneous series of buildi ng s w e 
find various styles of construction (quad-reticulate, opnt reHcutatmm 
of tufa with stone quoins, of the time of Augustus, ipus rtticmlatum 
with brick quoins or with mingled stone and brick quoins, a little 
later); and three styles of wall decoration fall within itt limits. 
The second, already mentioned, the third or ornate, with its freer 
use of ornament and its introduction of designs which 1 


use of ornament and its mtroduction 01 desisns which suggest 
an Egyptian origin (originating in the time of Augustus), aodthe 
fourth or intricate, dating from about a.d. 50. Marble firvt appears 
as a building material in the temple of Forturui Augusu {e, 3 B.C.). 

6. The period from the earthquake of a.d. 63 to the final de- 
struction of the dty, the buildings of which can easily be recognised. 
The only wholly new edifice of any importance b the central baths. 

Outride the Porta r • * ... - 


or gate leadiiw to Herculaneum, 

is found a house of a different character from all the others, which 
from its extent and arrangements was undoubtedly a suburban 
villa, betonging to a person of considerable fortune. It is called— 
as usual without any authority— the villa of Arrius Diomedcs; 
but its remains are of peculiar interest to us. not only for comparison 
With the numerous ruins of rimilar buildings whidi occur eUe- 
where— often of greater extent, but in a much less perfect sute 
of preservation— but as assisting us in undersunding the description 
of andent authors, such as Vitruvius and Pliny, of the numerous 
appurtenances frequently aiuiexed to houses of this description. 

In the cellar of thb villa were di s co v ered no less than twenty 
skeletons of the unfortunate inhabitants, who had evidently fled 
thither for protection, and fourteen in other parts of the house. 
Almost all the skeletons and remains of bodies found in the dty 
were discovered in similar situations, in cellars or underground 
apartments— those who had sought refuge in flight having appar- 
ently for the most part escaped from destruction, or having perished 
under circumstances where thdr bodies were easily reoomed by 
the survivors. According to Cassius Dio, a large number of the 
inhabitants were assembled in the theatre at the time of the catas- 
trophe, but no bodies have been found there, and they were probably 
sought for and removed shortly afterwards. Of late yeaia it has 
been found possible in many cases to take casu of the bodies found— 
a complete moukl having been formed around them by the fine 
white ashes, partially consolidated by water. 

An interesting farm-house (few examples have been so far dis- 
covered in Italy) is that at Boscoreale excavated in 1 893-1 894. 
which contained the treasure of one hundred and three rilver vases 
now at the Louvre. The villa of P. Fannius Synhistor. not far off, 
was excavated in 1900; it contained fine wadl paintings, which, 
despite their importance, were allowed to be exported, and sold by 
auction in Paris (tome now in the Louvre). (See F. Bamabei, 
La Villa pompeiana di P. Paimio SiniOore; Rome. 1901.) 

The road ksding from the Porta Ercolanese towards Herculaneum 
is bordered on both sides for a considerable extent by rows of tombs. 
as was the case with all the great roads leading into Rome, and in- 
deed in all larse Roman towns. These tombs are in many instances 
monuments oTconriderable pretenrion, and of a highly ornamental 
character, and naturally present in the highest dmee the peculiar 
advantage common to all that remains of Pompeii, in thc^ perfect 
preservation. Hardly any scene even in thu extraordinary dty 
IS more striking than the coup d'oril of this k>ng street of tombs, 
preserving uniniured the records of successive generations dghteen 
centuries ago. Unfortunately the names are all otherwise unlmown ; 
but we learn from the inacnptions that they are for the most part 
those of local magistrates and munidpal dignitaries of Pompeii. 
Most of them belong to the early empire. 

There appears to have been in the same quarter a considerable 
suburb, outside the gate, extending on each side of the road towards 
Herculaneum. appaiently much resembling those which are now 
found throughout almost the whole distance from thence to 
Naples. It was known by the name of Pagus Augustus Feliy 


56 


POMPEY 


SuburtanuR. Ottief ftubuTta weit lituiTfd »t the hartnur And :it 
(iw uttworlu {laitnoi}, 

No manuicripti lia%F been disco^vfrd in Pa^peii. Irucriptions 
|]av« lUturallf brvn ktund in oDnBidcT^Lilp numbert. And we are 
indebted to them for much inftirmation cunccfniTig the mumcipul 
irnuiieaietits ol the tc»wn> ^ wall m ihe ix^nstruabn ol varioys 
edi&OH mnd other public work*. The most inictcstinff ol these 
iTC ttich u ue wfitwn in the Oican dialect , which appc-^rsi to have 
Ecmtitiued in ofRcial uae down to the lime wheti ihe Htimjin colony 
wu introducod by Sulta- Fnim that time tfie Lutin bci£u.ige 
wa* cenainly the only one qfftciatly einplijyei3» thouah Qscan may 
have still bc^a spoken by a pcmon at Icjjt of ihe popubniiun. 
Snilli morerunous. and almost peculiar to Pompeii, are the nuinercus 
wrlunifa painted upon the walli, which have gener;illy a icrni- 
public chatacter, luch mi recammendaticFni oi candidates for mLinj- 
cipal ofllicei, advertiHnienta, &c., and tlie icr^lched in&cri prions 
(jftijJSJiJp which are generally the mere citpTCkAlon of Individual 
impulse and feeling, frequently amatory, and not uncommonly 
conveyed in rude and imperfect venei. In one house ulso a whole 
boi wa* found filled with written tablett — diptychs and triptych* 
-—containing the rLTord of the Account s of m banker named L. 
Cjiceiliui JucunduiH 

See A. Mau, Pompeii: ifi Lift and Art (trani. by F. VV. Kel»y. 
and ed,. New ^'ork and London, J 903; Snd reviMd edition of the 
German orij^nnal, Pom^ii in Lrbcn imd Kitmily {jApii^. i^K the 
be«t Evncnil account written by the ^rcalnt authority nn ih« sulsjccl, 
to vtikh out dfscripiion owes much. With fui! rcKtenrrt to other 
Eourcn of inf onnanoni ; and, far Uter ejicavanionsn !V(riiiit degii 
5i^n aiid Ki>miickf J/i/J^i/nHfrn (In the laitrr, artick-4 by Mau), 
piiisim* For the ini^ctiptians on tbe tablk^ and on the wa]l.<i. 
CV^IU inti-CTipUtmum ^Ijfiartijn, voL iv. (ed. Zangemeinter and 
Mau). Recent work* on the pocnijeian frescoes are those of DerEcr, 
in Pif Maltttknik des AJurtkumt, and A- P- Laurie, Gfftk and 
A<»tu]» Mtikods of Painiin^ (1910). (E. IL li.; T. As.) 

Oscan I mcriptufns,— The sur\iving macripdona which can 
be datedf mainly by ibc graduo] chajig^ m their alphabet, are 
of the 3rd *nd jnd centime* b.cl, some certainly belonging to 
the Gracchnn pcricrd^ The oldest of the LaliQ instriptioni are 
C.I.L, K. 794, Ihc record of the building of colonnades in ibe 
fonim by ihe *' qaaifslor " V. Popiditu, and two or three 
election placards {CJ.L. iv. zg, jo, j6) of one R. Cacdlitii, a 
candidate for the same office. It cannot be an accident that 
the alphabet of these inscrfptioni belongs dblfnctly to SuUan 
or prc-Sullan times, while no such olTicer 33 a quaestor appears in 
any later documents (t g. in C.I L. t. 644, it is the dtioviri who 
build Lhe small ihciLre), but docs appear in the O^an in^rip- 
lions. Hence it has been inferred tbat these oldest Latin in^rip- 
linns are also older than Sulla^s colony: if so, Latin must have 
been in use, and in fairly common use (il the pr^griimttntta <vere 
lo be of any service), in Pompeii at thai date. On the other 
band, the gocid tonditiisn of many of the painted Oscan inscrip- 
tioniat ih^ times when they wcfe first uncovered 1(1797 onwards) 
and tbttr subsequent decay and lhe number of Oscan grafTtti 
appear to male ll probable that at the Chri^liiiin era D^can was 
slij] spoken in the town. The two Languages tuidoubtedly 
existed side by side during the last century b.c, Latin being 
alone recognized oflicially and in society, while Oscan was 
preserved mainly by intercourse wiih the country folk who 
frt-qucnted the market. Thus beside many l-alin prop-ummata 
inter than those just mentioned we have similaf inscriptions 
in Oscan, addr^r^sstd to Oscan- spenking voters, where J Hitter. 
obviously relates lo the qualtuorvitate, a lille tharactcris.tic 
of Ibe Sullan and inumviral colonies. An inter^ting stone 
containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in 
Pocnpeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan 
inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of 
measurement was modified so a$ to correspond more closely with 
the Roman^ about 14 B.C., by the duovirtt *fho record their 
work in a Latin inscription (CJ.L. x. 793; for the Oscan set lid. 
Diiii. p. 67). 

b« IiifthCT OsCA LfKCtiA, and R. S. Conway, 7^ /taJur Difdi^c£s, 
pp. 54 sqqt N»»en, Ptfmpeianischt Sluditn; J. Btaloch, CampuHttn, 
Jnd td. (R. S. C ) 

POMPEY, the common English form of Pompeius, ihc name 
of a Roman plebeian family* 

I. Gnaelis Pompeius (106-48 n.c), the triumvir, tbe first 
of his family lo a.uume the surname hlACStfs, was bom on Ihc 
30th of September in the same year as Cicerri. When only 
»eveiit«ij he fought together with his lather in the Social War. 


He took tbe side of Sulla against Marius and Cinna, but for « 
time, in consequence of the success of the Marians, he kept in 
the background. On the return of Sulla from the Mithradaiic 
War Pompey joined him with an army of three legions, vhicb 
he had raised in Picenum. Thos eai-Iy in life he connected 
himself with the cause of the aristocracy, and a decisive victory 
which he won in 83 over the Marian armies gained for him from 
Sulla the title of Imperatar, He foUownl up his successes in 
Italy by defeating the Marians in Sicily and Africa, and on his 
return to Rome in 81, though he was still merely an egues and 
not legally qualified to celebrate a triumph, he was allowed by 
general consent to enjoy this distinction, while Sulla greeted him 
with the surname of Magnus, a title he always retained and 
handed down to his sons. Latterly, h^ relations with Sulla were 
somewhat strained, but after his death he resisted the attempt of 
the consul M. Aemilius Lepidus to repeal the constitution. In 
conjunction with A. Luutius Catulus, the other consul, he 
defeated Lepidus when be tried to march upon Rome, and drove 
him out of Italy (77). With some fears and misgivings the 
senate permitted him to retain the command of his victorious 
army, and decided on sending him to Spain, where the Marian 
party, under Sertorius, was still formidable. Pompey was 
fighting in Spain from 76 to 71, and though at first he met with 
serious reverses he was ultimately succcanful. After Sertorius 
had fallen a victim to assassination, Pompey easily defeated 
his successor Perpema and put an end to the war. In 71 he won 
fresh glory by finally crushing the sUve insurrection of Spartaois. 
That same year, amid great popular enthusiasm, but without 
the hearty concurrence of the senate, whom he had alarmed by 
talking of restoring the dreaded power of the tribunes, he was 
elected with M. Licinius Crassus to the consulship, and entered 
Rome in triumph (December 31) for his Spsnish victories. 
He was legally ineligible for the consulship, having held 
none of the lower ofiiccs of state and being under age. 
The following year saw the work of Sulla undone; the tribunate 
was restored, and the administration of justice was no longer 
left exclusively to the senate, but was to be shared by it with 
the wealthier portion of the middle dass, the equitcs (q.v.) 
and the tribum aerarii} The change was really necessary, as 
the provincials could never get justice from a court composed 
of senators, and it was carried into effect by Pompey with 
Caesar's aid. Pompey rose still higher in popularity, and 
on the motion of Uie tribune Aulus Gabinius in 67 he was 
entrusted with an extraordinary command over the greater 
part of the emphfe, specially for the extermination of piracy in 
the Mediterranean, by which the com supplies of Rome were 
seriously endangered, while the high prices of provisions caused 
great distress. He was completely successful; the price of com 
fell immediately on his appointment, and in forty days the 
Mediterranean was cleared of Che pirates. Next year, on the 
proposal of the tribune Manilius, his powers were ajLill further 
extended, the care of all the provinces in the East being put 
under his control for three years together with the conduct of 
the war against Mithradates VI., who had recovered from the 
defeats he had sustained from Lucullus and regained his 
dominions. Both Caesar and Cicero supported the tribune's 
proposal, which was easily carried in spite of the interested 
opposition of the senate and the aristocracy, several of whom 
held provinces which would now be practically under Pompey's 
command. The result of Pompe/s operations was eminently 
satisfactory. The wild tribes of the Caucasus were cowed by 
the Roman arras, and Mithradates himself fled across the 
Black Sea to Panticapaeum (modem Kertcb). In the years 
64 and 63 Syria and Palestine were annexed to Rome's empire. 
After the capture of Jerusalem Pompey is said to have entered 
the Temple, and even the Holy of Holies. Asia and the East 
generally were left under the subjection of petty kings who were 
mere vsissals of Rome. Several dties had been founded which 
became centres of Greek life and dvilixation. 
Pompey, now in his forty-fifth year, returned to Italy in 6x te 

■ Their history and political character is obtcure: they were at any 
rate connected with the knights (tee AeaARiUM). 


POMPEY 


57 


oelebnte Uie loost magnificent triumph which Rome had ever 
witnessed, as the conqueror of Spain, Africa, and Asia (see A. 
Holm, Hist, of Greece, £ng. trans., vol. iv.). This triumph marked 
the tormng-point of his career. As a soldier everything had 
pxat well with him; as a politician he was a failure. He found 
a great change in public opinion, and the people indififerent to 
kis achievements abroad. The- optimates resented the extra- 
crdinary powen that had been conferred upon him; Lucullus 
and CrasBus considered that th^ had been robbed by }am of 
the honour of concluding the war against Mithradates. The 
senate refused to xatify the arrangements he made in Asia or 
to provide money and lands for distribution amongst his 
veterans. In these drcumstanoes he drew closer to Caesar on 
his return from Spain, and became reconciled to Crassus. The 
lesult was the so-called first triumvirate (see Rome: History). 

The remainder of his life is inextricably interwoven with that 
of Caesar. He was married to Caesar's daughter Julia, and as 
yet the relations between the two had been friendly. On more 
than one occasion Caesar had supported Pompe/s policy, 
wtddi of late had been in a decidedly democratic direction. 
Pompey was now in fact ruler of the greater part of the empire, 
while Caesar had only the two provinces of GauL The control 
of the capita], the supreme command of the army in Italy and 
of the Mediterranean fleet, the governorship of the two Spains, 
the soperintendence of the com supplies, which were mainly 
drawn from Sicily and Africa, and on whidi the vast population 
of Rome was wholly dependent, were entirely in the hands of 
Pompey, who was gradually losing the confidence of all political 
parties in Rome. The senate and the aristocracy disliked and 
distrmtcd him, but they felt that, should things come to the 
wotst, they might still find in him a champion of their cause. 
Hcooe the joint rule of Pompey and Caesar was not unwillingly 
accepted, and anything like a rupture between the twb was 
greaUty dresded as the sure beginning of anarchy throughout the 
Roman world. With the deaths of Pompey's wife Julia (54) and 
of Crassus (53) the relations between him and Caesar became 
strained, and soon afterwards he drew closer to what we may 
call the oM conservative party in the senate and aristocracy. 
The end was now near, and Pompey blundered into a false 
political position and an open quarrel with Caesar. In 50 the 
senate by a very large majority revoked the eiAraordinary 
pomeis conceded to Pompey and Caesar in Spain and Gaul 
reflectively, and called upon them to disband theur armies. 
Ponip e y *s refusal to submit gave Caesar a good pretext for 
dedaxmg war and marrhfng at the head of his army into 
Italy. At the beginning of the contest the advantages were 
dcddedly on the side of Pompey, but the superior political 
tact of his rival, combined with extraordinary promptitude and 
deciskm in following up his blows, soon turned the scale against 
hmi. Pompey's cause, with that of the senate and aristocracy, 
was finally nihied by his defeat in 48 in the neighbourhood of the 
Thcssalian dty Phaxsalus. That same year he fled with the 
hope of finding a safe refuge in Egypt, but was treacherously 
mnrdered by one of his old centurions as he was landmg. He 
was five times married, and three of his children survived him — 
GnaeuSy Sextus, and a daughter Pompeia. 

Pompey, though he had some great and good qualities, 
hardly deserved his surname of " the Great." He was certainly 
a very good soldier, and is said to have excelled in all athletic 
exe rc ises , bnt he fell short of being a first-rate generaL He 
won great successes in Spain and more especially in the East, 
but for these he was no doubt partly indebted to what others had 
already done. Of the gifu which make a good statesman he 
had really none. As plainly appeared in the bst years of his 
life, be was too weak and irresolute to choose a side and stand 
by it. But to his credit be it said that in a corrupt time he 
never used his opportunities for plunder and extortion, and 
hs domestic life was pure and simple. 

Airraosrnas.— itmtmf : Plutarch, Pomtey: Dio Caasius: Appian: 
Vclldus Patercuius; Caesar, De belh cimki Strabo xiu, 555-560; 
Cotra, passim'. Locan, Pharsalia. 

Ucdemz Histories of Rome in geneiml (see Rom: Ancient 
JBtfory^^d^); works quoted under CasfAit and CxcBia Also 


G. Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng. trans., A. D. Jones, 1 897); 
J. L. Strachaa-Davidson's Cicero (1894): Warde Fowler's Juttus 
Caesar (1893); C. W. Oman, Seven Roman StaUsmen of the Lat^ 
Republic (i^); notes in Tyrrdl and Purser's Correspondenu o§ 
Cicero (bee mdex in viL 80). 

7. GNAE178 PoHFEius, sumamed Strabo (squint-eyed), 
Roman statesman, father of the triumvir. He was successively 
quaestor in Sardinia (103 B.C.), praetor (94), propraetor in 
Sicily (93) and consul (89). He fought with success in the 
Social War, and was awarded a triumph for his services. 
Probably towards the end of the same year he brought forward 
the law {lex Pompeia de Gallia Transpadana), which oonfened 
upon the inhabit^mts of that region the privileges granted to 
the Latin colonies. During the dvil war between Marius and 
Sulla he seems to have shown no desire to attach himself 
definitely to either side. He certainly set out for Rome from the 
south of Italy (where he remained as proconsul) at the bidding 
of the aristocratic party, when the dty was threatened by 
Marius and Cinna, but he di^Iayed little energy, and the engage- 
ment which he fought before the Colline gate, although hotly 
contested, was indM:isive. Soon afterward he was killed by 
lightning (87). Although he possessed great military talents, 
Pompdus was the best-hated general of his time owing to his 
criidty, avarice and perfidy. His body was dragged from the 
bier, while being oonv^ed to the funeral pile, and treated with 
the greatest indignity. 

See Plutarch, Pompey^ i; Appian. Bell. do. i. 50, 53, 66-68, 80; 
VeU. Pat. IL 21 ; Ltvy, EpiL 74'79; Fkmis iiL 18. 

3. Gnaeus Poupixus Magnus C^. 75-45 b.c.), the dder son of 
the triumvir. In 48 B.a during the dvil war he commanded 
his father's fleet in the Adriatic After the battle of Pharsalus 
he set out for Africa with the remainder of the Pompeian party, 
but, meeting with little success, crossed over to Spain. Having 
been joined by his brother Sextus, he collected a considerable 
army, the numbers of which were increased by the Pompeians 
who fled from Africa after the battle of Thapsus (46). Caesar, 
who regarded him as a formidable opponent, set out against 
him In person. A battle took place at Munda on the x 7th of 
March 45, in which the brothers were defeated. Gnaeus 
managed to make his escape after the engagement, but was 
soon (AprQ 12) captured and put to death. He was generally 
unpopular owing to his crudty and violent temper. 

See PseudoOppius. BeBmn iispaniense, I-39; Lucan, Pharsalia, 
uc X30; Dio Cassius idiiL 28-40^ 

4. Sextcs Pompezus Macnus (75-35 B.C.), the younger son 
of the triimivir. After his fathoms death he continued the 
struggle against the new rulers of the Roman Empire. From 
Cyprus, where he had taken refuge, he made his way to Africa, 
and after the deftot of the Pompeians at Thapsus (46) crossed 
over to Spain. After Caesar's victory at the battle of Munda 
(45), in which he took no actual part, he abandoned Corduba 
(Cordova), though for a time he hdd his ground in the south, 
and defeated Aiinius PolUo, the governor of the province. In 
43, the year of the triumvirate of Octavius, Antony, and 
Lepidus, he was proscribed along with the murderers of Cftesar, 
and, not daring to show himself In Italy, he put himself at the 
head of a fleet manned chiefly by slaves or proscribed persons, 
with which he made himself master of Sicily, and from thence 
ravaged the coasts of Italy. Rome was threatened with a 
famine^ as the com supplies from E^gypt and Africa were cut 
off by his sh^ and it was thought prudent to negotiate a peace 
with him at MIsenum (39), which was to leave him m possesion 
of Sidly, Sardinia and Achaea, provided he would allow Italy 
to be freely supplied with com. But the arrangement could 
not be.carried into effect, as Sextus renewed the war and gained 
tome considerable successes at sea. However, in 36 his fleet 
was defeated and destroyed by Agrippa at Naulochus off the 
north coast of Sicily. After his defeat he fled to Mytflene, and 
from there to Asia Minor. In the attempt to make his way to 
Armenia he was Uken prisoner by Anton/s troops, and put to 
death at Miletus. Uke his father, he was a brave soldier, but 
a man of little culture. 


58 


POMPIGNAN— POMPTINE MARSHES 


See Dio Casstus. xlvt-xlix.; Appiaa, Bdl, cm. iv. 84-117, v. 
3-143; Veil. Pat. ti. 73^7; Plutarch. Antony; Livy, £pit. 123, 
128, 129, 131; Cicero, PkiUppica, xiii., and many ntferenoes u 
Letters to Atticus. 

POMPIGNAN, JEAN JACQUES LEFRANC» Marquis dx (1709- 
Z784), FztQch poet, was bom on the x 7th of August 1709, at 
Montftuban, where his father was president of the caur ies aides, 
and the son, who also followed the profession of the law, suc- 
ceeded in 1745 to the same charge. The same year he was also 
appointed constUler d'honneur of the parlement of Toulouse, 
but his courageous opposition to the abuses of the royal power, 
especially in the matter of taxation, brought down upon him 
so much vexation that he resigned his positions almost immedi- 
ately, his marriage with a rich woman enabling him to devote 
himself to Literature. His first play, Didcn (1734), which owed 
much to Metastasio's open on the same subject, gained a great 
success, and gave rise to expectations not fulfilled by the Adieux 
de Mars (1735) and some light operas that followed. His rq>uta- 
tion was made by Foisies sacries el philosophiques (1734), much 
mocked at by Voltaire who punned on the title: " Sacrts Us 
sorU, car personnc n*y Untehe" Lefranc's odes on profane sub- 
jects hardly reach the same level, with the exception of the ode 
on the death of J. B. Rousseau, which secured him entrance to 
the Academy (1760). On his reception he made an ill-con- 
sidered oration violently attacking the Encyclopaedists, many 
of whom were in his audience and had given him their votes. 
Lefranc soon had reason to repent of his rashness, for the 
epigrams and stories circulated by those whom he had attacked 
noade it impossible for him to remain in Paris, and he took 
refuge in his native town, where he spent the rest of his life 
occupied in making numerous translations from the classics, 
none of great merit. 

La Harpe, |rho is severe enough on Lcfnnc in hb correspondence, 
does his abilities full justice in his Cours lUtiraire^ and ranks him 
next to J. B. Rousseau among French lyric poets. With those 
of other 18th-century poets his works may be studied in the Petits 
poites franukis (1838) of M. Prosper Pottevia. His (Emres com- 
pities U vols.) were published in 1781, selections (9 vols.) in 1800, 
1813, 1832. 

His brojther, Jean Georges Lefranc oe Poupignan (17x5- 
1790), was the archbishop of Vienne against whose defence of 
the faith Voltaire launched the good-natured mockery of Les 
Lettres d^un Qucker. Elected to the Estates General, he passed 
over to the liberal side, and led the X49 memben of the clergy 
who united with the third estate to form the National Assembly. 
He was one of its first presidents, and was minister of public 
worship when the dvil constitution was forced upon the clergy. 

POHPONAZZI, PIBFRO (Petrds Pouponaiius) (Z462-X525), 
Italian philosopher, was bom at Mantua on the x6th of Sep- 
tember X463, and died at Bologna on the z8th of May 1525. I£a 
education, begun at Mantua, was completed at Padua, where he 
became doctor of medicine in X487. In X488 he was elected 
extraordinary professor of philosophy at Padua, where he was 
a colleague of Achillini, the Averroist. From about 1495 to 
X509 he occupied the chair of natural philosophy tmtil the 
closing of the schools of Padua, when he took a professorship 
at Ferran where he lectured on the De anima. In 15x2 he 
was invited to Bologna where he remained till his deadi and 
where he produced all his important works. The predominance 
of medical science at Padua had cramped his energies, but at 
Ferrera, and even more at Bologna, the study of psychology 
and theological speculation were more important. In 1516 he 
produced his great work De immortalitaU animi, which gave 
rise to a storm of oontzoveny between the orthodox Thomists 
of the Catholic Church, the Averroists headed by Agostino 
Nifo, and the so-called Alexandrist School The treatise was 
burned at Venice, and Pomponaazi himself ran serious risk of 
death at the hands of the Catholics. Two pamphlets followed, 
the Apologia and the Defensorium, wherein he explained his 
paradoxical position as Catholic and philosophic materialist. 
His last two treatises, the De incantatioftibus and the De fate, 
were posthumously published in an edition of his works printed 
^t Basel 


Pomponaazi is profoundly interesting as the herald of the 
Renaissance He was bom in the period of transition when 
scholastic formalxsm was losmg its hold over men both in the 
Church and outside. Hitherto the dogma of the Church had 
been based on Aristotle as interpreted by Thomas Aquinas. 
So dose was this identification that any attack on Aristotle, or 
even an attempt to reopen the old discussions on the Aristo- 
telian problems, was regarded as a dangerous heresy. Pom« 
ponazzi claimed the right to study Aristotle for himself, and 
devoted himself to the De aniftta with the view of showing that 
Thomas Aqiiinas had entirely misconceived the Aristotelian 
theory of the active and the passive intellect. TheAverroisUhad 
to some extent anticipated this attitude by their contention that 
immortality does not imply the eternal separate existence of 
the individual soul, that the active pxindple which is common 
to all men alone survives. Pomponazzi's revolt went further 
than this. He hdd, with Alexander of Aprodisias, that, as 
the soul is the form of the body (as Aquinas also asserted), it 
must, by hypothesis, perish with the body; form apart from 
matter is unthinkable. The ethical consequence of such a 
view is important, and in radical contrast to the practice of the 
period. Virtue can no longer be viewed solely in relation to 
reward and punishment in another existence. A new sanction 
is xequired. Pomponazzi found this criterion in roG xaXov &i«a 
— virtue for its own sake. " Praemium essentiale virtutis est 
ipsamet virtus quae hominem felioem fadt," he says inthe De 
immorUditate. Consequently, whether or iu>t the soul be im- 
mortal, the ethical criterion remains the same: " Neque aliquo 
pacto dedinandum est a virtute quicquid acddat post mortem." 
In spite of this philosophical materialism, Pomponazzi declared 
his adherence to the Catholic faith, and thus esublished the 
prindple that religion and philosophy, faith and knowledge, 
may be diametrically opposed and yet coexist for the same 
thinker. This curious paradox he exemplifies in the I>p incanta" 
tione, where in one breath he sums up against the existence 
of demons and spirits on the basis of the Aristotelian theory of 
the cosmos, and, as a believing Christian, asserts his faith in 
their exbtence. In this work he insists emphatically upon the 
orderly sequence of nature, cause and effect. Men grow to 
maturity and then decay; so religions have their day and 
succumb. Even Christianity, he added (with the usual proviso 
that he is q)eaking as a philosopher) was showing indications 
of decline. 

See A. H. Douglas. Philosophy and Psychctogy ef PiOro Pompo-^ 
fMsst (1910) ; also Kitter, Cesckickte der Philosopkie; J. A. Symonds. 
The Renaissance in Italy; Winddband, Htstory of Philosophy 
(trans, by James H. Tufts, pt. 4, c x); J. Burckhardt, Die KnUnr 
der Renaissance in Jtalien; L. Fern, La Psicohtia di P. Pmm- 
ponaaL (J. M. M.) 

POHPONIUS, LUCIUS, called Bononiensis from hb birthplace 
Bononia, Latin' comic poet, flourished about 90 B.C. (or earlier). 
He was the first to give an artistic form to the Atellanae 
Fabulae by arranging beforehand the details of the plot which 
had hitherto been left to improvisation, and providing a written 
text. The fragments show fondness for alliteration and phiying 
uj>on words, skill in the use of rustic and fardcal language, 
and a considerable amount of obscenity. 

Fragments in O. Ribbeck, Scenicae romanorum poesis fragmenia 
(1897-X898); see Mommsen. Hist, of Rome (Eng. tr.), bk. iv. ch. X3; 
TeuBd-Schwabe. HisL of Roman iMeroiwre (Eng. tr.), \ X5X. 

POHPOSA, an abbey of Emilia, Italy, in the provmce of 
Ferrara, 2 m. from Codigoro, which is 30 m. E. of Ferrara in the 
ddta of the Po. The fine church, a work of the xoth (?) century, 
with interesting sculptures on the facade and a splen<tid Roma- 
nesque campanile, contains a good mosaic pavement, and interest- 
ing frescoes of the X4th centuxy^-a " Last Judgxnent ** of the 
school of Giotto and othera; and there are also paintings in the 
refectory. It was abandoned in 1550 on account of malaria. 
See G. Agndli, Ferrara e Pomposa (Bergamo, 1902). (T. As.) 
POMPTINB 1IAII8HB8, a low tract of land in the province of 
Rome, Italy, vaxying in breadth between the Volsdan mountains 
and the sea from xo to z6 m., and extending N.W. to S.£. from 


PONANI— PONCHIELLI 


59 


VcOetri to Taradna (40 m.). In ancient days this low tract 
wn fertxie and ifeU-cuItivated, and contained several prosperous 
dtics (Snem Pometia, Ulubrae— perhaps the mod. Cistema — 
&C.), bat, owing to the dying out of the small proprietors, it 
had already become unhealthy at the end of the Republican 
period. Attempts to drain the marshes were made by Appius 
Oaudias in 312 B.c, when he constructed the Via Appia through 
them (the road ha'^ng pxeviously followed a devious course at 
the foot of the Volsdan mountains), and at various times 
during the Roman period. A canal ran through them parallel 
to the road, and for some reason that is not altogether clear it 
was used in preference to the road during' the Augustan period. 
TVajan xepahred the road, and Theodoric did the same some 
four hundred years later. But in the middle ages it had fallen 
into disrepair. Popes Boniface Vm., Martin V., Sixtus V., 
and Ros VL all attempted to solve the problem, the hst-named 
recoastrocting the road admirabfy. The difficulty arises from 
the lack of fdl in the soil, some parts no less than 10 m. from 
the cx>ast being barely above sea-level, while they are separated 
from the sea by a series of sand-hills now covered with forest, 
whidi rise at some points over xoo ft. above sea-levcL Springs 
abo-riie in the district, and the problem is further complicated 
by the flood-water and solid matter brought down by the 
moontain torrents, which choke up the channels made. By 
a law pasMd in 1899, the proprietors are bound to arrange for 
the safe ontlet of the water from the mountains, keep the exists 
Ing caaab open, and reclaim the district exposed to inundation, 
within a period of twenty-four years. The sum of £280,000 has 
been granted towards the expense by the government. 

See T. Berti. Paludf pontine (Rome, 1884); R. de la Blanch^, 
Un Chapim ffkistoin pontine (Paris, 1889). (T. As.) 

PCntin. a se^Knt on the west coast of India, in Malabar 
district, Madras, at a mouth of a river of the same name. Pop. 
(1901), 10,562, It is the headquarters of the Moplah or Map- 
piUa oonmiunity of Mahommedans, with a religious college and 
many mosqoes, one of which is said to date from zsza Thero 
is a large export of cooo-nut products. 

POVCA* a tribe of North-American Indians of Siouan stock. 
They woe originally part of the Omaha tribe, with whom they 
lived near the Red River of the North. They were driven 
westward by the Dakotas, and halted on the Ponca river, 
Dakota. After k succession of treaties and removals they were 
piaoed cm a reservation at the mouth of the Niobrara, where 
they were prospering, when their lands were fordbly taken from 
them, and they were removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). 
During the march thither and in their new qtiarters, the tribe's 
health suffered, so that in 1878 they revolted and made their 
way back to the Omahas. llwy were recaptured, but public 
attention having been drawn to their hard case they were 
liberated in 1880, after a long trial, which resulted in their 
being de^ued United States dtisena* They number some 
700, mostly in Oklahoma. 

VOMCB, a seaport and the second largest dty of Porto Rico, 
the seat of govemment of the Department of Ponce, on the 
south coast, about 50 m. (84 m. by the military road) S.W. of San 
Joan. Pop. (1899), 27,952, of whom 2554 were negroes and 
9942 of mixed races; (1910X 35,027. It is served by the American 
Railroad of PortoRico,bya railway to Guayama (19x0), and by 
steamboats from numerous ports; an old military road connects 
it with San Juan. Ponce consists of two parts: Ponce, or the 
dty proper, and Ponce Phiya, or the seaport; they are separated 
by the Portuguese River and are connected by an electric street 
railway. Ponce Pla3ra is on a spadbus bay and is accessible to 
vessels drawing 25 ft. of water; Ponce is 2 m. mland at the 
interior margin of a beautiful phiin, with hills In the rear rising 
to a hdght of tooo to 2000 ft. The dty is supplied with water 
by aa aqueduct about 2 ra. long. There are two attractive 
ptibBc squares in the heart of the dty: Plaza Principal and Plaza 
de las Delidas. Among prominent public buildings are the 
city hall, the custom-house, the Pearl theatre, several churches— 
Eonaa Ouholic (induding a finely decorated cathedral) and 
PkoUstant; St Luke's hospital and insane asylum, an asylum 


for the blind, a ladies' asylum, a home for the indigent and 
aged, and a military barracks. At the (^ntana Baths near the 
dty are thermal springs with medicinal properties. The 
surrounding cotmtry is devoted chiefly to the cultivation of 
sugar cane, tobacco, oranges and cacao, and to the grazing of 
cattle. Among the manufactures are sugar, molasses, rum^ 
and ice, and prepared coffee for the market. Ponce, named in 
honour of Ponce de Leon, was founded in 1752 upon the site of 
a settlement which had been established in the preceding century, 
was incorporated as a town in 1848, and was made a dty in 
1878: 

PONCELET, JEAN VICTOR (1788-1867), French mathe- 
matidan and engineer, was bom at Metz on the xst of July 
X788. From x8o8 to x8xo he attended the ££ole pdytechnigue, 
and afterwards, till x8x2, the £c0le d^applkatian at Meu. He 
then became Ueutenant of engineers, and took part in the 
Russian campaign, during which he was taken prisoner and was 
confined at Saratov on the Volga. It was during his imprison- 
ment here that, ** priv6 de toute esptee de livres et de secours, 
surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens 
propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on pro- 
jective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject. 
This work, the Traitides proprUtis projectives des figures, which 
was published in 1822 (2d ed., 2 vols. X865-X866), is occupied 
with the investigation of the projective properties of figures (see 
GsoifETaY). This work entitles Poncdet to rank as one of the 
greatest of those who took part in the development of the 
modem geometxy of which G. Monge was the founder. From 
18x5 to X825 he was occupied with militazy engineering at 
Metz: and from 1825 to X835 ^^ ^nu professor of mechanics at 
the EcoU iTapplicaiion there. In X826, in his Mhnoire sur les 
roues kydrauliques d aubes courbes, he brought forward im- 
provements in the constmction of water-wheels, which more 
than doubled tbdr efficiency. In 1834 he became a member of 
the Acadhnie't from X838 to X848 he was professor to the 
faculty of sdences at Paris, and from 1848 to 1850 comman- 
dant of the £a)U polytuknique. At the London International 
Exhibition of X85X he had charge of the department of 
machinery, and wrote a report on the machinery and tools on 
view at that exhibition. He died at Paris on the 23rd of 
December 1867. 

See J. Bcrtrand, ^fe historiqne de Poncdet (Pkris, ttf^ 

PONCHER, foENNE DE (X446-X524), French prelate and 
diplomatist. After studying law he was early provided with 
a prebend, and became councillor at the parlement of Paris 
in X48S and president of the Chambre des EnqufteS in 1498. 
Elected bishop of Paris in X503 at the instance of Louis XII., 
he was entrusted by the king with diplomatic missions in 
Germany and Italy. After being appointed chancellor of the 
duchy of Milan, he became keeper of the seals of France in X5X2, 
and retained that post until the accession of Francis I., who 
employed him on various diplomatic missions. Poncher 
beoime archbishop of Sens in 15x9. His valuable Constitutions 
synodales was published in 15x4. 

PONCHIELU, AMILCARB (X834-1886), Italian musical 
composer, was bom near Cremona on the xst of September X834. 
He studied at the Milan Conservatoire. His first dramatic 
work, written in collaboration with two other composers, was 
// Sindaco Babbeo (X851). After completing his studies at 
Milan he returned to Cremona, where hts opera / Promessi 
spon was produced in x8^6. This was followed by La Satojarda 
(i86x, produced in a revised version as Una in X877), Roderigo, 
ri dei Coti (1864), and La Stella del monte (1867). A revised 
version of / Promessi sposi, which was produced at Milan in 
1872, was his first genuine success. After this came a ballet, 
Le Due CemeUe (1873), ^nd an opera, / Lituani (x874i produced 
in a revised version as Alduna in X884). Ponchielli reach«i the 
zenith of his fame with La Gioconda (X876), written to a libretto 
founded by Arrigo Boito upon Victor Hugo's tragedy, AngdOt 
Tyran de Padoue. La Gioconda was followed by // Ftglt««i 
prodigy (x88o) and Marion Dthme Ci88s). Among his le^' 


6o 


PONCHO— PONIARD 


important works are // ParUUare eitmo, a musical farce (1873), 
and a ballet, Clarina (1873). In i88z Ponchielli was made 
maestro di cappella of Piacenza Cathedral. His music shows 
the influence of Verdi, but at its best it has a distinct value of 
its own, and an inexhaustible flow of typically Italian melody. 
His fondness for fanciful figures in his accompaniments has 
been slavishly imiuted by Mascagni, Leoncavallo, and many of 
their contemporaries. Ponchielli died at Milan on the Z7th 
of January i886. 

PONCHO (a South American Spanish word, adopted from the 
Araucanian poncho or pontko in the X7th century), a form of 
cloak worn originally by the South American Indians, and 
afterwards adopted by the Spaniards living in South America. 
It is merdy a long strip of doth, doubled, with a hole for the 
head. 

POND, JOHN (c. 1767-1836), English astronomer-royal, was 
born about 1767 in London, where his father made a fortune 
in trade. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age 
of sixteen, but took no degree, his course bdng interrupted by 
severe pulmonary attacks which compelled a long residence 
abroad. In x8oo he settled at Westbury near Bristol, and 
began to determine star-places with a fine altitude and azimuth 
drde of 2} ft. diameter by E. Troughton. His demonstration 
in .1806 (Phil. Trans, xcvi. 420) of a change of form in the 
Greenwich mural quadrant led to the introduction of astro- 
nomical drdes at the Royal Observatory, and to his own appoint- 
ment as its head. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Sodety 
on the 26th of February 1807; he married and went to live in 
London in the same year, and in i8zi succeeded Maskdyne as 
astronomer-royal. 

During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond 
effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparaUe 
to that effected by Bessel in Germany. In 1821 he began to 
employ the method of observation by reflection; and in 1825 
he devised means (see Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. ii. 499) of combin- 
ing two mural circles in the determination of the pUce of a single 
object, the one serving for direct and the other for reflected 
vision. Under his auspices the instrumental equipment at 
Greenwich was completely changed, and the number of assis- 
tants increased from one to six. The superior accuracy of his 
determinations was attested by S. C. Chandler's discussion of 
them in 1894, in the course of his researches into the variation 
of latitude {Astron. Journ. Nos. 313, 315). He persistently con- 
troverted (18x0-1824) the reality of J. Brinkley's imaginary 
star-parallaxes (Phil. Trans, cviii. 477, cxiii. 53). Delicacy of 
health compelleid his retirement in the autunm of 1835. He 
died at Blackheath on the 7th of September 1836, and was 
buried beside Hallcy in the chtirchyard of Lee. The Copley 
medal was conferred upon him in X823, and the Lalande prize 
in 181 7 by the Paris Academy, of which he was a corresponding 
member. He published dght folio volumes of Greenwich 
Observations, translated Laplace's Systhne du monde (in a vols. 
8vo., X809), and contributed thirty-one papers to sdentific 
collections. His catalogue of ziia stars (1833) was of great 
value. 

See Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. x. 357; Proe. Roy. Soc. Hi. 434; 
Penny Cyclopaedia (De Morgan); F. W. BeMel. Pop^VorUsungen, 


■ 543: Report Bnt. Assoc, i. 128, 136 (Airy)| Sir G. Airy's 
utobiograpky, p.' 127; Observatory, xiii. 204. xxiL ^57: Annual 
iograpky and Obxtuary (1837); R. Grant. Hist, of fhys. Astron. 


Biography 
p. 491 ; Ko 


p. 491 ; Royal Sodety's CaL Scient. Papers. 

POND, a small pool or body of standing water, a word often 
applied to one for which the bed has been artifidally constructed. 
The word is a variant of " pound " (q.v.), an endosure. 

PONDICHERRY, the capital of the French possessions in 
India, situated on the Coromandel or western coast, 122 m. by 
rail S. of Madras. The territory, which is entirely surrounded 
by the British district of South Arcot, has an area of 115 sq. m. 
with a population (1901) of 174.456. The chief crops are dry 
grains, rice, earth-nuts and a little indigo. The territory is 
traversed by a branch of the South Indian railway from Villa- 
puram. The 'town has a population of 27,448. It is well laid 


out with fine public buildings; the water-supply is derived from 
artesian wells. It has an open roadstead, with a small iron 
pier. The port is visited yearly by 500 vessels, and has trade 
of the value of about some £1,300,000. The prindpal imports 
are areca-nuts, wines and liqueurs, and the chid exports groimd- 
nuts, oil, cotton fabrics and rice. Of the export trade more 
than one-half is with France, but of the import trade only one- 
fourth. The weaving of various fabrics forms the prindpal 
industry. 

Pondcheriy was founded in 1683 by Francois Martin, on the 
site of a village given him by the governor of Gingce. In 1693 
the Dutch took Pondicberxy, but restored it, with the fortifica- 
tions greatly improved, in 1697, at the peace of Ryswick. In 
1748 Admiral Boscawen laid siege to it without success, but in 
1 761 it was taken by Colond Coote from Lally. la X763 it 
was restored to the Ftench. In X778 it was again taken by 
Sir Hector Munro, and iu fortifications destroyed. In 1783 
it was retransferred to the French, and in 1793 recaptured by 
the Enj^ish. The treaty of Amiens in 1802 restored it to the 
French, but it was retaken in 1803. In x8x6 it was finally 
restored to the French. 

PONDO, a Kaffir people who have given their name to Pondo- 
land, the country comprising much of the seaboard of Kaffraria, 
Cape province, immediatdy to the south-west of Natal. The 
Pondo, who number about 200,000, are divided into several 
tribal groups, but the native government, since the annexation 
of the country to Cape Colony in 1894, has been subject to the 
control of the colonial authorities. (See Katfiss.) 

PONDWBBD, a popukr name for Potamogeton nalans, a 
cosmopolitan aquatic plant foimd in ponds, lakes and ditches, 
with broad, more or less oblong-ovate, olive-green, floating 
leaves. The name is also applied to other spedes of Potamo- 
geton, one of the characteristic genera of lakes, ponds and streams 
all over the world, but more abimdant in temperate regions. 
It is the prindpal genus of the natural order of Monocotyledous 
Potamogetonaceae, and contains plants with slender branched 
stems, and submerged and translucent, or floating and opaque, 
alternate or opposite leaves, often with membranous united 
stipules. The small flowers are borne above the water in 



(After Woaidlo. From Stnsbuiicr'f £rJkr»iMA ^ BmmO.) 
Potamogeton natans. 

1, Apex of flowering shoot. 3. Flower viewed from the side. 

2, Flower viewed from above. 4, Diagram of flower. 

axillary or terminal spikes; they have four stamens, which bear 
at the back four small herbaceous petal-like structures, and 
four free carpels, which ripen to form four small green fleshy 
fruits, each containing one seed within a hard inner coat; 
the seed contains a large hooked embryo. An allied genus 
ZannicheUia (named after Zanichelli, a Venetian botanist), 
ocoirring in fresh and brackish ditches and pools in Britain, 
and also widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, 
is known as homed pondweed, fiom the curved fruit. 

PONIARD, a dagger, particularly one of small size, used for 
stabbing at cktse quarters. The French word poignard, from 


PONIATOWSKI— PONS 


6i 


vliidi the English is a z6th-€entury adaptation, is fonned from 
pnmg, fist, the clenched hand in which the weapon is grasped. 
(See Dagges.) 

POKIATOWSKI* the name of a Polish princely family of 
Italian origin, tracing descent from Giuseppe Torelli, who 
married about 1650 an heiress of the Lithuanian family of 
Poniator, whose name he assumed. 

The first of the Poniatowskis to distinguish himself was 
Stanislaus Ponutowski (X677-1762), who only belonged to 
the family by adoption, being the reputed son of Prince Sapieha 
and a Jewess. He was bom at Dereczyn in Lithuania, and was 
adopted by Sapieha's intendant, PoniatowskL With his father 
he attached himself to the party of Stanislaus Lesaczynski, and 
became major-general in the army of Charles XII. of Sweden. 
After the defeat of Pultowa he conveyed Charles XII. across 
the Dnieper, and remained with him at Bender. From there 
he was sent to Constantinople, where he extracted from the 
saltan Achmet III. a promise to march to Moscow. When the 
grand vizier, Baltagi Mefaemet, permitted the tsar Peter I. to 
retreat unharmed from the banks of the Pruth, Poniatowski 
exposed his treason. He rejoined Lesaczynski in the duchy 
of ZweibrQcken, Bavaria, of which he became governor. 
After the death of Charles XII. in 1718 he visited Sweden; 
and was subsequently reconciled with Lessczynski's rival on 
the throne of Poland, Augustus IL, who made him grand 
treasurer of Lithuania in 1734. On the death of Augustus II. 
he tried to secure the reinsutement of Leszczynski, who then 
lesomed his claims to the Polish crown. He was taken prisoner 
at Danzig by the Russians, and presently gave his allegiance 
to Augustus III., by whom he was made governor of Cracow. 
He died at Ryki on the 3rd of August 1763. 

His second son Stanislaus Augustus became king of Poland 
(see Stanislacs II.). Of the other sons, Casimir (1721-1780) 
was his brother's chancellor; Andrew (1735-1773) entered the 
Austrian service, rising to the rank of feldzeugmeister; and 
Michael (1736-1794) bwame archbishop of Gnesen and primate 
of Poland. Joseph Anthony Poniatowski (9.V.), son of Andrew, 
became one of Napoleon's marshals. 

Stanislaits Poniatowski (1757-1833), son of Casimir, 
shared in the aggrandisement of the family during the reign of 
Stanislaus II., becoming grand treasurer of Lithuania, starost 
of Podolia and lieutenant-general of the royal army. In 1793 
be settled in Vienna, and subsequently in Rome, where he made 
a magnificent collection of antique gems in his house on the 
Via Haminia. This collection was sold at (Christie's in London 
in May 1839. He died in Florence on the 13th of Febnuiry 
1833, and with him the Polish and Austrian honours became 


His natural, but recognized, son, Joseph Michael Xavier 
FsANOS John Ponutowski (1816-1873), was bom at Rome 
and in 1847 was naturalized as a Tuscan subject. He received 
the title of prince in Tuscany (1847) and in Austria (1850). 
He had studied music under Ceoherini at Florence, and wrote 
nnmerolis operas, in the first of which, Gi4nanni di Procida, 
he sang the title rAIe himself at Lucca in 1838. He represented 
the ooort of Tuscany in Paris from 1848, and he was made a 
senator by Napoleon III., whom he followed to England, in 
1871. His last opera, Gelmina, was produced at Covent Garden 
ia 187s. He died on the 3rd of July 1873, and was buried at 
Chuldsurst. His son, Prince Stanislaus Augustus, married and 
settled in Paris. He was equeny to Napoleon UI., and died 
in January 190S. 

FOnATOVSKI, JOSEPH AMTHONT (1763-1813), Polish 
prince and marshal of France, son of Andrew Poniatowski and the 
countess Theresa Klnsky, was bom at Warsaw in 1763. Adopt- 
ing a miUtaxy career, he joined the Imperial army when Austria 
ciedared war against the Turks in 1788, and distingui.<hed 
himself at the storming of Sabac on the 35th of April, where 
he was seriously wounded. RecaUed by his uncle King Stanis- 
has when the Fdish army was reorganized, he received the rank 
of major-geneiml, and subsequently that of lieutenant-general, 
and devoted Umadf zealously to the improvement of the 


national forces. In 1789, when Poland was threatened by the 
armed intervention of Russia, he was appointed commander of 
the Ukraine division at Bradaw on Bug. After the prodama- 
tion of the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief, with instructions to guard the 
banks of the Dniester and Dnieper. On the outbreak of the 
war with Russia, Prince Joseph, aided by Kosduszko, displayed, 
great ability. Obliged constantly to retreat, but disputing 
every point of vantage, he tumeid on the pursuer whenever 
he pressed too dosdy, and won several notable victories. At 
Polonna the Russians were repulsed with the loss of 3000 men; 
at Dubienka the line of the Bug was defended for five days 
against fourfold odds; at Zielence the Poles won a still more 
signal victory. Finally the Polish arms converged upon Warsaw, 
and were preparing for a general engagement when a courier 
from the capital informed the generals that the king had acceded 
to the confederation of Targowica (see Poland: History) and 
had at the same time guaranteed the adhesion of the army. 
All hostilities were therefore to be suspended. After an indig- 
nant but fmitless protest, Poniatowski and most of the other 
generals threw up their commissions and emigrated. During 
the Kosduszko rising he again fought gallantly for his country 
under his former subordinate, and after the fall of the republic 
resided as a private dtizen at Warsaw for the next ten years. 
After Jena and the evacuation of the Polish provinces by 
Pmssia, Poniatowski was offered the command of the National 
Guard; he set about reorganizing the Polish army, and on the 
creation of the grand duchy of Warsaw was nominated war 
minister. During the war of 1809, when an Austrian army 
corps under the archduke Ferdinand invaded the grand duchy, 
Poniatowski encountered them at the bloody battle of Radzyn, 
and though compelled to abandon Warsaw ultimately forced 
the enemy to evacuate the grand duchy, and captured Cracow. 
In Napoleon's campaign against Russia in 181 3 Poniatowski 
commanded the fifth army corps; and after the disastrous 
retreat of the grand army, when many of the Poles began to waver 
in their allegiance to Napoleon, Poniatowski remained faithful 
and formed a new Polish army of 13,000 men with which he 
joined the emperor at Ltttzen. In the campaign of 1813 he 
gxiarded the passes of the Bohemian mountains and defended 
the left bank of the Elbe. As a reward for his brilliant services 
at the three days' battle of Ldpzig he was made a marshal of 
France and entrusted with the honourable but dangerous duty 
of covering the retreat of the army. Poniatowski heroically 
defended Ldpzig, losing half his corps in the attempt, finally 
falling back slowly upon the bridge over the Elster which the 
French in the general confusion blew up before he reached it. 
Contesting every step with the overwhelming forces of the 
pursuers, he refused to surrender, and covered with wounds 
plunged into the river, where he died fighting, to the last. His 
relics were conveyed to Poland and buried in Cracow Cathedral, 
where he lies by the side of Tadeusz Kosduszko and Jan Sobieski. 
Poniatowski's Mes souvenirs sur ta campagne de 1792 (Lemberg, 
1863) is a valuable historical document. 

See Stanislaw Kostka.Bogudawski, Life of Princg Joseph Ponia- 
towski (PoL; Wanaw. 1831); Franciuek Paczkowski, Prince'Josepk 
Poniatowski (Pol.; Cracow, 1898): Correspondence of Poniatowski 
(ed. E. Raczynski, Poaen, 1843): Bronislaw Dembinski, Stanislaus 
Augustus and Prince Joseph Poniatowski in the light of their Corre- 
spondence (Fr.; Lembeig, 1904); Szymon AskenaZy, Prince 
fduph Poniatowski (PoL ; Warsaw, 1905). (R. N. B.) 

PONS, JBAN LOUIS (1761-1831), French astronomer, was 
bom at Peyres (HauteS Alpes) on the 24th of December 1761. 
He ent<ired the Marseilles observatory in 1789, and in 1819 
became the director of the new observatory at MarUa near 
Lucca, which he left in 1835 for the observatory of the museum 
at Florence. Here he died on the 14th of October 1831. 
Between 1801 and 1837 Pons discovered thirty-seyen comets, one 
of which (observed on the 36th of November 1818) was named 
after J. F. Encke, who determined iu remarkably short period. 

See M. R. A. Henrion, ^KnHa«r« biographipie, I 388 (Paris, 1831); 
Memoirs Roy. Astron. Soc. v. 410; R. Wolf, Geschichle der 
Astronomie, p. 709; J. C. Poggendonf, Biog. lit, HandwCrterbueh, 


62 


PONSARD— PONTANUS 


PORSARD, FRANQ0I8 (18x4-1867), French dramatist, was 
born at Vienne, department of lain, on the ist of June 1814. 
He was bred a lawyer, and his first performance in literature 
was a translation of Manfred (1837). His play Luerice was 
represented at the Tkidtre Francis on the zst of April 1843. 
This date is a kind of epoch in literature and dramatic 
history, because it marked a reaction against the romantic 
style of Dumas and Hugo. He received in 1845 the prize 
awarded by the Academy for a tragedy " to oppose a dike to 
the waves of romanticism." Ponsard adopted the liberty of 
the romantics with regard to the unities of time and place, but 
he reverted to the more soba style of earlier French drama. 
The tastes and capacities of the greatest tragic actress of the 
day, Rachel, suited his methods, and this contributed greatly 
to his own popularity. He followed up Lucrict with AgiUs de 
Mtranie (1846), Charlotte Corday (1850), and others. Ponsard 
accepted the empire, though with no very great enthusiasm, 
and received the post of librarian to the senate, which, however, 
he soon resigned, fighting a bloodless duel with a journalist on 
the subject. VHonneur et VargetU, one of his most successful 
plays, was acted in 1853, and he became an Academician in 
Z855. For some years he did little, but in x866 he obtained 
great success with Le Lion amoureux, another play dealing with 
the revolutionary epoch. His GalUie, which excited great 
opposition in the, clerical camp, was produced early in 1867. 
He died in Paris on the 7th of July of the same year, soon after 
his nomination to the commandership of the Legion of Honour. 
Most of Ponsard's plays hold a certain steady level of literary 
and dramatic ability, but his popularity is in the main due to 
the fact that his appearance coincided with a certain public 
weariness of the extravagant and unequal style of 1830. 

His (Euores compttUs were published in Paris C3 vols., 1865- 
1876). See La Fin du tMdtre romaiUique et Franfois Ponsard d'apres 
des documents inidits (1899), by C. Latreillc. 

PONSONBT* JOHN (X713-Z789), Irish politician, second son 
of Brabazon Ponsonby, xst earl of Bessborough, was bom on 
the 29th of March 1713. In 1739 he entered the Irish parliament 
and in 2744 he became first commissioner of the revenue; in 
1746 he was appointed a privy councillor, and in 1756 Speaker 
of the Irish House of Commons. Belonging to one of the great 
families which at this time monopolized the government of 
Ireland, Ponsonby was one of the principal " undertakers," men 
who controlled the whole of the king's business in Ireland, and 
be retained the chief authority until the marquess Townshend 
became lord-lieutenant in 1767. Then followed a struggle 
for supremacy between the Ponsonby faction and the party 
dependent on Townshend, one result of this being that Ponsonby 
resigned the speakership in 1771. He died on the 12th of 
December 17S9. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Cavendish, 3rd duke of Devonshire, a connexion which was of 
great importance to the Ponsonbys. 

Ponsonby's third son, George Ponsonby (175S-1817), lord 
chancellor of Ireland, was bom on the 5th of March 1755 and 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. A barrister, he 
became a member of the Irish parliament in 17 76 and was 
chancellor of the Irish exchequer in 1782, afterwards taking 
a prominent part in the debates on the question of Roman 
Catholic relief, and leading the opposition to the union of the 
parliaments. After 1800 Ponsonby represented Wicklow and 
then Tavistock in the united parliament; in x8o6 he was lord 
chancellor of Ireland, and from 1808 to 18x7 he was the official 
leader of the opposition in the House of Commons. He left an 
only daughter when he died in London on the 8th of July. x8 17. 

George Ponsonby's elder brother, William Brabazon 
Ponsonby, xst Baron Ponsonby (X744-X806), was also a leading 
Whig politician, being a member of the Irish, and after 1800, of 
the British pariiamenL In x8o6 shortly before his death he 
was created Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly. ' Three of his sons 
were men of note. The eldest was John (c. 1770-1855), who 
succeeded to the barony and was created a viscount in 1839; 
be was ambassador at Constantinople from 1832 to 2837 and 
at >^eima from X846 to X850. The second son was Major- 


Gencral Sir William Ponsonby (1773-1815), who, after serving 
in the Peninsular War, was killed at the battle of Waterloo 
whilst leading a brigade of heavy cavalry. Another son was 
Richard Ponsonby (1772-1853), bishop of Deny. Sir William 
Ponsonby's posthumous son William (x8i6-i86i) became 3rd 
Baron Ponsonby on the death of his uncle John, Viscount 
Ponsonby; he (Ued childless and was succeeded by his cousin 
William Brabazon Poiisonby (x8o7-x866), only son of the bishop 
of Deny, on whose death the barony of Ponsonby became extinct. 

Among other members of this family may be mentioned Major- 
General Sir Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby <i 783-1837), son of 
the 3rd earl of Bessborough, a soldier who distinguished himself 
at the battles of Talavera, Salamanca and Vittoria, in the 
Peninsular 'War, and was wounded at Waterioo; he was governor 
of Malta from 1826 to 1835. His eldest son. Sir Henry Frederick 
Ponsonby (1825-1895), a soldier who served in the Crimea, is 
best remembered as private secretary to Queen Victoria from 
X870 until a few months before his death. 

PONSON DU TERRAIL (Pierre Alexis db Ponson], 
VicoMTE DE (1829-X871), French romance writer, was bora at 
Montmaur (Is^) on the 8th of July X829. He was a proUfic 
novelist, producing in the space of two. years some seventy- 
three volumes. Among his most successful productions were 
Les Coulisses du nfonde (1853), Exploits de Rocambole (1859), 
Les Drames de Paris (1865) and Le Porgeron de la Cour-Dieu 
(X869). He died at Bordteux on the 20th of January 1871. 

PONT (or Kylpont), ROBERT (1524-1606), Scottish reformer, 
was educated at St Andrews. In X562 he was appointed 
minister at Dunblane and then at Dunkdd; in 2563, commis- 
sioner for Moray, Inverness and Banff. Then in succession 
he became minister of Bimic (1567), provost of Trinity College 
near Edinburgh (X57X), a lord of session (1572), minister of St 
Cuthbert's, Edinburgh (1573) and at St Andrews (1581). Pbnt 
was a strenuous champion of ecclesiastical independence, and 
for protesting against parliamentary interference in church 
government he was obliged to leave hi» country. From X584 
to X586 he was in England, but returning north he resumed his 
prominence in church matters and kept it until his death in 
1606. His elder son Timothy Pont (i56o?-x6i4?) was a good 
mathematician, surveyor, and " the first projector of a Scottish 
atlas." 

PONTA DBLOADA, the capital of an administrative district, 
comprising the islands of St Michael's and St Mary in the 
Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. Pop. (1900), 17,620. 
Ponla Delgada is built on the south coast of St Michael's, in 
37^ 40' N. and 25^ 36' W. Its mild climate, and the fine scenery 
of its motmtaih background, render it very attractive to visitors; 
it is the commercial centre, and the most populous city of the 
archipelago. Besides the cathedral, it contains several inter- 
esting churches and monasteries, and an observatory. Formerly 
its natural inner harbour only admitted vessels of light drauf^t, 
while larger ships were compelled to anchor in an open road- 
stead, which was inaccessible during the prevalence of southerly 
gales. But great improvements were effected after z86o by 
the constmction of a breakwater 2800 ft. long. 

PONT-A-MOUSSON, a town of northern France in the depart- 
ment of Meurthe-et-Mosclle, 27 m. N.N.W. of Nancy by raiL 
Pop. (2906), 12,282. The Moselle, which is canalized, divides 
the town into two quarters, united by a bridge of the late i6th 
centuiy. The church of St Martin, dating from the X3th, 24ih 
and 25th centuries, has a handsome facade with two towers, 
aifd in the interior a choir screen and Holy Septilchre of the 25th 
century. The lower ecclesiastical seminary occupies the build- 
ing of an old Premonstratensian convent. There are several 
interesting old houses. The town has a communal college and 
engineering workshops, blast fumaccs, and manufactures of 
lacquered ware, paper, cardboard, cables and iron-ware. Dating 
from the 9th or 20th century, Pont4L-Mousson constituted a 
lordship, which was made a marquisate in 2354. It was from 
2572 to 1763 the seat of a well-known university. 

PONTANUS, J0VIANU8 (1426-2503), Italian humanist and 
poet, was bora in 2426 at Cerret6 in the duchy of Spoleto, 


PONTARLIER— PONTECOULANT 


63 


his Cather was murdered in one of the frequent dvO 
bravb which then disturbed the peace of Italian towns. His 
mother escaped with the boy to Perugia, and it was here that 
Pootano received his first instruction in languages and literature. 
Failing to recover his patrimony, he abandoned Umbria, and 
at the age of twenty-two established himseU at Naples, which 
coatinoed to be his chief place of residence during a long and 
proQiezous career. He here began a close friendship with the 
distinguished scholar, Antonio Beccadelli, through whose in- 
fluence he gained admission to the royal chancery of AlphOnso 
the Magnanimous. Alphonso discerned the singular gifts of 
the young scholar, and made him tutor to his sons. Pontano's 
oonnezion with the Aragonese dynasty as political adviser, 
miUtaiy secretary and chancellor was henceforth a dose one; 
and the most doubtful passage in his diplomatic career is when 
be wdcomed Charles VUI. of France upon the entry of that king 
into Naples in 1495, tAus showing that he was too ready to 
abandon the princes upon whose generosity his fortunes had been 
raised. Fontano illustrates in a marked manner the position 
of power to which men of letters and learning had arrived in 
Italy. He entered Naples as a penniless schohur. He was 
almost immediately made the companion and trusted friend of 
its sovereign, loaded with honours, lodged in a fine house, 
coroUed among the nobles of the realm, enriched, and placed at 
the very height of social importance. Following the example of 
Pomponio Leto in Rome and of Cosimo de' Media at Florence, 
Fbntano founded an academy for the meetings of learned and 
distlaguished men. This became the centre of fashion as well 
•a of erudition, in the southern capital, and subsisted long after 
its lotinder's death. In 1461 he married his first wife, Adriana 
Saaone, who bore him one son and three daughters before her 
«leath in 149X. Nothing distinguished Pontano more than the 
stieagth of his domestic feeling. He was passionately attached 
to his wife and children; and, while his friend Beccadelli signed 
the licentious verses of HermapkrodihUf his own Muse celebrated 
in liberal but lojral strains the pleasures of conjugal affection, 
tbe charm of infancy and the sorrows of a husband and a father 
in the loss of those he loved. Not long after the death of his 
first wife Pontano took in second marriage a beautiful girl of 
Ferraza, who is only known to us under the name of Stella. 
Althougfa he was at least sixty-five years of age at this period, 
his poetic faculty displayed itself with more than usual warmth 
and lustre in the glowing series of degies, styled Eridanus, 
which he poured forth to commemorate the rapture of this 
onion. SteDa's one child, Lucilio, survived his birth but fifty 
days; nor did his mother long remain to comfort the scholar's 
old age. Pontano had already lost his only son by the first 
marriage; therefore his declining years were solitary. He died 
in Z503 at Naples, where a remarkable group of terra-cotta 
figures, life-sixed and painted, still adorns his tomb in the church 
of Moote Oliveto. He is there i^resented togijther with his 
patron Alphonso and his friend Sannazzaro in sidoration before 
the dead Christ. 

As a diplomatist and state ofiidal Pontano played a part of 
some importance in the affairs of southern Italy and in the 
Barons' War, the wars with Rome, and the expulsion and restora- 
tion of the Aragonese dynasty. But his chief claim upon the 
attentions of posterity is as a scholar. His writings divide 
themsdves into dissertations upon such topics as the " Liberality 
of Princes " or " Fcrodty," composed in the rhetorical style of 
the day, and poems. He was distinguished for energy of Latin 
style, for vigorous intellectual powers, and for the faculty, rare 
among his contemporaries, of expressing the facts of modem 
life, tbe actualities of personal emotion, in language suflidently 
daaskal yet always characteristic of the man. His prose 
treatises are more useful to students of manners than the similar 
lacabiations of Poggio. Yet it was prindpally as a Latin poet 
that lie exhibited his full strength. An ambitious didactic 
composition in hexameters, entitled Urania^ embodying the 
astronomical sdcnce of the age, and adorning this high theme 
wirh briSiant msrthological episodes, won the admiration of 
Itabr- I^ still refluins a monument of fertile inv)sntion, 


.exuberant facility and energetic handling of material. Not less 
excellent is the didactic poem on orange trees, De kortis Hesptri- 
dum. His most original cotnpositlons. in verse, however, are 
degiac and hendecasyllabic pieces on personal topics—the De 
ongugdti OMore, EridanuSf Tumtdif Naeniae, Baiae, &c. — in 
which he uttered his vehemently passionate emotions with a 
warmth of southern colouring, an evident sincerity, and a truth 
of painting from reality which excuse their erotic freedom. 

Pontano's proee and poems were printed by the Aldi at Venice. 
For hb life see Ardito, Cwoanni PenUino e t suoi tempi (Naples. 
1871): for his place in the history of literature, Symonds. Renais- 
sance iH Italy, v5.A.S.) 

PONTARLIBR, a frontier town of eastern France, capital of 
an arrondissement in the dq>artment of Doubs, 36 m. S.£. of 
Besancon by road. Pop. (1906), 7896. It is situated 2750 ft. 
above sea-Ievd on the Doubs, about four miles from the Swiss 
frontier, and forms an important strategic point at the mouth 
of the defile of La Cluse, one of the prindpal passes across the 
Jura. The pass is ddended by the modem fort of Larmont, 
and by the Fort de Joux, which was originally built in the xoth 
century by the family of Joux and played a conspicuotis part 
in the history of Franche-Comt6. Pontarlier is the junction 
of railway lines to Neuchitd, Lausanne, Lons-le^Saunier, D61e 
and Besancon. A triumphal arch of tiie i8th century com- 
memorates the reconstruction of the town after the destractive 
fire of 1736. It was at Pontarlier that the French army of the 
East made its last stand against the Prussians in 1871 before 
crossing the Swiss frontier. The distillation of herbs, exteosivdy 
cultivated for the manufacture of absinthe, kirsch and other 
liqueurs, is the chief industry. The town is the. seat of a sub- 
prefect and has a tribunal of first instance and a communal 
college. .-^ •—•'>• — - 

PONT AUDEHER, a town of north-western France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of £ure, 39 m. N.W. 
of Evreux, on the Risle, a left-bank affluent of the Seine, and 
on the railway from Evreux to Honfieur. Pop. (1906), 5700. 
The church of St Ouen^ which has fine stained gLiss of the 
i6th century, combines the late Gothic and Renaissance styles; 
its choir is Romanesque. Local institutions are the sub-prefec- 
tuie, a tribunal of first instance, a board of tiado^irbitration, a 
chamber and tribunal of commerce. Manufacturing industry 
is active, and indudes the founding of malleable metal, a spur 
factory, the manufacture of glue and paper, cotton-spinning 
and various branches of leather manufacture. There is trade 
in flax, wool, gnun, cattle, dder, paper, iron, wood and coal. 
The port has a length of over half a mile on the Risle, which is 
navigable for small vessels from this point to its mouth (10 m.). 
The town owes its name to Audomar, a Frank lord, who in 
the 7th or 8th century built a bridge over the Risle at this point. 
It was the scene of several provindal ecdesiastical councils in 
the X2th and 13th centuries and of meetings of the estates of 
Normandy in the 13th century. 

FONTS (Ital. for ** bridge ")t ^ rough game peculiar to the 
dty of Pisa, in which the players, divided into two sides 
and provided with padded costumes, contended for the 
possession of one of the bridges over the Amo. The weapon 
used, both for offence and defence, was a kind of shidd which 
served as a dub as well. 

A history and description of the game may be found in William 
Heywood's Polio and Ponte (London, 1904). 

PONTBOORVOt a dty of Campania, Italy, in the province of 
Caserta, on the Garigliano, about 48 m. from Caserta and 3 m. 
from Aquino on the railway from Rome to Naples. Pop. (1901 ), 
10,518 (town); 12,49a (commune). The town is approached by 
a triumphal arch adorned with a statue of Pius IX. The princi- 
pality of Pontecorvo (about 40 sq. m. in extent), once an indepen- 
dent state, belonged altematdy to the Tomacelli and the abbots 
of Monte Cassino. Napoleon bestowed it on Bemadotte in i8o6» 
and in 1810 it was incorporated with the French Empire. 

PONti»DOULANT, LOUIS GUSTAVE LB DOULCET, Comte' 
DE (1764-1853), French politidan, was bom at Caen on the 17th 
of November 1764. He begin a career in the army in j7i$. 


6+ 


PONTEFRACT 


A moderate supporter of the revolution, he was returned to the 
Convention for the department of Calvados in 1792, and became 
commissary with the army of the North. He voted for the 
imprisonment of Louis XVI. during the war, and his banishment 
after the peace. He then attached himself to the party of the 
Gironde, and in August 1793 was outlawed. He had refused to 
defend his compatriot Charlotte Corday, whp wrote him a letter 
of reproach on her way to the scaffold. He returned to the 
Convention on the 8th of March 1795, and showed an unusual 
spirit of moderation by defending Prieur de la Mame and Robert 
LindeL President of the Convention in July 1795, he was for 
some months a member of the council of public safety. He 
was subsequently elected to the ooundl of five hundred, but was 
suspected of royalist leanings, and had to spend some time in 
retirement before the establishment of the consulate. Becoming 
senator in 1805, and cotmt of the empire iA z8o8, he organized 
the national guard in Francfae Comt^ in i8xx, and the defence 
of the north-eastern frontier in 1813. At the first restoration 
Louis XVin, made him a peer of France, and although he 
received a similar honour from Napoleon during the Hundred 
Days, he sat in the upper house under the Second Restoration. 
He died in Paris on the 3Ri of April 1853, leaving memoirs and 
correspondence from which were extracted four volumes (i86x- 
1865) of Sotttenirs kistoriques a parUmentoires 1764-1848. 

His son Louis Adolphe Le Doulcet, comte de Pontiooulant 
(1794-1882), served under Napoleon in x8x3 and 1814, and then 
emigrated to Brazil, where he took part in the abortive insurrec- 
tion at Pemambuco in 18x7. He also organized a French 
volunteer contingent in the Belgian revolution of X830, and was 
wounded at Louvain. The rest of his life was spent in Paris 
in the study of ancient music and acoustics. Among his works 
was one on the Musie itutrumental du consenaUrire de musique 
(1864). A younger brother, Philippe Gtistave Le Doulcet, 
comte de Pont£coulant (x 795-1 874), served in the axiny until 
1849, when he retired to devote himself to mathematics and 
astronomy. His works indude Tki&rie analytique du systinu 
du monde (Paris, X839-X846) and TraiUi Hementaire de physique 
cileste ji vols ., Paris, X840). 

PONTBFRACT (pronounced and sometimes written *' Pom- 
fret "), a market town and mum'dpal and parliamenury borough 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 2Z m. S.S.W. from 
York, served by the Midland, North-Eastem and Lancashire & 
Yorkshire railways. Pop. (X891), 9702; (1901), X3,427' I^ is 
well situated, mainly on an eminence, near the junction of the 
Aire and the Caldcr. The most important of the antiquarian 
remains are the ruins of the famous castle situated on a rocky 
height, originally covering with its predncts an area of over 
8 acres, and containing in all eight round towers. The remains 
are prindpally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the 
stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers i\i 
the xock. Below the castle is All Saints church, which suffered 
severely during the siege of the castle, bur still retains some work 
of the 1 2th century. In 1837 the tower and transepts were 
fitted for divine service. The church of St Giles, formerly a 
chapel of ease to All SainU, but made parochial in the x8th 
century, is of Norman date, but most of the present structure 
is modem. The 17th-century spire was removed in x 707,* and 
replaced by a square tower, which was rebuilt in X797; the chan- 
cel was rebuilt in X869. In Southgate is an andent hermitage 
and oratory cut out of the solid rock, which dates from X396. 
On St Thomas's Hill, where Thomas, earl of Lancaster, was 
beheaded in 1322, a chantry was erected in X373, the site of 
which IS now occupied by a windmill built of its stones. At 
Monkhill there are the remains of a Tudor building called the 
Old Hall, probably constructed out of the old priory of St John's. 
A grammar school of andent foundation, renewed by Elizabeth 
and George III., occupies modem buildings. The town-hall 
was built at the dose of the x8th century on the site of one 
erected in 1656. which succeeded the old moot-hall dating from 
Saxon times. Among other buildings are the court house, the 
market hall, the assembly rooms (a handsome building adjoining 
(he town-hall), and large barracks. The foundation of the 


prindpal almshouse, that of St Nicholas, dates from before the 
Conquest. Trinity Hospital was founded by Sir Robert Knotles 
(d. X407), an eminent military commander in the French wars 
of Edward III. At Ackworth, in the neighbourhood, there is a 
large school of the Sodety of Friends or Quakers (X778), in the 
foundation of which Dr John Fotheqpll (X7X2-X780) was a prime 
mover. There are extensive gardens and nurseries in the 
neighbourhood of Pontefract, and liquorice is largdy grown 
for the manufacture of the celebrated Pomfret cakes. The 
town possesses ironfoundries, sack and matting manufactories, 
Unneries, breweries, com mills and brick and terra-ootta works. 
The parliamentary borough, falling within the Osgoldcross 
division of the county, returns one member (before X885 the 
number was two). The town is governed by a mayor, six alder- 
men and 1 8 councillors. Area, 4078 acres. 

The remains of a Roman camp have been discovered near 
Pontefract, but there is no trace of settlement in the town itself 
until after the Conquest. At the time of the Domesday Survey 
Tateshall (now Tanshelf , a suburb of the town) was the chief 
manor and contained 60 burgesses, while Kiikby, which after- 
wards became the borough of Pontefract, was one of its members. 
The change was probably owing to the fact that Dbert de Lacy, 
to whom the Conqueror had granted the whole of the honour of 
Pontefract, founded a castle at Kirkby, on a site said to have 
been occupied by a fortification raised by Ailric, a Saxon thane. 
Several reasons are given for the change of name but none is at 
all satisfactory. One account says that it was caused by a 
broken bridge which delayed the Conqueror's advance to the 
north, but this is known to have been at Ferrybridge, three 
miles away; a second says that the new name was derived from 
a Norman town called Pontfrete, which, however, never existed; 
and a third that it was caused by the breaking of a bridge in 
I X 53 on the arrival of the archbishop of York, St William, when 
several people were miraculously preserved from drowning, 
although the town was already known as Pontefract in XX40 
when Archbishop Thurstan died there. The manor remaixied 
in the Lacy family until it passed by marriage to Thoixus, duke 
of Lancaster, who was beheaded on a hill outside the town after 
the battle of Boroughbridge. His esutes were restored to his 
brother Henry, earl of Lancaster, on the accession of Edward III., 
and the manor has since then formed part of the duciiy of 
Lancaster. The town took part in most of the rebellions in the 
north of England, and in 1399 Richard II. was imprisoned and 
secretly murdered in the castle. During the Wars of the Roaes 
the town was loyal to Henry VI., and several of the Yorkist 
leaders were executed here after the battle of Wakefidd. It was 
taken by Robert Aske, leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace, in 
1536. In X642 the castle was garrisoned for Charles I. and 
sustained four sieges, the second, in 1644, being successful, 
but two years later it was retaken by the royalists, who hdd it 
until after the execution of the king, when they surrendered to 
General Lambert and the castle was destroyed. 

Roger de Lacy in X194 granted a charter to the burgesMS 
confirming their liberties and right to be a free borougli at a 
fee-farm of x 2d. yearly for every toft, granting them the same 
privileges as the burgesses of Grimsby, and that their reeve 
should be chosen annually by the lord of the manor at his court 
leet, preference being given to the burgesses if they would pay 
as much as others for the office. Henry de Lacy cofirmed this 
charter in X278 and in 1484 Richard HI. incorporated the town 
under the title of mayor and burgesses and granted -a gfld 
merchant with a hanse. His charter was withdrawn on the 
accession of Henry VII. and' a similar one waa granted, while in 
1489 the king gave the burgesses licence to continue choosing a 
mayor as they had done in the time of Richard III. In x6o6-x6o7 
James I. confirmed the charter of Henry VII. and regulated the 
choice of the mayor by providing that he shoy^ be dected from 
among the chief burgesses by the burgctfes themadves. The 
privilege of returning two members to pariiament which had 
belonged to Pontefract at the end of the xjth century was revived 
in 1620-162X on the grounds that the charter of 1606-1607 
had restored all their privileges to the burgesses. Since (be 


PONTEVEDRA— PONTIAC 


65 


Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 one member only has been 
retorncd. Liquorice was largely grown as early as 1700-1701, 
wben the corporation prohibited the sale of buds or sets of 
the plant. Richard lU. by his incorporation charter granted 
the market rights in the borough to the burgesses, who st311 
hold them under his charter. 

See Vieioria Omniy History: Yorhshin; Edthtk Report of tks Royal 
Commission on Historical Mammseripts ( 1 870-1807) ; Book of Entrios ef 
tke Ponlefraa Corporation, 16^^-1706 (ed. by Richard Holmes, 1882) ; 
Benjamin Boothroyd. 771m Htstory of the Ancient Borouik of Ponto- 
fract ( 1807) ; George Fox. Tko Histrry ofPonUfraa (1827). 

VOnwrSDRk, a maritime province of north-western Spain, 
formed in 1833 of districts taken from Galicia, and bounded 
00 the N. by Corunna, E. by Lugo and Orense, S. by Portugal 
and W. by the Atlantic. Pop. (1900), 457i26a ; area, 1695 aq. m. 
Pontevedra is the smallest of the provinces of Spain except 
the three Basque Provinces; its density of population, 269*8 
inhabitants per square mile, is only ezcdied in the provinces of 
Barcelona and Biscay (Vizcaya). Both of these are mining 
and manufacturing districts, while Pontevedra is dependent 
on agriculture and fisheries. The surface is everywhere moun- 
tainous, and consists almost entirely of arable Und, pasture or 
forest. The coast-line is deeply indoited ; navigation is rendered 
difficult by the prevalence of fogs in summer and storms in 
winter, llie river Miflo (Portuguese Minho) forms the southern 
frontier, and is navigable by small ships as far as Salvatierra; 
and the province is watered by many smaller streams, aU flowing, 
like the Mifio, into the Athintic The largest of these are the 
Ulla, which separates Pontevedra from Corunna, the Umia and 
the Leres. Pontevedra has a mild cUmate, a fertile soQ and a 
very heavy rainfall. Large agricultural fairs are held in the 
chief towns, and there is a considerable export trade in cattle 
to Great Britain and Portugal, hams, salt meat and fish, eggs, 
breadstuffs, leather and wine. Vigo is the headquarters of 
shipping, and one of the chief ports of northern Spain. There 
are also good harbours at Bayona, Carril, Marin, Villagarda and 
elsewhere among the deep estuaries of the coast. At Tuy the 
Spanish and Portuguese railways meet, and from this town one 
Hne goes up the Mifio valley to Orense, and another northward 
alon g the c oast to Santiago de Compostela. 

PONTEVEDRA, the capital of the Spanish province of Ponte- 
vedra; on the Tuy-Conmna railway, and on the river Lerez, 
which here enters the Ria de Pontevedra, an inlet of the Atlantic 
Pop. (1900), 23,33a The name of the town is derived from the 
andent Roman bridge {pons velus) of twelve arches, which spans 
the Lerez near its mouth. Pontevedra is a picturesque town, 
mainly built of granite, and still partly enclosed by medieval 
fortifications. It contains handsome provincial and munidpil 
halls erected in the X9th century, and many convents, some of 
which have been converted into hospitals or schools. Marin and 
Saagcnjo are ports on the Ria de Pontevedra, which is the seat 
of a tlniving sardine fishery. There is an active trade in grain, 
wine and fruit; doth, hats, leather and pottery are manufactured. 

fOHTIAC (c. 1720-X769), Indian chief of the Ottawa and 
leader In the " Conspiracy of Pontiac " in 1763-64, was bom 
b et ween 17x2 and 1730 probably on the Maumee river, near the 
mouth .of the Auglaize. His father was an Ottawa, and his 
mother an Ojibwa. By 1755 he had become a chief of the 
Ottawa and a leader of thje loose confederacy of the Ottawa, 
Pouwatomt and Ojibwa. He was an ally of France and 
possibly commanded the Ottawa in the defeat G^ly 9. X755) of 
General Edward Braddock. In November 1760 he met Major 
Robert Rogers, then on his way to occupy Michilimackinac and 
other forts surrendered by the French, and agreed to let the 
Eai^sh troops pass unmdested on condition that he should be 
treated with respect by the British. Like other Indians he soon 
realized the difiFerence between French and English rule— that 
the Incfians were no longer welcomed at the forts and that they 
would ultimately be deprived of their hunting grounds by en- 
croadung English settlements. French hunters and traders 
cnooursged Indian disaffection with vague promises of help from 
France; in 1762 an Indian " prophet " among the Delawares 
«o the Mokingnm preached a union of the Indians to expd the 


English; and in that year (as in 1761) there were.abortivecon- 
spirades to massacre the English garrisons of Detroit, Fort 
Niagara and Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg). Pontiac seems to have 
been chief of a magic association (the Afetot), and he took advan- 
tage of the religious fervour and the general unrest among the 
Indians to organize in the winter of 1762-63 a simultaneous 
attack on the English forts to be made in May 1763 at a certain 
phase of the moon. On the 27th of April 1763, before a meeting 
near Detroit of delegates from most of the Algonquian tribes, he 
outlined his plans. On the 7th of May, with 60 warriors, he 
attempted unsuccessfully to gain admission to Detroit, which 
then had a garrison of about x6o under Major Henry Gladwin 
(i73»-X79x); and then besieged the fort from the 9th of May to 
the end of (ktober. On the 28th of May reinforcemenU from 
Fort Niagara were ambuscaded near the mouth of the Detroit. 
In June the Wyandot and Potawatomi withdrew from thesiege» 
but on the 29th of July they attacked reinforcements (280 men, 
induding 20 of Rogers's rangers) from Fort Niagara under 
Captain James Dalyell (or Dalzell), who, however, gained the 
fort, and in spite of Gladwin's opposition on the 3xst of July 
attacked Pontiac's camp, but was ambuscaded on Bloody Rub 
and was killed, nearly 60 others being killed or wounded. On 
the 1 2th of October the Potawatomi, Ojibwa and Wyandot made 
peace with the English; with the OtUwa Pontiac continued the 
siege until the 30th of October, when he learned from Neyon 
de la Valli^, commandant of Fort Chartres (among the Illinois) 
that he would not be aided by the French. Pontiac then 
withdrew to the Maumee. 

Fort Pitt with a garrison of 330 men under. Captain Simeon 
Ecuyer was attacked on the 22nd of June and was besieged 
from the 27th of July to the ist of August, when the Indians 
withdrew to meet a relief expedition of 500 men, mostly High* 
landers, under Colond Henry Bouquet (i 719-1766), who had 
set out from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the x8th of July, and 
relieved Fort ligonier (on the site of the borough of Ligonier^ 
Westmoreland county, Penn.) on the 2nd of August, but 
was surprised on the 5th, and fought (5th and 6th) the battle 
of Bushy Run (25 m. S.E. of Fort Pitt), finally flankfaigand 
routing the Indians after tricking them by a feinted retreat of 
a part of his force. Bouquet reached Fort Pitt on the loth 
of August. At Michilimackinac (Mackinac), Michigan, on the 
4th of June, the Indians gained admission to the fort by a trick» 
killed nearly a score of the garrison and captured the remainder^ 
induding Captain George Etherington, the commander, boides 
several English traders, induding Alexander Henry (1739-1824).* 
Some of the captives were seized by the Ottawa, who had taken 
no part in the attack; a part of these were rdeased, and reached 
Montreal on the 13th of August. Seven of the prisoners kept 
by the Ojibwa were killed in cold blood by one of thdr chiefs.* 
Fort Sandusky (on the site of Sandusky, Ohio) was taken on the 
x6th of May by Wyandot; and Fort St Joseph (on the site of the 
present Niles, Mich.) was captured on the 25th of May and xx 
men(outofitsgarrisonof 14) were massacred, the others with the 
commandant. Ensign Schlosser, being taken to Detroit and 
exchanged for Indian prisoners. On the 27th of May Fort 
Miami (on the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana) surrendered to the 
Indians after its commander. Ensign Holmes, had been treacher- 
ously killed. Fort Ouiatanon (about 5 m. south-west of the present 
Lafayette, Indiana) and Fort Presque Isle (on the site of Erie, 
Penn.) were taken by the Indians on the xst and x6th of 
June respectivdy; and Fort Le Boeuf (on the site of Waterford^ 

* Henry, a native of New Brunswick. N.J.. had become a fur- 
trader at Fort Michilimackinac in i7iSi. He was rescued by 
Wawatam, an Ottawa, who had adopted him as a brother; In X764 
he took part in Colonel John Brsdstreet's expeditran; in 1770. with 
Sir William Johnson, the duke of Ckxicester and others, formed a 
Company to mine copper in the Lake Superior region; was a fur- 
trader again until 1796; aftd then became a merchant in MonticaL 
His Travels and Aiventnres in Canada and Iks Indian Territories 
between tko Years 1760 and 1776 (1809: reprinted 1901) is a valuable 
account of the fur trade and of his adventures at Michiliniackinac. 
He is not to be confused with his nephew of the same name, abo a 
fur-trader, whose journal was published in 1807 in 3 vols., as New. 
Early History of Iks Greater KorC ' 


Ligkl on Ike 


History of Ike Greater KortkwesL 


66 


PONTIAC— PONTIVY 


Penn.) was ntrpriacd oa the i8th, but iu garrison ocaped, 
and icven (out of ij) got safely to Fort Pitt. Fort Venango 
(near the site of the present Venango, Penn.) vaa taken 
and burnt about the same time by some Senecas (the only 
Iroquois in the conspiracy), who massacred the garrison and 
later burned the commander, Lieut. Gordon. About 500 
Senecas on the X4th of September surprised a wagon train, 
escorted by 24 soldiers, from Fort Schlosser (a m. above Niagara 
FaUs), drove most of them over the brink of the Devil's Hole 
(below the cataract), and then neariy annihilated a party from 
Fort Niagara sent to the rescue. 

In 1763, although the main attacks on Detroit and Fort Pitt 
had failed, nearly every minor fort atucked was captured, 
about 200 settlers and traders were killed, and in property 
destroyed or plundered the English lost about £100,000, the 
greatest loss in men and property being in western Pennsylvania. 

In June 1764 Colonel John Bradstreet (17x1-1774) led about 
1 200 men from Albany to Fort Niagara, where at a great gather- 
ing of the Indians several treaties were made in July; in August 
he made at Presque Isle a treaty (afterwards annulled by 
General Thomas Gage) with some Delaware and Shawnee chiefs; 
and in September made treaties (both unsatisfactory) with the 
Wyandot, Ottawa and Miami at Sandusky, and with various 
chiefs at Detroit. He sent Captain Howard to occupy the forts 
at Michilimackinac, Green Bay and Sault Ste Marie, and Captain 
Morris up the Maumce river, where he conferred with Pontiac, 
and then to Fort Miami, where he narrowly escaped death at 
the hands of the Miami; and with his men Bradstreet returned 
to Oswego in November, having accomplished little of value. 
An expedition of 1500 men under Colonel Bouquet left Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, in August, and near the site of the present 
Tuscarawas, Ohio, induced the Indians to release their prisoners 
and to stop fighting— the practical end of the conspiracy. 
Bontiac himself nuuie submission to Sir William Johnson on the 
25th of July 1766 at Oswego, New York. In April 1769 he was 
murdered, when drunk, at Cahokia (nearly opposite St Louis) 
by a Kaskaskia Indian bribed by an English trader; and he was 
buried near the St Louis Fort. His death occasioned a bitter 
war in which a renmant of the Illinois was practically annihilated 
in X770 at Starved Rock (between the present Ottawa and La 
Salle), Illinois, by the Potawatomi, who had been followeis of 
Pontiac. Pontiac was one of the most remarkable men of the 
Indian race in American history, and was notable in particular 
for Us power (rare among the Indians) of organisation. 

See Frands Parkman, The Conspiracy ef PonHae (a vols., Boston, 
1851; lothed., 1896). 

POMTIACt a dty and the oounty-seat of Oakland county, 
Michigan, U.S.A., on the Clinton river, about 26 m. N.W. of 
Detroit. Pop. (1890), 6200; (1900) 9769, of whom 2020 were 
fordgn-bom; (19x0 U.S. census) 14,5*32. It isserved by the Grand 
Trunk and the Pontiac, Oxford Bl Northern railways (being the 
southern terminus of the latter), and by the Detroit Bl Pontiac 
and the North-Western electric inter-urban lines. In the sur- 
rounding cotmtry there are many small, picturesque lakes (the 
largest being Orchard, about 6 m. south-east of Pontiac, Cass 
and Elisabeth lakes), and there is good hunting and fishing in 
the vicinity. In Pontiac is the Eastern Michigan Asylum for 
the insane (X878), with grounds covering more than 500 acres. 
The dty has various manufactures, and the value of the factory 
producU increased from $2,470,887 in 1900 to $3,047,422 in 
1904, or 23-3%. Agricultural products, fruit and wool from 
the surrounding country are shipped in considerable quantities. 
The munidpality owns and operates its waterworks. Pontiac, 
named in honour ol the famous Indian chief of that name, was 
laid out as a town in x8x8, became the county-seat in 1820, was 
incorporated as a village in 1837, and was chartered in x86x. 

PONTIAinJS, pope from 230 to 235. He was exiled by the 
emperor Maximinus to Sardinia, and in consequence of this sen- 
tence resigned (Sept. 28, 23 $), He was succeeded by Anteros. 

POMTIFEX. The collegium of the Pontifices was the most 
important priesthood of andent Rome, being specially charged 
with the administration of_the jiudmnum,i^, that part tff the 


dvQ law which regulated the idations of the ooomnmity with 
the ddties recognised by the state offidally, together with a 
general superintendence of the worship of gens and family. 
The name is deariy derived from po$u and foure, but whether 
this should be taken as indicating any special connexion with the 
sacred bridge over the Tiber ( Pons Sublicius) , or what the original 
meaning may have been, cannot now be determined. The 
college existed under the monarchy, when its members were 
probably three in number; they may safely be considered as 
legal advisers of the rex in all matters of religion. Under the 
republic they emerge into prominence under a pontifex maximus, 
who took over the king's duties as chief administrator of religious 
law, just as his chief sacrificial duties were taken by the rex 
sacrorum; his dwelling was the regia, ** the house of Uie king." 
During the republican period the number of pontifices increased, 
probably by multiples of three, until after Sulla (82 B.c.) we 
find them fifteen; for the year 57 B.c. we have a complete list 
of them in Cicero {Hanuf. res p. 6, 12). Included in the 
collegium were also therexsacforum,the ilamines, three assistant 
pontifices (minoics) and the vestal virgins, who were all chosen 
by the pontifex marimuti Vacancies in the body of pontifices 
were ori^nally filled by co-optation; but from the second Punic 
War onwards the pontifex nuudmus was chosen by a peculiar 
fornrof popular election, and in the last age of the republic this 
hdd good for all the members. They all held oflke for life. 

The immense authority of the coUqge centred in the pontifex 
maximus, the other pontifices forming his consUium or advising 
body. Hb functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but 
these were the least important; the real power lay in the adminis- 
tration of the jttf dirinum, the chief departments of which may 
briefly be described as follows: (t) the regulation of all expiatory 
ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, &c.; 
(2) the consecration of all temples and other sacred places and 
objects dedicated to the gods by the state through its magis- 
trates; (3) the regulation of the palendar both astronomically 
and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the 
administration of the law relating to burials and burying-places, 
and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superin- 
tendence of all marriages by oonfarreatio, t.e. originally of all 
legal patririan marriages; (6) the administration of the law of 
adoption and of testamentary succession. They had also the 
care of the sute archives, of the lists of magistrates, and k^pt 
records of thdc own decisions {cofUmentttriii and of the chief 
events of each year (sfuiato). 

It is obvious that a priesthood having such functions as these, 
and holding office for life, must have been a great power in the 
state, and for the first three centuries of the republic it is probable 
that the pontifex maximus was in fact its most powerful member. 
The office might be combined with a magistracy, and, though 
its powers were declaratory rather than executive, it may fairly 
be described as quasi-magisteriaL Under the later republic it 
was coveted chiefly for the great dignity of the position; Julius 
(Caesar hdd it for the last twenty years of his life, and Augustus 
took it after the death of Lepidus in la B.C.. after which it 
became inseparable from the office of the rdgning emperor. 
With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the 
popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law dosdy 
resembled those of the andent Roman priesthood, hence the 
modem use of " pontiff " and " pontifical." 

For further details coonlt Marauaidt, StaalseerwaUumg, iii. 
S35 teq.; Wiaaowa, Bditym nnd KnUus der Rfimer, 430 acq.; 
^uM-Ledeicq, Les Pondjes, passim. (W. wTf. •) 

POntivt, a town of western France, chief town of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Morbihan, 46 m. N.N.W. of 
Vannes by rail. Pop. (1906), 6312 (town); 9506 (commune). 
The town, situated on the Blavet, at its confluence with the 
Nantes-Brest canal, comprises two' distinct part»-*the old town 
and that to the south known as Napolfonville. The Utter, 
bunt by order of Napoleon I., who desired to make !t the military 
headquarters for Brittany, and consisting chiefly of buncks, 
subsequently gave iU name to the whole town, but in 187 x the 
.old namewas rcfumed. The ancient CMtk (1485) ^ the dukc% 


PONT-L'ABBE— PONTOON 


67 


of Rohan, whosfe capital the town was, b occupied by the Muste 
k Brigant of art and archaeology. A monument to commem- 
oiaU the Breton-Angevin Union, the deputies of which met at 
Ftaitivy in 1790, was erected in 1894, and there are statues of 
Dr Gu£pin, a democrat, and General de Lourmel (d. 1854). The 
town has a sub-prefeaure, a tribunal of first instance, and a 
lycfe for boys. Pontivy had its origin in a monastery founded 
in the 7th century by St Ivy, a monk of Lindisfame. 

POMT-L'ABBIL a town of western France in the department 
of Finistdre, 13 m. S.W. of Quiroper by raU. Pop. (1906), of the 
town 4485, of the commune 6433. The town is situated on the 
right bank of the estuary or river of Pont-l'Abb^, a m. from the 
sea. Its port carries on fishing, imports timber, coal, &c., and 
exports mine-props and the cereals and vegetables of the neigh- 
boarhood. Of the old buildings of the town the chief is a church 
of the 14th, 15th and i6th centuries, once attached to a Carmelite 
convent; an old castle Is occupied by the h6tel de ville. The 
local costumes, trimmed with the bright-coloured embroideries 
for which the town is noted, are among the most striking in 
Brittany; the bigoudat or head-dress of the women has given its 
name to the inhabitants. Pont-rAbb6 carries on flour-milling 
and the extraction of chemicals from seaweed. 

POimURTIN, ARMAND AUGUSTIN JOSEPH MARIE 
FERRARD, Comte de (1811-1890), French critic and man of 
letters, was bom at Avignon (Vauduse) on the 16th of July 18 11. 
Imbued by family tradition with legitimist sympathies, he began 
by attacking the followers of the encyclopaedists and their 
successors. In the A ssemblie natumaU he published his Causeries 
liiUraircs, a series of attacks on prominent Liberals, which created 
some sensation. Pontmartin was an indefatigable journalist, 
and most of his papers were eventually published in volume 
form: Conies ef rHerits d*uH planteur de ckoux (1845); Causeries 
du samedi (18S7-1860); Nomeaux samedis (1865-1881), &c. 
But the most famoia of all his books Is Les Jeudis de Mme. 
Charbonmeau (1863), which under the form of a novel offered 
a series of inalicious and witty portraits of contemporary 
writers. Pontmartin died at Avignon on the 39th of March 
1890. 

See Haczfekl and Meunier. Les Critigius liiUmres du XIX* 
sutie (1894)- 

PORTOISB, a town of northern France, capital of an arron- 
diisement of the department of Seine-et-Oiae, 18 m. N.W. of 
Paris on the railway to Dieppe. Pop. (1906), 7963. Pontoise 
is picturesquely situated on the right bank of the Oise where it 
is joined by the Viosne. The traffic on the main river is large, 
and the tributary drives numerous mills. Of the many churches 
that used to exist in the town two only remain: St Madou, a 
church ol the isth century, altered and restored in the 15th and 
i6tb cxntnries by Pierre Lemerder, the famous architect of St 
Euitache at Paris, and containing a fine holy sepulchre of the 
i6th century; and Notre-Dame, of the dose of the i6th century, 
which contains the tomb of St Gautier, abbot of Meulan in the 
i3th century. At the top of the flight of steps by which St 
Madoo b approached is the statue of General Leclerc, a native of 
the town and husband of Pauline Bonaparte. Grain and flour 
are the principal staples of the trade; a well-known fair is held 
ia November. The town has a sub-prefecture, tribunals of first 
ustaitfe and of commerce and a communal coUege. At M^rid, 
sear Pontoise, there are interesting remains of the Cistercian 
abbey of Le VaL Pontoise existed in the time of the Gauls as 
Bn9a Isarae (Bridge of the Oise). It was destroyed by the 
Ncvmans in the 9th century, united with Normandy in 1033, and 
acquired by Philip I. in X064. Capital of the^ French Vexin, it 
possessed an important stronghold and played a conspicuous 
part in the wars between the French and the dukes of Normandy 
snd in the Hundred Years' War. The English took it in 14 19, 
and again in 1437. In 1441 Charles VII. took it by storm after 
a three months' siege. After belonging to the count of Charolais 
down to tbe treaty of Conflaiis, it was given as a dowry to Jeanne 
of France when she was divorced by Louis XII. The parlement 
of Paris several times met In the town; and in 1561 the states- 
geaeral coovoked at Orleans removed thither after the death of 


Francis II. During the Fronde it offered a refuge to Louis XIV. 
and Masarin. Henry III. made it an apanage for his brother 
the duke of Anjou. At a later period it passed to the duke of 
Cont i. D own to the Revolution it remained a monastic town. 

PONTOON (Fr. fonUm^ from Lat. fonSf a bridge), a flat- 
bottomed boat, used as a ferry boat or lighter; espedally a boat 
of particular design intended to form part of a military bridge. 
In modem hydraulic engineering the words ponton and pontoon 
are used to designate hollow water-tight structures which are 
secured to sunken wrecks and bring them up to the surface, and 
also the hollow chambers which serve as gates for docks and 
sluices, and are lowered and raised by the admission and pumping 
out of water. 

Military Pontwm Bridges,— Fnm time immemorial floating 
bridges of vessels bearing a roadway of beams and planks have 
been employed to facilitate the passage of rivers and arms of the 
sea. Xerxes crossed the Hellespont on a double bridge, one line 
supported on three hundred and sixty, the other on three hundred 
and fourteen vessels, anchored head and stem with their keels 
in the direction of the current. Darius threw simihu- bridges 
across the Bosporus and the Danube in his war against the 
Scythians, and the Ten Thousand empbyed a bridge of boats 
to cross the river Tigris In their retreat from Persia. Floating 
bridges have been repeatedly constructed over rivers m Europe 
and Asia, not merely temporarily for the passage of an army, 
but permanently for the requirements of the country; and to this 
day many of the great rivers in India are crossed, on the lines of 
the prindpal roads, by floating bridges, which are for the most 
part supported on boats such as are employed for ordinary traffic 
on the river. 

But light vessels which can be taken out of the water and 
lifted on to carriages are required for transport with an army in 
the field. Alexander the Great occasionally carried with his 
army vessels divided into portions, which were put together 
on reaching the banks of a river, as in crossing the Hydaspes; he 
is even said to have carried his army over the Oxus by means 
of rafu made of the hide tents of the soldiers stuffed with straw, 
when he found that all the river boats had been burnt. Cyrus 
crossed the Euphrates on stuffed skins. The practice of carrying 
about skins to be inflated when troops had to cross a river, which 
was adopted by both Greeks 'and Romans, still exists in the 
East. In the 4th century the emperor Julian crossed the Tigris, 
Euphrates and other rivers by bridges of boats made of skins 
stretched over osier frames. In the wars of the X7th century 
pontoons.are found as reguUr components of the trains of armies, 
the Germans using a leather, the Dutch a tin and the French a 
copper " skin " over stout timber frames. 

Modem military pontoons have been made of two forms, open 
as an undecked boat, or closed as a decked canoe or cyUnder. 
During the Peninsular War the English employed open bateaux; 
but the experience gained in that war induced them to introduce 
the closed form. General Colleton devised a buoy pontoon, 
cylindrical with conical ends and made of wooden staves like a 
cask. Then General Sir Charles Pasley introduced demi-pon- 
toons, like decked canoes with pointed bows and square stems, 
a pair, attached stemwise, forming a single " pier " of support 
for the roadway; they were constructed of light timber frames 
covered with sheet copper and were decked with wood; each 
demi-pontoon was divided internally into separate compartments 
by partitions which were made as water-tight as possible, and 
also supplied with the means of pumping out water; when trans- 
ported overland with an army a pair of demi-pontoons and the 
superstmcture of one bay formed the load for a single carriage 
wdghing 37-75 cw'- when loaded. The Pasley was superseded 
by the Blanshard pontoon, a tin coated cylinder with hemis- 
pherical ends, for which great mobility was claimed, two pon- 
toons and two bays superstructure being carried on one waggon, 
giving a weight of about 45 cwt., which was intended to be drawn 
by four horses. The Blanshard pontoon was long used in the 
British army, but was ultimately discarded; and British 
engineers came to the conclusion that it was desirable to return 
to the form of the open bateau to which the engineers of all the 


68 


PONTOON 


Continental umies had meanwhile oonitantly adhered. Captain 
Fowke, RX., invented a folding open bateau, made of water- 
proof canvas attached to sliding libs, so that for transport it 
could be coflapsed like the bellows of an accordion and for use 
could be extended by a pair of stretchers. This was followed by 
the pontoon designed by Colonel Blood, R.E., an open bateau 
with decked ends and sides partly decked where the rowlock 
blocks were fixed. It consisted of six sets of framed ribs con- 
nected by a deep kelson, two side streaks, and three bottom 
streaks. The sides and bottom were of thin yellow pine with 
canvas secured to both surfaces by india-rubber solution, and 
coated outside with marine glue. The central interval between 
the pontoons in forming a bridge was invariably maintained at 
15 ft.; for the support of the roadway five baulks were ordinarily 
employed, but nine for the passage of siege artillery and the 
heaviest loads; they fitted on to saddles resting on central 
saddle beams. The pontoons were not immersed to within i ft. 
of the tops of their " cosmings " when carrying ordinary loads, 
as of infantry in marching order " in fours " crowded at a check, 
or the i6-pounder R.M.L. gun of position weighing 43 cwt.; nor 
were they immersed to within 6 in. when carrying extraordinary 
loads, such as disorganised infantry, or the 64-pounder R.M.L. 
gun weighing 98 cwt. In designing this pontoon the chief points 
attended to were — (i) improvement in power of support, (a) 
simplification in bridge construction, (3) reduction of weight in 
transport, and (4) adaptation for use singly as boats for ferrying 
purposes. One pontoon with the superstructure for a single 
bay constituted a load for one wsggon, with a total wei^t 
behind horses of about 40 cwt. 

The following uUe (from Bncy. Brit. 9th ed.) shows the powera 
of various pontoons in use by difiaent nations in the past. Modern 
improvements are comparatively few. The "working power of 
support " has been calculated in most insunces by deducting from 
the " available buoyancy " one-fourth for open and one-tenth for 
closed vessels: — 


In the English and French equipment the pontoons were originally 
ade of two uses, the smaller and lighter for the " advanced guard,'* 
the larger and heavier for the "reserve;" In both equipmenta 
the same Mse pontoon is now adopted for general requirements, the 
superstructure being strengthened when necessary for very heavy 
weights. The German army has an undivided galvanised iron pon- 
toon, 24 ft. 6 in. long, handy as a boat, but of inadequate buoyancy 
for heavy traffic, with the result that the span has to be diminished 
and ipso facto the waterway obstructed. The Austrian and Italian 


pontoons are made in three pieces, two with bows and a middle 
less than two pieces are ordinarily employed, and 


piece without ; notl 


the third is introduced when great supporting power is required, 
but in all cases a constant interval u mainuined between the 
pontoons. On the other hand, in the -greater number of pontoon 
equipments greater supporting power is obtained not by increasing 
the number of supports but by diminishini; the central interval 
between tlie pontoons. Within certain limits it does not matter 
whether the buovancy is made up of a Urge number of small or a 
SRuU number of large vessds, so long as the waterway b not unduly 
contracted and the obstruction offered to a swift current dangerously 
increased; but it is to be remembered that pontoon bridges have 
failed as frequently from being washed away as from insufficient 
buoyancy. In Austria efforts have been made to diminish the weight 
of the Btrago equipment by the substitution of steel for iron. The 
present pontoon, in three pieces, is of steel, and 39 ft. 4 in. long, like 
the old pattern. 

In the British army Colonel Blood's equipment was later modified 
by the introduction of a bipartite pontoon designed in 1889 by 
Lieut. Clauson, R.E. Each pontoon is carried on one waggon with 
a bay of superstructure, and consisu of two sections, a bow-pieoe and 
a, stern-piece, connected together by easily manipulated couplings 
iphor bronse. Decks and " coamings " are dupensed witn, 
rowlock holes are sunk in a strong gunwale. The detach- 
able saddle-beam, whkh receives the load on the centre of the 
thwarts, is made in sections, so as to form a continuous saddle of 
any length required. The baulks (or road-beareis) and chesses 
(or planks) remain unaltered, but chess-holders and chess-bearers 
are added for use in constructing light bridges for infantry in file. 
In this kind of bridge each pontoon section is used separatdy, 
with a roadway of chesses idaced lonptudinally four abreast, in 
the normal or medium bridge two sections, and in heavy bridge 
three sections are joined together. The chief advanuges of the 


of phospho 
and the roi 


i 


M 


•8 

llJ 


n 
HI 


Gribeauval: open bateau, oak . . 
Austrian: open, wooden, 1799 . . 
Aust.-Birago: open, wooden; two pieces 
t* n u three „ 


French : < 


„ three 

n; reserve . . 

advanced guard 


dose order 
1 order 


Prussianiopen, 


ItsiUan: open wooden; one piece 
M „ ,. two pieces 

„ modified ; one piece 
%, . •• two pieces 

Bdgian: open, iron; one piece . . . 


&,_«;_. S india-rubber, "diree; ) open order 
^^'"**'^" { cylinders connected : 5 close Older 

Sm^isk Pontoons. 
Peninsular ( open, tin ; reserve . . 

equipment 1 „ „ advanced guard . 
Pssley : closed demi-canoe; copper . . 
Blanshard :.cylinder, tin ; open order . . 
•• M •• close ( 


It •• M light pattern 

Fowke: open, collapsible, canvas; open order 
Forbes: closed, spheranguhir, tin; open order 
Blood: open, srooden; genera] .... 


Fi. 

363 
27-0 
28-0 

M-O 
39-4 
309 

19-7 
309 

23-7 
a3-7 
247 
247 
19-6 
39a 
24-6 
49-2 
21 -o 
21 'O 
24-8 
49-2 

2O-0 
20-0 


1 8*9 

151 
250 

22-5 
22-5 

15-5 

22-0 

242 

21*6 


Oib.FL 

593 
354 

303 
445 
3S3 
530 

f4 

164 
214 

'l^ 
283 

565 

649 
209 
209 
297 
595 
«30 
130 


209 
120 
141 
109 
109 
26 

\fi 

280 


\li 


13.092 
B.78I 
6.785 

1,640 
8.460 

7.977 
17.500 


37,000 
18.791 
15.658 
aa,907 

28!6S 
16,678 
8,228 
16,012 
7.833 
8,013 
11,176 
11,356 
14.078 

36.091 
10,687 
10,959 
15.248 
32,620 
6,145 
6joi 


ro,7i8 
5.866 
6.678 
5.185 
5.377 
1.300 

15.200 


lb 

27,750 

14.093 

11.744 

17.930 

13.794 

21,476 

12,509 

6,171 

12.684 

5.875 

6,010 

8,382 

8,5«7 

10.559 

23,061 

12,669 

27,068 

8.015 

8.219 

11.436 

24.465 

5.530 

5.761 


8,039 


1,010 
4.667 
4.839 
1,170 
5.4" 
5.659 
13.350 


Ft 

22-8 
|6*6 
217 
21.7 
217 
2x7 
197 
16-4 
197 
15-3 

II-2 

15-3 

I1'2 

263 
23*0 
230 
i6-6 
11-7 
19-7 
19-7 
1 8-0 
14-7 


16-8 
14-0 
12-5 
125 
8-3 
5-3 

10*0 
11*0 

1 5*0 


1,215 
849 

8? 

636 
635 

% 

IS 

759 

8^ 
551 

1,178 
493 
705 
580 

1.244 
307 
393 


477 

Jit 
|i? 

220 
541 

1^ 


Fi. 

15-6 
11-4 
9-3 
9-3 
9-3 
9-3 
105 

U 

9-9 
9-9 
9-9 

U 

9.8 
9-8 
9-8 
10-4 
IO-4 
95 
9-5 
110 

ll-O 


lO-O 

9*o 

lO'O 

lo-o 
io*o 
70 

lO-O 
10*0 
lO'O 


35.568 
18.924 

2U.l8l 
2d,l8l 
20.181 
20,181 
20,685 
15.252 
19,306 

25,774 
25.774 
22.540 
22.540 
17,26^ 
12.168 
18.715 
18,715 
19.800 
18.370 


16.800 
12,600 
12.500 
12,500 
8.300 
3.710 
10,000 
11,000 
15.000 


PONTOPPIDAN, E.— PONTORMO 


69 


equipinent are (i) the buoyancy of the pierB can be proportioned 
to the weight « traflic and to the roughness oC the water; (3) 
owing to the special design of the bows, boats and raf u are easy to 
row, while the pontoons in bridge oppose little resistance to the 
current, and so require less anchor power; (3) transport rafts, pier- 
Heads and flying bridges can be constructca with great ease, owing 
to the flush gunwales on which baulks can rest if necessary; (4) the 
positooa sections are convenient to handle, easy to ship or to 
transport by laiU and can readily be replaced singly if damaged in 
bridge. A canoe pontoon and superstructure adapted for pack 
transport has also been adopted from designs by Colonel (Sir) Elliott 
Wood, C.B., R.E. The jpontoon oonvsts of four sections laced 
u^etber, cadi section being a framework of wood coveied with 
waterproof sheeting. Three pontoons and eight composite planks 
form a " unit," from which can be constructed 48 ft. of bridge for 
infantry in file, 84 f t. fbr infantry in single file, or a raft to carry 15 
men or an empyty wagon. 

For the Britidi army in India the standard pontoon for many 
years was the Fasley; it was seldom used, however, for boats could 
almost always be procured on the spot in suflident numbers wherc- 
evcr a floating bridge had to be constructed. Later an equipment 
was prepared tor the Indian army of demi-pontoons, similar to the 
Blood pontoon cut in half, and therefore more mobile; each has 
a bow and a square stem, and they are ioined at the stems when 
required to form a ** pier "; they are fitted with movable covers and 
can therefore be used in much rougher water than pontoons of the 
home pattern, and their power of support and breadth of roadway 
are the same. The Chitral Relief Expedition of 1895, however, 
revealed certain defects. The shape 01 the bow was unsuited to 
TMpid currents; the balance was not satisfactory, and the copper 
sheathing cracked. E^)eriments were then undertaken trith the 
bipartite pontoon. 

The india-nibber pontoon does not appear to have been generally 
employed even in America, where it was invented. The engineer 
c^fioers with the army of the Potomac, after full experience of the 
india-rabber pontoon and countless other inventions of American 
gemos, adopted the French equipment, which they found " most 
excellent, useful and reliable for all military purposes." The 
Rnsstans, in crosnng the Danube in their war with Turkey in 1878, 
employed the Austrian equipment. Al — -^'-r^ --^to^^ have 
be» tried in Germany, but have not been .nJoiMcd. 

For tight bridging work the Berthon ami otliL-r co1kp§ib1e hrjtita 
have been adopted in Germany and Gre le Britain^ esmciaUy iot 
cavalry work in advance of the army. Ttn-^ German tolding bo^i b 
made of wood framework and canvas sLin^ U-^y tKtata £tre c^f^ily 
carried on one ** folding-boat waujon." The lut^ij k-neih of the three 
sections together is 3i ft. 6 m. The f^ntUt field troop R.£., 
attached to cavalnr, carries two oollapsibk' b<^t4 t8 ft. 6 in. long. 

The methods 01 constructing pontoon tjriijg^ hrive bwn timpU- 
fied of late years in roost amues, and are usually resthcted to (i) 
adding pontoons one by one to the head of the bridge; (2) con- 
BfTting rafts of two or more pontoons into bridge by mtermediate 
bajrs of superstructure; and (3) swinging across the river a bridge 
previoaaiy prepared alongud<i the shore. The formation of a bridge 
from rafts toodiing one another consumes an excessive amount 
of eqaipment. and opposes unnecessary resist&nce to the stream; it 
b t h erefore being discarded in most amries. " Booming out " 
the bridge bay by bay from the shore until the bead reaches the 
oppo sit e oank.M unsuited for rapid curreilts, and is almost obfolete 
except for ^ht infantry bridges. 

In evoy army the pontoon service is in the hands of technical 
specialists.* But there are many other forms of military 
bridging, in which the specialist only supervises the work of the 
ordinary soldier, or indeed, takes no part whatever. Troops of 
an aims are expected to be familiar with certain methods of 
rough temporaxy bridging. In the British service the forms 
ci temporaxy ^berbridge usually employed are called trestle, 
k)dt and floating. Toe trestle bridge in its vaiioos forms con- 
sisU of a series of two-legged or three-legged trestles carrying the 
toad-bearers and chesses which form the roadway. Trestles 
can be improvised, but some are carried, ready for use, by 
mobile engineer units and they are frequently combined with 
pontoon bridges at the shore ends, where holding ground for 
the feet of the trestles is found. Lock bridges never touch 
water, forming sin^ spans over a chasm. These consist of 
spars made into frames of which the feet rest in the banks of the 
river and the heads are interlocked, the whole being securely 
hshed. Another type of frame-bridge is the cantilever, which 
has been used in Indian frontier expeditions to bridge swift 

>Ia Germany, however, as mentioned below, Usfat brid^ng 
materia] has been placed in the hands of the cavalry. This tendency, 
ia aooordance with the needs of modem armies, will protMbfy 
b ec o c pe more prooounoed in the future. It be^an with the pro- 
vaioQ of demotttion equipment for the cavafary ptoneers. 


and 4 iresiks, 

].. , . 
1 


Steep-banked streams. Improvised 8u^>ension bridges are also 
used. Floating bridges are made not only of pontoons but also 
of boats of all sorts^ casks lashed tojsether, and rafts. They are 
almost always combined with one or two bays of trestle bridging 
at the shore ends. 

The organiiation of bridging personnel in diflerent armies shows 
as much divergence of opinion as the design of pontoon equiftment. 
In Great Britain, since the divisional reorganization, the bridging 
trains have been assigned to the "army troops," which include 
tr- " brirfrfr.;: "— *ti:^, tr""'— -.: -'*^-^'-, and 4^ men with .92 
V'.;in.k--, rii'^-t ui tn^Eiii -iji - bkji >tja . i.iiLJi ujun camcs 32 Doutoons 
and S2 baj'j ol miperctnictuEVT as wcli a« t6 trestles and 8 bays of 
thr iipprupdaic? cup(rr?truictyn?p and can construct 300 yds. of 
moiium bridge lei ah. Ikddcs thusc tniicu the divi«onal engineer 
UEiiu {,2 fiL-kl tofi]p.i[ua perdLvisiDii) bear with them in all 4 pontoons 
vhh um occemry bAys of superstructure, their 
iii.M-l(v YjtAn^ fiiiiMit jrt vds. of medium bridge, 
train which admits of 
of about 120 yds. of 
iu«u«uiu otiil 140 ydi».U iiklii..Utolguig atiu ucars besides 2 " advanced 
guard " trains which can provide 33 yds. of medium bridging each. 
Bendes the corps trains there are also " army " truns, five in ail, 
which can furnish 280 yds. of medium bndging apiece. These 
would be allotted in acooraanoe with the leciuirements of particular 
campaigns. In Germany the increasing importance attached to 
independent cavalry <^)erations has led to the asugnment of a 
foldmg-boat wagon to every cavalry nnmtnL The regimental 
equipment provides for a ferry, capable of taxing 25 to 30 infantnrmen, 
one artillery vehicle or four horses at one journey, a foot-bridge 
22 to \^ yds. m length, or a light bridge of 8 to 13 yds. By 
assemblmg the material of a whole cavalry division of 6 regiments, 
a foot-bridge of no to 2x0 yds. or a light bridge of 57 to 70 yds. 
can be constructed. The oorpa bridging train of a German army 
corps can construct x^p yds. of medium or X70 yds. of light 
bridging, and each of the two divisional txains, 40 yds. of medium 
and 48 yds. of light brid^ng. 

PONTOPPIDAN, ERIK (169&-X764), Danish author, was 
bom at Aarhus on the 24th. of August X698. He studied 
divinity at the tmiversity of Copenhagen, and for some time 
acted as a travelling tutor. In 1735 he became one of the 
chaplains of the king. In 1738 he was made professor extra- 
ordinary of theology at Copenhagen, and in 1745 bishop of 
Bexgen, Norway, where he died on the 20th of December X764. 

His principal works are: Theatrum Daniae veteris et modtmM 
(dto, X73q), a description of the geography, natural history, an- 
tiquities, &C., of Denmark: Cesta et vesHgia dancrwn exira Damam 
(3 vols. 8vo, X740), a laborious but uncritical work; Annales 
eccUsioe 4iamcM (3 vols., 1 741-1747); UaniMfa, danka sdecHora 

ng. trans., 

, , containing curious 

accounts, often referred to, of the Kraaken, sea-serpent, and the 
like; OrtgMts hafnuHses (1760); Meuoaa (3 vols., 1742-1743), a 
religious novel. His Danslu Atlas (7 vols. 4X0), an historical and 
topographical account of Denmark, was mostly posthumous. 

dee an article by S. M. Gjellerup in Datmk Biografisk Lexikon 
(vol. xiii., 1899). 

PONTOPPIDAN, HBNRIK (X857- ), Danish author, son 
of a pastor, was bom at Frederida on the 24th of July X857. 
He studied physics and mathematics at the tmiversity of Copen- 
hagen, and when he was eighteen he travelled on foot through 
Germany and Switzerland. His novels show an intixnate 
acquaintance with peasant life and character, the earlier ones 
showing .dear evidence of the ixifluence of Kjelland. An 
excellent example of his woxk is in the trilogy dealLog with the 
histoxy of Emanuel Hansted, a theoxizing radical parson who 
marries a peasant wife. These three stories, Uuid (""Soil," 
X891), Da ForjaeUede Land (" The Promised Land," xSga), and 
Dommens Dag (1895) are marked by fine dis crimin ation and 
great narrative power. Among his other works are Fra HyiUme 
(1887), Foikdhsskiidringer (2 parts, X888-X890), and Skyer (1890). 
He b^san in 1898 a newsexies in Lykke Per^ the stoxy of a typical 
JuUander. 

See an article of Niels MdOer hi Dansk Biografisk Lexikon (yoL 
aiii-t 1899). 

PONTORMO, JAOOPO DA (1494-1 5S7)» vbose family name 
was Carucd, Italian painter of the Florentine school, was bora 
at Pantoxmo in 1494, son of a painter of ordinary ability, was 
apprenticed to Leonardo da Vind, and afterwards took lessons 
from Piero di Cosimo. At the age of dghteen he became a 


eccunae namcae (3 vols., 1 741-1747;; Marmora aamca 
(2 Vols, fol., 1739-1741); Glossarium norvegicum (i749)» 
forsdg Norges naiurUge kUtorie (4to, 1752-1754); En 
Natural History of Norway (2 vols., 1755), containini 


70 


PONTREMOLI— PONTUS 


journeyman to Andrea del Sarto, and was remarked as a young 
man of exertional accomplishment and promise. Later on, 
but still in early youth, be executed, in continuation of Andrea's 
labours, the '* VisiUtion," in the cloister of the Servi in Florence 
— one of the principal surviving evidences of his powers. The 
most extensive series of works which he ever undertook was a 
set of frescoes in the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence, from the 
" Creation of Man to the Deluge," closing with th« " Last 
Judgment." By this time, towards 1546, he had falloi under 
the dangerous q>ell of Michelangelo's colossal genius and super- 
human style; and Pontormo, after working on at the frescoes 
for eleven years, left then! incomplete, and the object of general 
disappointment and disparagement. They were finished by 
Angelo Bronzino, but have long since vanished under whitewash. 
Among the best works of Pontormo are his portraits, which 
include the likenesses of various members of the Medici famfly; 
they are vigorous, animated and highly finished. He was fond 
of new and odd experiments both in style of art and in method of 
painting. From Da Vind he caught one of the marked physio- 
gnomic traits of his visages, smiles and dimples. At one time 
he took to direct imitation or reproduction of Albert Diirer, 
and executed a series of paintings foundfed on the Passion 
subjects of the German master, not only in composition, but 
even in such peculiarities as the treatment of draperies, &c. 
Pontormo died of dropsy on the and of January 1557, mortified 
at the ill success of his frescoes in S. Lorenzo; he was buried 
below his work in the ServL 

PONTRBHOU, a town and Ushop'jp see of the province of 
Maasa and Carrara, Tuscany, Italy, in the upper ^ey of the 
Magra, 35 m. N. by £. of Spesia fay ran and 49 m. S.S.W. of 
Parma, 843 ft. above aea4eveL Pop. (1901), 4x07 (town); 
X4i570 (commune). It has a 17th-century cathfedraL The 
church of the Annunziata with its Augustinian monastery is 
interesting. There are also mineral springs. The town, which 
is well situated among the mountains, was an independent 
republic in the-xath and xjth centuries, and in 1495 was sacked 
by the troops of Charles VUL of Fxmnce. It was much damaged 
by a n ear thquake in 1854. 

P0MTU8* a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts 
of country in the north-east of Asia Minor bordering on the 
Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos 
(the Main), by the Gredcs. The exact signification of this 
purely territorial name varied greatly at different times. The 
Greeks used it loosely of various parts of the shores of the Euxine, 
and the term did not get a definite connotation till after the 
establishment of the kingdom founded beyond the Halys during 
the troubled period foDowing the death of Alexander the Great, 
about 301 B.C., by Mithradatcs L, KUsles, son of a Persian 
satrap in the service of Antigonus, one of Alexander's successors, 
and ruled by a succession of kings, mostly bearing the same name, 
till 64 B.& As the greater part of this kin^lom ky within 
the immense region of Cappadoda, which in early ages extended 
from the borders of Cilidia to the Euxine, the kkigdom as a 
whole was at first called " Cappadoda towards the Pontus " 
(«p^ r^ IUrrv)i but afterwards simply " Pontus," the name 
Cappadoda bdng henceforth restricted to. the southern hall 
of the region previously induded under that title. Under the 
last king, Mithradates Eupator, commonly called the Great, 
the realm of Pontus induded not only Pontic Cappadoda but 
also the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to (Colchis, part 
of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia (see under Mecbka- 
DATES). With the destruction of this kingdom 1^ Pompey 
in 64 B.C., the meaning of the name Pontus underwent a change. 
Part of the kingdom was now annexed to the Roman Empire, 
bdng united with Btthynia in a double province called ** Pontus 
and Btthynia": this part induded (possibly from the first, 
but certainly from about 40 B.C. onwards) only the seaboard 
between Heradda {En^ij and Amisus {Samsvn)^ the ora Pontica. 
Hereafter the simple luune Pontus without qualification was 
regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, 
especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman 
point of view; it b so used almost always in the New •Testament. 


But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that 
portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the 
Halys (roughly) and the bordos of Colchis, Loser Armenia, 
Cappadoda and Galatia— the region properly df^gnatrd by 
the title " Cappadoda towards the Pontus," which was always 
the nudeus of the Pontic kingdom. 

This region is regarded by the geographer Strabo (aj>. 19-30), 
himadf a luUive of the country, as Pontus in the strict sense 
of the term {Ceogr. p. 678). Its native population was of the 
same stock as that of Cappadoda, of which it had formed a part, 
an Oriental race often called by the Greeks Leucosyri or White 
Syrians, as distinguished from the southern Syrikns, who were 
of a darker complexion, but thdr prcdae ethnological relations 
are uncertain. Geographically it is a uble-land, forming the 
north-east comer of the great plateau of Asia Minor, edged on the 
north by a lofty mountain rim, along the foot of which runs a 
fringe of coast-land. The table-land consists of a series of fertile 
plains, of varying size and devation separated from each other 
by upland tracts or mountains, and it is drained almost entirely 
by the river Iris {YeskH Irmak) and its numerous tributaries, 
the largest of which are the Scylax ( Tckekerek Irmak) with many 
affluents and the Lycus {Kalkid Irmak), all three rising in th^ 
highlands near, or on, the frontier of Armenia^'Minor and flowing 
first in a westerly and then in a north-werteriy direction to 
merge their waters in a joint stream, which (under the name 
of the Iris) pierces the mountain-wall and emerges on the east 
of Amisus ISamsun), Between the Halys and the Iris the 
mountain rim is comparatxvdy low and broken, but east of the 
Iris it is a continuous lofty ridge (called by the andents Paxy- 
adres and Scydises), whose rugged northern slopes are fuxrowed 
by torrent beds, down which a host of snudl streams (amons 
them the Thermodon, famed in Amason story) tumble to the 
sea. These inaccessible slopes were inhabited even In Stxabo'a 
time by wild, half-barbarous txibes, of whose ethnical rdationa 
we are ignorant— the Chalybes (identified by the Greeks with 
Homer's Chalybes), Tibareni, Mosynoed and Macrones, on 
whose manners and condition some light is thrown by Xenophoa 
(Anab, V). But the fringe of coast-land from Trebizond 
westward is one of the most beautiful parts of Asia Minor and 
is jxistly extolled by Strabo for its wonderful productxvencaSL 

The sea-coast, like the rest of the south shore «f the Euxine* 
was studded with Greek colonies founded from the 6th oentuzy 
onwards: Amisus, a colony of MQetus, which in the 5th century 
recdved a body of Athenian settlers, now the port of Samsmn; 
Cotyora, now Ordu; Cerasus, the later Phamaria, now Kerasundi 
and Trapezos (Trebikomd), a famous dty from Xenophon'a 
time till the end of the middle ages. The last three were 
colonies of Sinope, itself a Milesian colony. The chief towna 
in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, 
the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-plaoe of the 
earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the 
river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or 
Cybde); Zela, another great religious centre, xdfounded by 
Pompey, iu>w ZHeh; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey aa 
Ma^iopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Calnra, 


Pompey'a Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; 
Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Stdu SertA; Sebsstris, now 
Shas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, aomewhiere in 
the same district. 

The history of this regbn is the history of the advance of 
the Roman Empire towards the Euphrates. Its political 
position between 64 and 41 bx., when Maxk Antony becanae 
master of the East, is not quite certaiiu Part of it was handed 
over by Pompey to dient princes: the coast-land east of the 
Halys (except the territory of Amisus) and the hill-tribes ol 
Paryadres were given, with Lesser Armenia, to the G^tian 
chid Ddotarus, with the title of kii\g; Comana was left under 
the rule of its high-priest. The rest of the interior was parti- 
tioned by Pompey amongst the inland dties, almost all of which 
were founded by him, and, according to one view, was induded 
together with the seaboard west of Amisus and the comer of notth- 
east Paphlagonia posicwed by Mithradates in bis n 


PONTUS DE TYARD— PO^^^YPRIDD 


71 


BoBtm-Bkliynia. Othen maintain that only the seaboard 
was incfaided in the province, the inland dties being constituted 
sdHBOvcraing, "protected" commonities. The latter view 
b more in oonfonaity with Roman policy in the East, which 
did not usually annex countries till they reached (under the 
rule of dient princes) a certain level of civilisation and order, 
but it is diflkult to reconcile with Stxabo's statements (p. 541 
sqq.). In any case, during the years foUowiog 40 b.& all inland 
Pto&tTs was handed over, like north-east F^hlagonia, to native 
dynasts. The Pontic possessions of Deiotarus (d. 40 bjc) were 
gmn with additions («^. Cafasra) in 39 B.& to Darius, son of 
Risnaces, and in 36 B.a to Polemon, son of a rhetoriciyn of 
Laodioea on the Lycus. The high-priest of Cnmana, Lycomedes, 
received an acceasiott of territory and the royal title. The 
temtories of Zela and Megalopol^ were divided between Lyco- 
medes, the higb-priest of Zela and Ateporiz, who ruled the 
princ^ality of Carana (later Sebastopolis). Amaaia and 
Amisas were abo given to native princes. 

Aft» the battle of Actium (jr b.&) Augustus restored 
Araisia as a " five city " to the province of Bithynia-Pontus, 
bat made noother serious change. Polemon retained his king- 
dom tin his death in 8 B.a, when it passed to his widow Pytho- 
doris. But presently the process of annexation began and the 
Pootic districts were gradually incorporated in the empire, 
each being attached to the province of Galatia, then the centre 
of Roman forward pdky. (x) The western district was an- 
nend in two sections, Sebastopolis and Amasia in 3-a B.c, 
and Comana in ajb. ^-35. To distinguish this district £rom 
the province Bontus and Polemon's Pontus, it was henceforth 
called Ponims iolaHcus (as being the first part attached to 
Galatia). (2) Pblemon's kingdom, ruled since aj>. 38 by Pole- 
mon IL, grandbum of the former king, was annexed by Nero in 
AJL 64-65, and distinguished by the title of Pontus potemoniacuSf 
which survived for centuries. [But the simple name Pontus, 
Uthcrto commonly used to designate Folcmon's realm, is still 
cnqdoyed to denote this district by itself or in conjunction 
with Pontus Galaticus, wlure the context makes the meaning 
dear (e.^. in inscriptions and on coins).] Polemoniacus 
iadiided the sea-coast from the Thermodon to Cotyora and the 
ialaiid dties Zela, Magnopolis, MegalopdUs, Neocaesarea and 
Sfbasteia (acoocding to Ptolemy, but apparently annexed since 
2 Bja, aoooidiiig to its coins). (3) Finally, at the same time 
(u». 64) was annrtfd the remaining eastern part of Pontus, 
which formed part of Polemon's realm but was attached to 
the province Cappadoda and distinguished by the epithet 
cappedacicus. These three districts formed distinct adminis- 
tiative divisions within the provinces to which they were 
attached, with separate capitals Amaaia, Neocaesarea and 
Trapcxos; but the first two were afterwards merged in one, 
Bocoetimes called Ponius mtdiUrranaUf with Neocaesarea as 
capital, probably when they were definitivdy transferred 
(about AJD, 1x4) to Cappadoda, then the great frontier military 
province. 

With the reorganization of the provincial system under 
Diodetian (about aji. 295), the Pontic districts were divided 
op between four provinces of the dioecesis potUica: (i) Paphla- 
gooia, to whidi was attached most of the old province Pontus; 
(3) Diospontus, re-named Hdenopontus by C^nsUntine, con- 
taintng the rest of the province Pontus and the adjoining dis- 
trict, eight dties in all (induding Sinope, Amisus and Zela) with 
Amasia as capital; (3) Pontus Polemoniacus, containing Comana, 
Pbtemooxom, Cerasus and Thtpezus with Neocaesarea as 
capital; and (4) Aimcnia Minor, five dties, with Sebasteia, as 
capitaL This xcaxiangement gave place in turn to the Byzantine 
ijstaa of military districts {themes), 

Qoistiaalty was introduced into the province Pontus (the 
On pomUca) by way of the sea in the ist century after Christ 
and was deeply rooted when Pliny governed the province 
(ajl ixx«xr3). But the Christianization of the inland Pontic 
<fistricts bc|^ only about the middle of the 3rd century and 
was largely due to the misaionaxy taX of Gregory Thaumatuigus, 
biibap of NcQCMnrea. 


See Ramsay, Histor. Geogr. cf Asia Miner (i 
Cumont, Studia pontica (1903 et aeq.); Baf 


) ; Anderaoa and 
and Reinach, 


Reeueit des numnates d^Asie mta., t. L (1904) ; H. Gr^oire, " Voyage 
dans le Pont '* &c in Bull, de cones. ML (1909). Q. G. C. A.) 

PONTUS DB TYARD (c. 152X-X605), French poet and member 
of the P16iade (see Daukat), was seigneur of Biasy in Burgundy, 
where he was born in or about X52X. He was a friend of Antoine 
Hdroet and Maurice Soive, and to a certain extent antidpated 
Ronsard and Joachim Du Bdlay. His Eneurs amoureuses, 
originally published in X549, was augmented with other poems 
in successive editions till X573. On the whole his poetry is 
inferior to that of his companions, but he was one of the first 
to write soimets in French (the actual priority bebngs to Mclin 
de St GcJais). It is also said that he introduced the sestine 
into France, or rather reintroduced it, for it was originally 
a PA>veocal inventioiL In his later years he gave himself up 
to the study of mathematics and philosophy. He became bishop 
of ChiUons-8ur-Sa6ne iil X578, and in xsis; appeared his Discours 
phUosophiques. He was a zealous defender of the cause of 
Henry IIL against the pretensions of the Guises. This attitude 
brou^t down on him the vengeance of the league; he was 
driven from Ch&lons and his ch&teau at Bissy was plundered. 
He survived all the members of the Pldade and lived to see the 
onslaught made on their doctrines by Malherbe. Pontus 
resiguMi his bishopric in X594, and retired to tht ch&teau de 
Bragny, where he died on the 23rd of September X605. 

His Oeuvres peitifues nuy be found in the PWade frangaise (^875) 
of M. Ch. Marty-Laveauz. 

POHTTPOOL, a market town in the northern parliamentary 
division of Monmouthshire, England, 8 m. N. of Newport, 
served by the Great Western, London & North- Western, and 
Rhymney railways. Pop. of urban district (x90x), 6x26. It 
is beautiifully situated on an acdivity above the Afon Lwyd, 
a tributary of the Usk. Its prosperity is due to its situation 
on the edge of the great coal- and iron-fidd of Monmouthshire 
and Glamorganshire. The earliest record of trade in iron ia in 
X588, but it was devdoped chiefly in the beginning of the x8th 
century by the family of Hanbury, the proprietors of Pontypool 
Park. Pontypool was formerly famed for its japaxmed goods, 
invented by Thomas Allwood, a native of Northampton, who 
settled in the town in the rdgn of Charles II., but the manu- 
facture has long been transferred elsewhere. The town and 
neighbourhood contain large forges and iron mills for the manu- 
facture of iron-work and tin-plate. Water communication 
is afforded with Newport by the Moimiouthshire CanaL On 
the south-east of Pontypool is the urban district of Panteg, 
indu ding G riffithstown, with a popuUtion (xpoi) of 7484. 

POMTTPRIDD, a parish, market town, and urban dhtrict, 
in the eastern parliamentary divisiovof Glamorganshire, Wales, 
situated on the Taff at its junction with the Rhondda, on the 
Taff Vale railway, and on the Glamorganshire Canal, X2 m. 
N.N.W. from Cardiff, X2 S. from Merthyr-iydfil, and 169 by rail 
from London. It is also connected with Newport by a Great 
Western line x8} m. long. Pop. (1901), 32,316. It recdves its 
name from a remarkable bridge of one aich spanning the Taff, 
erected in 1755 by William Edwards, a sdf-tau^t mason. 
The bridge is a perfect segment of a drde, the chord being 
140 ft., and the height at low water 36 ft. A three-arched bridge 
was erected dose to it in 1857. The town is built at the junc- 
tion of the three parishes of Llanwonno, Llantwit Fardre and 
Eglwysilan, out of portions of which Glyntaff was formed into 
an ecclesiastical parish in 1848, and from this Pontypridd was 
carved in X884. The urban district was constituted into a 
dvfl parish in X894. The church of St Catherine, buHt in 
1868, enlarged in X885, is in early Decorated style; other places 
of worship are the Baptist, Calvinistic Methodist, Congrega- 
tional, and Wesleyan chapels. The prindpal secular buildings 
are a masonic hall, town-hall buOt above the market, free library 
(1890), county hitermediate schod (1895) and court-house. 
Near the town is a far-famed rocking-stone 9I tons in weight, 
known as the Maen Chwyf , round which a drde of small stones 
was set up in the middle of the X9th ceutuiy under the direction 


72 


PONY— POOLE, R. S. 


of Myvyr Moxganwg, who used to style himself archdruid of 
Wales. The place became, for a time, famous as a meeting 
place for neo-Druidic gatherings. Pontypridd was an insig- 
nificant village till the opening of the Taff Vale railway into 
the town in 1840, and it owed its progress chiefly to the de- 
velopment of the coal areas of the Rhondda Valley, for which 
district it serves as the market town and chief business centre. 
It also possesses anchor, chain, and cable works, chemical works, 
and iron «nd brass foundries. Pontypridd has, jointly with 
Rhondda, a stipendiary magistrate since 1872. 

POMT (from the Lowland Scots ^oiraey, probably from O. Fr. 
pouieriet, diminutive of poulain, a colt or foal; Late Lat. fullanus, 
Lat. puUuSt a young animal), a horse of a small breed, sometimes 
confined to such as do not exceed t$ hands in height, but 
generally applied to any horse underi4 hands (see Hosse). The 
word is of frequent use as a slang t erm € , g. for a sum of £25; 
for a liquor measure or ^biss containing less than a half-pint; 
and in America for a literal translation of a forcagn or claasical 
author, a "crib." 

PONZA (anc. PotUiae), the principal of a small group of 
isUnds belof^ging to Italy. Pop. (xgoz), 4621. The group is of 
vokanic origin, and includes Palmazola (anc Palmaria), Zannone 
(Sinonia), Ventotene (Pandateria, pop. in xgox, 1986) and San 
Stefano. It is situated about so m. S. of Monte Circeo and 
70 m. W. of Naples, and belongs putly to the province of Caserta 
and partly to that of Naples (Ventotene). There is regular 
communication with Naples by steamer, and in summer with 
Anzio. The isbmds rise to a height of about 70 ft. above sea- 
leveL They are now penal settlements, and their isolated 
character led to their bdag similarly used in ancient times. A 
colony with Latin rights was founded on Pontiae in 313 B.c. 
Nero, Germanicus's eldest son, and the sisters of r4iHgnla, were 
confined upon it; while Pandateria was the place of banishment 
of Julia, daugliter of Augustus, of her daughter Agrippina the 
elder, and of Octavia, the divorced wife of Nero. 

POOD, a Russian weight, equivalent to 40 lb Russian and 
about 36 lb avdxdupois. A little more than 63 poods go to 
the ton. The word is an adaptation of the Low German or 
Norse Piuid, p<nind. 

POOL, (i) A pond, or a small body of still water; also a 
place in a river or stream where the water is deep and still, so 
applied in the Thames to that part of the river known as The 
Pod, which reaches from below London Bridge to limehouae. 
The word in Old English was pdl^ which may be related, to pM 
or pytf, and the similar Cdtic words, e.g. Cornish pol, a creek, 
ocunmon on the Bristol Channd and estuary of the Severn, on 
the English side in the form " piU." A further connexion has 
been suggested with Lat. pdus, maxsh; Or. mfKbtt mud. (a) 
A name for the stakes, penalties, &c, in various card and other 
games when collected together to be paid out to the winners; 
also the name of a variety of games of billiards {q.v.). This 
word has a curious history. It is certainly adapted from Fr. 
fonU, hen, chicken, apparently a slang term for the stakes in 
a game, possibly, as the New En^ish DicHonaty suggests, used 
as a synonym for plunder, booty. " Chicken-hazard " might 
be dted as a parallel, though that has been taken to be a cor- 
ruption of " diequeen," a form of the Turkish omu, a sequin. 
When the word came into use in English at the end of the X7th 
century, it seems to have been at once identified with "pool," 
pond, as Fr. ficke (Jcher^ to fix), a counter, was with fish," 
counters in card games often taking the form of " fish " made 
of mother-of-peari, &c " Pod," in the sense of a common 
fund, has been adopted as a commercial term for a combination 
for the purpose of speculating in stocks and shares, the several 
owners of securities *' pooling" them and placing them under a 
single control, and sharing all kisses and profits. Similarly 
the name is given to a form of trade combination, especially in 
railway or shipping companies, by which the receipts or profits 
are divided on a certain agreed-upon basis, for the purpose of 
avdding comp etitio n (see Trusts). 

POOLS, MATTHEW (i6a4-'x679), En^ish NonooDfbnnist 
theologian, was bom at York, educated at Emmanud College. 


Cambridge, and from 1649 tiE the passing of the Act of Unifor- 
mity (1662) hdd the rectory of St Michad le Queme, London. 
Subsequent troubles led to his withdrawal to Holland, and he 
died at Amsterdam in 1679. The work with vdiich hianaxne 
is prindpally associated is the Synopsis critkomm HhUeorum 
(5 vols. foL, X669-X676), in which he summarizes the views of one 
hundred and fifty biblical critics. He also wrote English Aim»- 
tations en the Holy Bible, as far as Isa. Iviii.— a work which 
was completed by seversl of his Nonconformist brethren, and 
published in a vols. foL in X683. 

POOLS, PAUL FALCONER (x8o6-x879)i Ens^ish pahiter, 
was bom at Bristd in x8o6. Though "self-taught his fine feding 
for colour, poetic sympathy and drunatic power gained for him 
a high position among British artists. He exhibited his fiirst 
work in the Royal Academy at the age of twenty-five, the sub- 
ject being " The Wdl," asoene in Naples. There was an interval 
of seven years before he next exhibited his " Farewdl, Farewell " 
in X837, which was fdlowed by the " Emigrant's Departure," 
" Hermann and Dorothea " and " By the Waters of Babylon.** 
In 1843 his position was made secure by his " Solomon ^gle," 
and by his success in the Cartoon Exhibition, in which he reodvcd 
from the Fine Art Conunissioners a prize of £300 sterling. After 
his exhibition of the " Surrender of Syon House " he was dected 
an associate of the Royal Academy in X846, and was made an 
academician in x86i. He died in 1879. 

Pode's subjects divide themsdves into two ordeta—one 
idyllic, the other dramatic Of the former his " May Day " 
(1852) is a typical example. Of both styles there were excellent 
examples to be seen in. the small collection of his works shown 
at Burlington House in the Winter Exhibition of X883-X8S4. 
Among his early dramatic pictures was " Solomon Eag^ ex- 
horting the People to Repentance during the Plague of 1665,*' 
painted in 1843. To th^ dass belongs also the " Messenger 
announcing to Job the Irruption of the Sabeaas and the 
Slaughter of the ServanU " (exhibited in 1850), and " Robert, 
Duke of Normandy and Arletu " (1848). Finer examples of 
his more mature power in this direction are to be found in hia 
" Prodigal Son," painted in 1869; the " Escape of Glaucusand 
lone with the blind girl Nydia from Pompeii" (x86o); and 
" Cunstaunce sent adrift by the Constable of Alia, ^ng of 
Northumberland," painted in x868. More peaceful than these 
are the " Song of Troubadours " (painted in 1854) and the " Goths 
in Italy" (xSsx), the latter an important historical work of 
great power and beauty. Of a less lofty strain, but stlU more 
beautiful iii its workmanship, is the " Seventh Day of the 
Decameron," painted in X857. In this picturo Poole rises to his 
f uU height as a oolouxist. In his pastorals he is soft and tender, 
as in the " Mountain Path " (x8s3), the " Water-cress Gatherers " 
(1870), the " Shepston Maiden " (X872). But when he turns to 
the grander and more sublime views of nature his work is bdd 
and vigorous. Fine examples of this style may be seen in the 
"Vision of Ezekid" of the NaUonal Gallery, "Sditude** 
(1876), the " Entrance to the Cave of Mammon " (1875), the 
" Dragon's Cavern" (1877), and perhaps best of all in the " Lion 
in the Path " (1873), a great xepresenution of mountain and 
doud form. 

POOU^ RBOniALD STUART (x83a-i895), EogUah aidiae- 
ologist and orientalist, was bom in London on the S7th of 
January 1832. His father was the Rev. Edward Poote, a wdl- 
known bibliophile. His mother, Sopha, authoress of The 
En^iskwomoM in Egypt (1844), was the sister of £. W. Lane» 
the Arabic schdar, with whom R. S. Poole lived in Cairo from 
1842 to 1849, thus imbibing an early taste for Egyptian 
antiquities. In 1852 he became an assistant in the British 
Museum, and was assignwl to the department of coins and 
medals, of which in 1870 he became keeper. In that c^tadty 
he did work of the highest value, alike as a writer, teacher and 
administrator. In 1882 he was laigdy responsible for founding 
the Egypt Exploration Fund, and in X884 for starting the Society 
of English Medallists. He retired m X893, and died on the 8th 
of February 1895. Some of Poole's best work was done in hia 
artides for the Eney. BfU. (9th ed.) on Egypt, Hiero^lyphica 


POOLE— POOP 


73 


and NumisnuiticSt and considerable portions have been retained 
in the present edition, even though later research has been 
active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary 
oj Ike Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his 
special subjects. He was for some time professor of archae- 
ology at University College, London, and also lecturer at the 
Royal Academy. 

His elder brother, Eowaxd Stanley Poole (1830^1867), 
vbo was chief clerk in the science and art department at South 
Kenstngtoii, was an Arabic schokr, whose early death cut short 
a promising career. His two sons, Stanley Lane-Poole (b. 1854), 
professor of Arabic in Trinity College, Dublin, and Reginald 
Lane-Poole (b. 1857), keeper of the archives at Oxford, 
lecturer in diplomatic, and author of various historical works, 
carried on the family tradition of scholarship. 

POOLS* a municipal borough, county in itself, market town 
and seaport in the eastern parliamentary division of Dor- 
setshire, England, 113} m. S.W. by W. from London by the 
London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 19463. It 
b picturesquely situated on a peninsula between Holes Bay 
and the shallow irregular inlet of Poole Harbour. There are 
several modem churches, a guildhall, public library and school 
of art. Poole Harbour, extending inland 6 m., with a general 
breadth of 4 m., has a very narrow entrance, and is studded 
with low islands, on the largest of which, Brownsea or Branksca, 
b a castle, transformed into a residence, erected as a defence 
of the harbour in Tudor times, and strengthened by Charles L 
Potters' day is worked here. At low water the harbour is 
entirely emptied except a narrow channel, when there is a 
depth of 8| ft. There are some valuable oyster beds. There 
b a considerable general coasting trade, and clay is exported 
to the Staffordshire potteries. Some shipbuilding is carried 
on, and there are manufacturers of cordage, netting and sail- 
cloth. The town also possesses potteries, decorative tileworks, 
iron foundries, agricultural implement works and flour-mills. 
Poole Park, containing 40 acres of land and 6a acres of water, 
was acquired in 1887 and 1889, and Branksome Park, of 
40 acres, in 1895. The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen 
and xS councillors. Area, mz acres. 

Although the neighbourhood abounds in British earth- 
works and barrows, and there are traces of a Roman road lead- 
ing from Poole to Wimbome, Poole (La Pole) is not mentioned 
by the eariy chroniclers or in Domesday Book. The manor, 
part of that of Canford, belonged in. xo86 to Edward of Salis- 
bury, and passed by marriage to William Longesp^, earl of 
Salisbury, thence to Edmund de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and with 
hb heiress to Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and so to the Crown. 
Poole is first mentioned in a writ of 1924, addressed to the bailiffs 
and good men of La Pole, ordering them to retain all ships within 
their port. Entries in the Patent Rolls show that Poole had 
considerable trade before William de Longespte, eari of Salis- 
bury, granted the burgesses a charter about 2248 assuring to 
them ah liberties and free customs within his borough* The 
bailiff was to be chosen by the lord from six men elected by 
the burgesses, and was to hold pleas for breach of measures 
and assizes. It is uncertain when the burgesses obtained their 
town at the fee-farm rent of £8, 138. 4d. mentioned in 1312. 
The mayor, baSiffa and good men are first mentioned in 1311 
and were required to provide two ships for service against 
Robert de Bras. In 1372 the burgesses obtained assixe of 
bread and ale, and right to hold the courts of the lord of the 
manor, the preposttus being styled his mayor. The burgesses 
were licensed in X433 to fortify the town; this was renewed in 
1463, when the mayor was given cognisance of the staple. 
Elizabeth incorporated Poole in 1569 and made it a separate 
coanty; Charles II. gave a charter in 1667. The corporation 
was suspended after a writ of qw warranto in x686, the town 
being governed by the commission of the peace until the 
charters were renewed in x688. Poole returned two members to 
parliament in 136a and 1368, and regularly from 1452 to 1867, 
when the representation was reduced, ceasing in 1885. It is 
uncertain when the Thursday market was granted, but the 


present fairs on the Feasts of SS Philip and James and All 
Saints were granted in 1453. Poole, as the headquarters of the 
Parliamentary forces in Dorset during the Civil War, escaped 
the siege that crippled so many of its neighbours. When 
Charles 11. visited the town in 1665 a large trade was carried on 
in stockings, though the prosperity of Poole still depended on 
its usefubiess as a port. 

POONA, or Puna, a city and district of British India, in 
the Central division of Bombay. The city is at the confluence 
of the Mutha and Mula rivers, 1850 ft. above sea-level and 1 19 m. 
S.E. from Bombay on the Great Indian Peninsula railway 
Municipal area, about 4 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 153,320. It is 
pleasantly situated amid extensive gardens, with a large num- 
ber of modem public buildings, and also many temples and 
palaces dating from the i6th to the 19th century. The palace 
of the peshwas is a ruin, having been destroyed by fire in 1827. 
From its healthy utuation Poona has been chosen not only 
as the headquarters of the 6th division of the Southern army, 
but also as the residence of the governor of Bombay during the 
rainy season, from June to September. The native town, along 
the river bank, is somewhat poorly built. The European quarter, 
including the cantonment, extends north-west towards Kirkee. 
The waterworks were constructed mainly by the munificence 
of Sir Jamsetjee Jecjeebhoy. Poona was never a great centre 
of trade or manufacture though still noted for brass-work, 
jewelry and other articles of luxury. Cotton-mills, paper- 
mills, a brewery (at Dapuri), flour-mills, factories of ice and 
mineral waters, and dairy farms furmsh the chief industries. 
Educational institutions are numerous. They include the 
government Deccan College, with a law class; the aided Fer- 
gusson college; the government colleges of science and agricul- 
ture; high schools; training schools for masters and mistresses; 
medical school; and municipal technical schooL The recent 
history of Poona has been painfully associated with the plague. 
During 1897, when the city was first attacked, the death-rate 
rose to 93 per 1000 in Poona city, 7x per 1000 in the canton- 
ment, and 93 per xooo in Kirkee. 

The DiSTKiCT or Poona has an area of 5349 sq. m. Popuk- 
tion (x90x), 995,330, showing an increase of x8% after the dis- 
astrous famine of 1876-1877, but a decrease of 7% in the last 
decade. Towards the west the country u undulating, and 
numerous spurs from the Western Ghats enter the dbtrict; to 
the east it opens out into plains. It is watered by many streams 
which, rising in the ghats, flow eastwards until they join the 
Bhima, a river which intersects the district from north to south. 
The principal crops are millets, pulses, oil-seeds, wheat, rice, sugar- 
cane, vegeUbles and fruit (including grapes). The two most 
important irrigation works in the Deccan are the Mutha canal, 
with which the Poona waterworks are connected, and the Nira 
canal. There are manufactures of cotton, silk and blankets. 
The dbtrict b traversed by the Great Indian Peninsula railway, 
and also by the Southern Mahratta line, which starts from Poona 
city towards Satara. It b liable to drought, from which it 
suffered severely in 1866-1867, 1876-X877, and again in 
X896-X897. 

In the X7th century the district formed part of the Mahom- 
medan kingdom of Ahmadnagar. Sivaji was born within its 
boundaries at Junnar in 1627, and he was brought up at Poona 
town as the headquarters of the hereditary fief of hb father. 
The dbtrict thus was the eariy centre of the Mahratta power; 
and when Satara became first the capital and later the prison 
of the desceiidanU of Sivaji, Poona continued to be the seat of 
government imder their hereditary ministers, with the title 
of pohwa. Many stirring scenes in MahratU hbtory were 
enacted here. Holkar defeated the last peshwa under iu waUs, 
and hb flight to Bassein led to the treaty by which he put 
himself under British protection. He was reinstated in x8o2, 
but, unable to maintain friendly relations, he attacked the 
British at Kirkee in 181 7, and hb kingdom passed from him. 

POOP (Lat. puppis, stem), the stem or after-part of a ship; in 
the x6th and 1 7th centuries a lofty and castellated deck. The verb 
'' to poop " b used ol a wave breaking over the stem of a vesseL 


7+ 


POORE— POOR LAW 


POORS (or Poor), RICHARD (d. 1237), English bishop, was 
a son of Richard of Ilchestcr, bishop of Winchester. About 
XIQ7 he was chosen dean of Sarum and, after being an un- 
successful candidate for the bishoprics of Winchester and of 
Durham, he became bishop of Chichester in 12 14. In 121 7 he 
was translated to Salisbury, where he succeeded his elder brother, 
Herbert Poorc, and in 1228 to Durham. He died at Tarrant 
Monkton, Dorset, said by some to be his birthplace, on the isih 
of April 1237. Poore took some part in public affairs, under 
Henry III., but the great work of his life was done at Salisbury. 
Having in 12 19 removed his see from Old to New Sarum, or 
Salisbury, he began the building of the magnificent cathedral 
there; he laid the foundation stone in April 1220, and during 
his episcopate he found money and forwarded the work in other 
ways. For the city the bishop secured a charter from Henry III. 
and be was responsible for the plan on which it was built, 
a pUui which to some extent it still retains. He had something 
to do with drawing up some statutes for his cathedral; he is 
said to be responsible for the final form of the " use of Sanim," 
and he was probably the author of the Ancren RhvU, a valuable 
" picture of contemporary Ufe, manners and feeling " written 
in Middle English. His supposed identity with the jurist, 
Ricardua Anglicus; is more doubtful. 

POOR LAW. The phrase "poor law" in English usage 
denotes the legislation embodying the measures taken by the 
state for the relief of paupers and iu administration. The 
history of the subject and its problems generally are dealt with 
in the article Chasxty and Charities, and other information 
will be found in Unemployhent and Vagrancy. This article 
will deal only with the practice in the United Kingdom as 
adopted after the reform of the poor law in 1834 and amended 
by subsequent acts. This reform was brought about mainly 
by the rapid increase of the poor rate at the beginning of the 
19th century, showing that a change was necessary cither 
in the poor law as it then existed or in the mode of its adminis- 
tration. 

A commission was appointed in 1832 " to make diligent and 
full inquiry into the practical operation of the laws for the 
relief of the poor in England and Wales, and into the manner in 
which those laws were administered, and to report their opinion 
as to what beneficial, alterations could be made." The com- 
missioners reported " fully on the great abuse of the legislative 
provision for the poor as directed to be employed by the statute 
of Elizabeth," finding " that the great source of abuse was the 
outdoor relief afforded to the able-bodied on their own account 
or on that of their families, given cither in kind or in money." 
They also reported that " great maladministration existed in 
the workhouses." To rem^y the evils they proposed con- 
siderable alterations in the law, and the principal portion of 
their suggestions was embodied in the Poor Law Amendment 
Act 1834. By virtue of this act three commissioners were 
appointed (originally for five years, but subsequently con- 
tinued from time to time), styled " the poor law commissioners 
for En^nd and Wales," sitting as a board, and appointing 
assistant commissioners and other officers. The administration 
of relief according to the existing laws was subject to their 
direction and control, and to their orders and regulations for 
the government of workhouses and the guidance and control 
of guardians and vestries and the keeping and allowing of 
accounU and contracts, without interfering with ordinary relief 
in individual cases. The whole of England and Wales was 
divMed into twenty-one districts, to each of which an assistant 
commissioner was appointed. The oonmiissioners under their 
powers formed poor law unions by uniting parishes for general 
administration, and bttUding workhouses, guardians elected by 
the ratepayers (or ex officio) having the general government 
and administration of relief. The expense was apportioned to 
each parish on settled principles and rules, with power, however, 
to treat the united parishes as one for certain purposes. Out- 
door relief might be given, on the order of two justices, to poor 
persons whoUy unable to work from old age or infirmity. 

The obstacles which the act had to contend with in London 


chiefly arose from the confusion and perplexity of jurisdiction 
which existed in the one hundred and seventy parishes com- 
prised within the city of London and the metropolitan dbirict, 
some of these containing governing bodies of their own; in some 
the parbh business was professedly managed by open vestries, 
in others by select vestries, and in addition to these there were 
elective vestries, while the majority of the large parishes were 
managed under local acts by boards of directors, governors 
and trustees. These governing bodies executed a great variety 
of functions besides regulating the management of the poor. 
The power, patronage and the indirect advantages which txose 
from the administration of the local funds were so great that 
much opposition took place when it was proposed to interfere 
by constituting a board to be annually chosen and freely elected 
by the ratepayers, on which the duty oi regulating the expen- 
diture for the relief of the poor was to depend. The general 
management of the poor was, however, on a somewhat better 
footing in London than in the coimtry. 

The act of 1834 was rather to restore the scope and intention 
of the statute of Elizabeth by placing its administration in the 
hands of responsible persons chosen by the ratepayers, and 
themselves controlled by the orders of a central body, than to 
create a new system of poor laws. The agents and instruments 
by which the administration of relief is afforded are the fol- 
lowing. The description applies to the year 19 10, but, as 
noticed below, the question of further reform was already to 
the fore, and the precise direction in which changes should go 
was a highly controversial matter. 

The guardians of the poor regulate the cases and description 
of relief within the union; a certain number of guardians are 
elected from time to time by the ratepayers. The 
number was formerly determined by the central ** 

board,^ by whom full directions as to the mode of election 
were given. In addition to those elected there were ex officio 
guardians, principally local magistrates. However, both these 
and nominated guardians were done away with by the Local 
Government Act 1894. The plural vote (whidi gave to the 
votes of the larger ratepayers a higher value) was aho abolished; 
and in place of the old property qualification for the office of 
guardian a ratepaying or residential qualification was sub- 
stituted. In urban d^tricts the act in other respects l^t the 
board of guardians untouched, but in rural districts it inaugu- 
rated a policy of consolidating local authorities. In the rural 
districts the district council is practically amalgamated with the 
guardians, for, though each body retains a separate corporate 
existence, the district councillors are the guardians, and guar- 
dians as such are no longer elected. These electoral changes, 
extremely democratic in their character, brought about no 
marked general change in poor law administration. Here and 
there abrupt changes of policy were made, but the difficulty of 
bringing general prindples to bear on the administration of the 
law remained much as before. 

The guardians hold their meetings frequently, according to the 
exigencies of the union. Individual cases are brought to their 
notice—most cases of resident poor by the relieving officer of 
the union; the case of casual paupers by him or by the work- 
house officers by whom they were admitted in the first instai.cc. 
The resident poor frequently appear in person before the guar- 
dians. The mode of voting which the guardians follow in respect 
to any matter they differ on is minutdy regulated, and all their 
proceedings, as well as those of their officers, are entered in pre- 
scribed books and forms. They have a derk, generally a local 
sob'dtor of experience, who has a variety of responsible duties 
in advising, conducting correspondence and keeping books of 

* After an intermediate transfer in 18^7 of the powers of the 
poor law commtssionen, and the conttttution of a f mh board 
styled " commissioners for administering the laws for relief of the 
poor in England," it was found expedient to concentrate in one 
department of the government the supcrvidon of the laws relating 
to the public health, the relief of the poor and local government ; 
and this concentration was in 1871 earned out by the establishment 
(by Act of Parliament 34 & 35 Vict.c. 70) of tnelocal government 
board. 


POOR LAW 


75 


accounts, mnd canyiag out the directions of the guardians, 
who in their turn are subject to the general or special regulations 
of the local government board. 

It may be mentioned here that the chief difficulty in under- 
standing the English poor law arises from the fact that there are 
three authorities, each of them able to alter its administratiotn 
fundamentally. The poor law is not only the creation of 
sututes passed by parliament; it is also controlled by the 
subordinate jurisdiction of the local government board, which in 
virtue of various acts has the power to issue orders. In a 
single year the local government board may issue nearly two 
thousand orders, over a thousand of them having special reference 
to the poor law. It is not possible therefore even to summarize 
the mass of subordinate le^slation. A third source of authority 
a the local board of guardians, which, within the discretion 
allowed to it by statutes and orders, can so variously administer 
the lav that it is difficult to understand how procedure so 
fundamentally diCferent can be based on one and the same law. 
This elasticity, admirable or mischievous, as we choose to 
regard it, is the most characteristic feature of the English poor 
bw system. The various officers of the union, from the medical 
officers to workhouse porters, including masters and matrons 
of workhouses, are generally appointed by the guardians, and 
the areas, duties and sakrics of all the paid officers may be 
prescribed by the local government board. 

Among, a multitude of miscellaneous duties and powers of 
the guardians, apart from the ordinary duties of ordering or 
refusing relief in individual cases and superintending the officers 
of the unioa, the duties devolve on them of considering the 
adjustment of contributions to the common fund whether 
of divided or added parishes, and matters affecting other unions, 
the building of workhouses and raising of money for that and 
other purposes, the taking of land on lease, the hiring of buildings, 
special provisions as to superannuation and allowances to officers, 
the maintenance and orders as to lunatics apart from individual 
instances, and the consideration of questions of settlement 
and removaL A paramount obligation rests on the guardians 
to attend to the actual visitation of workhouses, schools and 
other institutions and places in which the poor are interested, 
and to call attention to and report on any irregularity or neglect 
of duty. Guardians may charge the rates with the expenses 
of attending conferences for the discussion of matters con- 
nected with their duties (Poor Law Conferences Act 1883). In 
rtiatson to expenditure the guardians have very considerable 
but restricted powers. Their accounts are audited by district 
auditors appointed by the local government board. 

Overseers of the' poor are still appointed under the statute 
of Elizabeth, and the guardians cannot interfere with the ap- 
OiMsiws- PointmtDi. As, however, the relief of the poor is 
administered by boards of,4uardians, the principal 
duties o£ overseers relate to the making and collection of rates 
and payments. The guardians, by order of the local govern- 
ment board, may appoint assistant overseers and collectors. 

The conditions of persons entitled to relief are indicated by 
the terms of the statute of Elizabeth. If they fall within the 

^ definitions there given they have right to relief. 

■ifftahlf"' ^ fundamental principle with respect to legal relief 
of the poor is that the condition of the pauper 
ooght to be, on the whole, less eligible than that of the mdependent 
labourer. The pauper has no just ground for complaint, 
if. while his physical wants are adequately provided for, 
his condition is less eligible than that of the poorest class of 
thoK who contribute to his support. If a state of destitution 
czists, the faflure of third persons to perform their duty, as a 
htabajad, or relative mentioned in the statute of Elizabeth, 
selecting those he is under a legal obligation to support, is no 
answer to the application. The relief should be afforded, and is 
often a condition precedent to the right of parish officers to take 
proceedings against the relatives or to apply to other poor 
omoos. The duty to give immediate relief must, however, 
vary with the circumstanced. The case of wanderers under 
dmunstAnces not admitting of delay may be different from 


that of persons resident on the spot where inquiry as to all the 
cimmistances is practicable. The statute of Elizabeth con- 
tempUted that the relief was to be afforded to the poor resi- 
dent in the parish, but it is contrary to the spirit of the law that 
any person shall be permitted to perish from starvation or want 
of medical assistance. Whoever is by sudden emergency or 
urgent distress deprived of the ordinary means of subsistence 
has a right to apply for immediate relief where he may 
happen to be. Persons comprehended within this class are 
called " casual poor," although the term " casuals " is generally 
used in reference to vagrants who take refuge for a short time 
in the "casual wards" of workhouses, Various tests are 
applied to ascertain whether applicants are really destitute. 
Labour tests are applied to the able-bodied, and workhouse 
tests are applied to those to whom entering a workhouse is 
made a condition of relief. 

As to the nature and kina of relief given under the poor laws ' 
the great distinction restored rather than introduced by the 
amendment of the poor law system in 1834 yfaiNatunMad 
giving all relief to able-bodied persons of their '^Jb'*' 
families in well-regulated workhouses (that is to**'*''* 
say, places where they may be set to work according to* the 
spirit and intention of the statute of Elizabeth), and confining 
outdoor relief to the impotent— that is, all except the able- 
bodied and their families. Although workhouses formed a 
conspicuous feature in legislation for the poor from an early 
period, the erection of those buildings for imiohs throughout 
the country where not already provided followed immediately 
on the amendment of the system in 1834. Since that time there 
has been a constant struggle between the pauper dass and 
the administrators of the law, the former naturally wishing 
to be relieved at their own homes, and in many instances 
choosing rather to go without aid than to remove within 
the walls of the workhouse. Relief given in a workhouse is 
termed " in (or indoor) maintenance " relief, and when given 
at the homes of the paupers is termed " outdoor relief." 

Admission to a workhouse may be by a written order of the 
board of guardians, or by the master or matron (or in their absence 
by the porter) without an order in any case of sudden 
or urgent necessity, or provisionally .by a relieving]^ 
officer, or overseer or churchwarden. Any person who ^ 
b broueht by a policeman as having been found wandering in a state 
of destitution may be admitted. It is to be observed generally, 
with respect to aU persons who may apply for admission into the 
workhouse under arcumstances of uracnt necessity, that' their 
destitution, coupled with the fact of Dcin|[ within the union or 
parish, entitles them to relief, altogether independently of their 
settlement, if they have one, which is a matter for subsequent 
inquiry. 

The regulations for the government of workhouses fall under 
two dMses: (i) those which are nec e ssa r y for the maintenance of 
good order in any buildinff in which considerable numbers of 
persons of both sexes and of different ajscs reside; (2) those which 
are necessary in order that these establishments may not be alms- 
houses, but workhouses in the proper meaning of the term. 

The inmates of a workhouse axf necessarily sepai^tcd into certain 
classes. In no well-managed institution of this sort, in any country, 
are males and females, the old and the young, the healthy and the 
sick, indiscriminately mixed together. Guardians are required to 
divide the paupers into certain classes, and to subdivide any one 
or mote of these classes in any manner which may be advisable, 
and which the internal arrangements of the workhouse admit; and 
the guardians are,yequired from time to time, after consulting the 
medical officer, to make necessary arrangements with regard to per- 
sons labouring under any disease of body or mind, and, so far as cir- 
cumstances permit, to subdivide any of the enumerated classes with 
reference to the moral character or behaviour or the previous habits 
of the inmates, or to such other grounds as may seem expedient.. 

The separation of married couples was long a vexed question, the 
evils on the one hand ariang from the former unrestricted pru^tice 
being very great, while on the other hand the separation of old 
couples was felt as a great hardship, and by express statutory pro- 
vision in 1847 husband and wife, both being above the age of sixty, 
received into a workhouse cannot be compelled to live separate and 
apart from each other (10 & 1 1 Vict. c. 109, { 23). This exemption- 
was carried somewhat further by contemporaneous orden of the 
board, under which guardians were not compelled to separate mfirni 
couples, provided jthey had a sleepine apartment separate from that 
of other paupers; and in 1876 guardians were empowered, aX the}*" 
discretion, to permit husband and wife where either of them »s 


76 


POOR LAW 


infirm, sick or.dlaabled by any injury, or above sixty yeart of age 
to live together, but every such case must be reported to the tool 
government board (39 & io Vict. c. 61, I lo). 

The daflsification of children apart from adult paupen is per- 
emptory. Even in thoee unions ndiere what is called a w<M-khou9e 
school IS maintained the children are kept in detached parts of 
the building, and do not associate with the adult paupers. The 
separate schod is built on aaeparate and often distant site. Some- 
times the separate school is one building, sometimes detached 
" blocks," and sometimes a group of cottage homes. There still 
remain ten district schools. In some places an experiment which 
is called the scattered homes system has been adopted. This 
consists in lodging-homes for the children placed in different parts 
of the town, irom which the children attend the local public ele- 
mentary schools. In the rural districts and in leas populous unions 
the diildren generally attend the local public elementary school. 
To these expedients boarding-out must be added. The above 
refers of course only to those children who as inmates are under the 
chaige of the guardians. Outdoor paupers are responsible for 
the education of their children, but guardians cannot legally continue 
outdoor relief if the children are not sent regulariy to school. 

The tendency too has been to improve administrative methods 
with reference to children. 

Two important orders on the subject of the boarding-out of poor- 
law children were issued in 1889. By the Boarding <m Children in 
Unions Order, orphan and deserted children can be boarded out 
with suitable foster-parents in the union by all boards of guardians 
except those in the metropolis. This can be done either through 
a volunury committee or directly. By the Boarding Out Order, 
orphan and deserted children may be boarded out by all boards of 
guardians without the limits of their own unions, but in all cases 
this must be done through the offices of [>ropcriy constituted local 
boaiding-out committees. The sum payable to the foster-parents 
is not to exceed 4s. per week for each child. The local committee 
reouire to be approved by the Local Government Board. 

The question of the -education of poor law children was much 
discussed in later years. During the early years of the central 
authority, it was the object of the commissioners to induce boards 
of guardians to unite in districts for educational purposes. This 
was advocated on grounds of efficiency and economy. It was very 
unpopular with the local authorities, and the number of such 
districts has never exceeded a dozen. In London, where this 
>ifXregation was' certainly less desirable than in rural unions, several 
districts were formed and lane district schools were built. Adverse 
criticism, by Mn Nassau Senior in 1874, and by a department 
committee appointed twenty years later, was directed against these 
large, or, as they are invidiously called, barrack schools. The 
justice m this ccmdemnation has been disputed, but it seems 
probable that some of these schools had grown too large. Many 
of these have been dissolved by order 01 the local government 
board on the application of the unions toncemed. This con- 
demnation of some schools has in certain quarters been extended 
to all schools, and is construed by others as an unqualified 
recommendation of boarding out, a method of bringing up poor law 
children obviously requiring even more careful supervision than is 
needed in the publicity of a school. 

Other acts to be noted are the Poor Law Act 1880 and the Custody 
of Children Act 1891, { 3. The evil of allowing children who 
have been reputably brought up in poor law schools to relapse 
into vicious habits on return to the custody of unworthy parents 
has been the subject of frequent remark. By the act of 1889, 
guardians are authorized to detain children wno are under their 
charge, as having been deserted by their parents, up to the age of 
16 if boys and of 18 if girls. By the Poor Law Act 1899 the 
principle is extended to orphans and the children of bad parents 
chargeable to the rates. The act of 1891 goes further, and enacts 
that where a parent has (a) abandoned or deserted his child, or 
(6) allowed his child to be brought up by another person at that 
person's expense, or by the guardians of a poor law union for such 
a length of time and m such circumstances as to satisfy the court 
that the parent was unmindful of his parental duties, the court 
shall not make an order for the delivery of the child to the parent 
unless the parent has satisfied the court that, having regard to the 
welfare of the child, he is a fit person to have the custody of the 
child. 

Casual and poor wayfarere admitted by the master and matron 
are kept in a separate ward and dieted and set to work in such 
manner as the guardians by resolution direct; and whenever any 
vagrants or mendicants are reeved into a workhouse they are 
usually (as a precaution necessary for preventing the introduaion 
of infectious or contagious diseases) kept entirely scpaJrate from the 
other inmates, unless their stay exceeds a single night. 

For the guidance of guardians an important circular was issued 
from the local government board on the 15th of March 1886. It 
stated that while " the board have no doubt that the powers which 
the guardians possess are fully sufficient to enable them to deal 
with ordinary pauperism, and to meet the demand for relief from 
the classes who usually seek it," yet. " these provisions do not in 
all cases meet the emeraency. What is required to relieve artisans 
and others who have hitherto avoided poor law assisunce, and who 


are temporarily deprived of employment, is— (i) Work which will 
not involve the stigma of pauperism; (2) work which all can per- 
form, whatever may have bom their previous oocupatioas; C3) 
w<M^k which docs not compete with that of other labourera at 
present m employment; and lastlv, work which is not likely 
to interfere with the resumption of regular empk>yroent in their 
own trades by those who seek it." 

The circular went on to recommend that guardians should confer 
with the local authorities, "and endeavour to arrange with the 
latter for the execution of works on which unskilled labour noay 
be immediately employed." The conditions of such work were 
f i) the men to be employed must be recommended by the guardians : 
(3) the wages must be less than the wages ordinarily paid for eudi 
work. 

The circular was widely distributed. Many boards that were 
inclined in that direction regarded it as an encouragement to open 
or to promote the c^tening of relief works. Othera, again, looked 
closely at the conditions, and declared roundly that it was impcw- 
sible to fulfil them. A poor law authority, they said, cannot give 
relief which will not subject the recipients to the legal (if any) and 
economic disabilities attaching to the receipt of poor law relief. 
Work which all can perform can only be found in the shape of 
task-work under adequate supervision. If the work is of a useful 
and necessary character, it must compete with the labour ol others 
bclonginj^ to the trades affected. If tne relief works are opened by 
authorities other than the poor taw guardians, the conditions that 
the men were only to be employedf when recommended by the 
guardians, and then paid less than the current rate of wages, were 
calculated, it was urged, to secure bad work, discontent, and all 
the " stigma of pauperism." The ambiguity of the circular indeed 
was such, that both action and inaction seem amply justified by it. 

In the administration of medical relief to the sick, the objects 
kept in ^ew are: (i) to provide medical aid for persons who are 
really destitute, and (2) to prevent medical relief from 
generating or encouraging pauperism, and with this 
view to withdraw from tne labouring classes, as well 
as from the administraton of relief and the medical officera. all 
motives for applying for or administering medical relief, unless 
where the drcumstanoes render it absolutely necessary. 

Unions are formed into medical districts limited in area and 
population, to which a paid medical officer u appcuntcd, who is 
furnished with a list of all such aged and infirm persons and persons 
permanently sick or disabled as are actually receiving relief and 
residing within the medical officer's district. Every person named 
in the list receives a ticket, and on exhibiting it to the medical 
officer is entitled to advice, attendance and medicine as bis case 
may require. Medical outdoor relief in connexion with dispen> 
saries is regulated in asylum districts of the metropolis by the 
Metropolitan Poor Act 1867 (30 A 31 Vict, c 6). In connexioa 
with medical relief must be noted the Medical Relief Disqualifica- 
tion Removal Act 188^. This act relieved votera from disquali- 
fication which would otnerwiee attach in consecjuenoe of the receipt 
by them or their families of medical or surgical assistance, or of 
medidne, at the expense of the poor rate. This does not apply 
to guardian elections, and it does not indude persons who, in 
addition to medical relief, receive nourishment or other relief from 
the poor rate. The provisions which require the removal of the 
names of paupera from the electoral roll are, it b understood, very 
perfunctorily carried out. The Outdoor Relief Friendly Societies 
Act 1894 authorized guardians, in calculatine the proper aDowance 
to be made, to disregard an income derived m>m a friendly society, 
and to give relief as if the applicant in receipt of sudi an allowance 
was wholly destitute. This act is a curious illustntion of the 
English poor law system. In earlier years, notably in what is 
known as Paget's letter (32nd Rep. Poor Law Board, p. 108), the 
central board, had, in answer to inquiry, pointed out that such 
preferential treatment given to men receiving benefit, insufficient 
to maintain them, from a friendly society, could not in equity 
be withheld from persons in receipt of an adequate benefit, or from 
those whose savings took the f6rra oS a deposit in a bank, m a share 
in a co-operative sodcty, or of cottage property; and further, that 
an' engagement on the part of guarduuis to supplement insufficient 
allowance from a friendly society was a bounty on inadequate and 
insolvent friendly sodety finance. The central board went so 
far as to say that relief given in such disregard of the pauper's 
income was illc^. They had, however, issued no peremptory 
order on the subject, nor had guardians been surcharged for neglect 
of the rule. The local authorities followed thdr own discretion, 
and a ynry general practice was to reckon friendly sodety allowances 
at half tncir value. The above act set aside the central board's 
earlier interpretation of the kw. It made, however, no attempt 
to enforce its procedure on the numerous boards of guardians wno 
regard the course thereby authorized as contrary to public policy. 

A lunatic asylum is required to be provided by a county or 
borough for the reception of pauper lunatics, with a committee of 
visiton who, among other duties, fix a weekly sum to - ^- 
be charged for the lodging, maintenance, medicine and 
clothing of each pauper lunatic confined in such asylum. Several 
acts were passed. The Lunacy Act 1800 consolioatcd the acts 
affecting lunatics. 1 1 was further amended by the Lunacy Act 1 89 1 . 


POOR LAW 


77 


An exptanatory letter iMued by the local government board will 
be found in the aoth Annual Report, p. 2X. The tendcnq^ of this and 
of all recent kgulation for an afflkteid cum has been to increase the 
care and the s^eguards for their proper treatment. 

A settlement is the right acquired in any one of the modes pointed 
out by the poor laws to become a recipient of the benefit of those 
laws in that parah or place where the right has been last acquired. 

No relief is given from the poor rates of a parish to anv person 
who does not reside within tne union, except where sucn person 
Th»Qmm being casually within a parish becomes destitute by 
ata««f sadden distress, or where such person is entitled to 

"SHtHf j«oeive relief from anv parish where non-resident 
■Mi*'* under justice's order (applicable to penons under 
of4er» of removal and to non-resident lunatics), and except to 
widow* and legitimate children where the widow was resident with 
her husband at the time of his death out of the union in which she 
was not settled, or where a child under nxtccn is maintained in a 
workhouse or establishment for the education of pauper children 
not situate in the union, and in some other exceptional cases. 

Immediately before the passing of the Poor Law Amendment 
Act i8j^ settlements were acquired by ^irth, hiring and service, 
apprenticeship, renting a tenement, estate, oflfice or payment of 
fatesL. In addition to these an acknowledgment (by certincatc), by 
relief or acts of acquiescence) has practically the effect of a scttl^ 
nient, for. if unexplained, such an acknowledgment stops the parish 
from disputing a settlement in the parish acknowledging. The 
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 abolished settlement by hiring 
and oervice (or by residence under it) and by serving an office, and 
by apprenticeship in the sea service. Moreover the guardians of 
a umon ro^ht agree (subject to the approval of the commissioners) 
that all the parishes forming it should for the purposes of settle- 
ment be considered as one parish. 

It is to be observed that, for the purposes of relief, settlement 
and removal and burial, the workhouse of any parish is considered 
as situated in the parish to which each poor person is chargeable. 

There may be a settlement by parentage, for legitimate children 
take the settlement of their father, or if he has no settlement they 
are entitled to the settlement of their mother; and it is only when 
both these sources fail discovery that their riaht of settlement by 
birth aocmes; for until the settlement of the father or mother has 
been aaoertained the settlement of a legitimate child, like that of a 
bastard, is in the place where the birth took place. 

A settlement attaches to those persons who have a settlement of 
tome kind. Foragners bom out of the country^ and not acquiring 
any in one of the modes pointed out must be provided for, if requiring 
reCef, where they happen to be. 

As the burden of maintaining the pocM* b thrown on the parish 
of aettlcment, when the necessity for immediate relief arises in 
another parish, the important question arises whether the pauper 
can be removed; for, although the parish where the pauper happens 
to be most afford immediate relief without waiting for removal, 
the parish of settlement cannot in general be chauged with the 
cost unless the pauper b capable of being removed. The question 
of removability b distinct from settlement. A pauper often 
aoomres a status or irremovability without gaining a settlement. 

breoovatnlity b a principle of great public importance quite 
irrespective of the inddent of cost as between one jwnsh or another. 
Before the introduction of a status of irremovabihty reinoval might 
take plaoe (subject to powers of suspension in case of skkness and 
otherwise) after any wterval durii^ whkh no legal settlement 
was obcamed; mere length of residence without concurrent dr- 
cnmstances involving the acquisition of a settlement on obtaining 
reCef save 00 zif^t to a person to remain in the parish where he 

In 1846 it was enacted that no person should be removed nor 
any warrant granted for the removal of any person from any parish 
ia which such persons had resided for five years (9 ft 10 Vict, c 66). 
In 1861 three years was submitted for five (34 ft a$ Vict, c 55) ; 
and oaly four years later one year was substituted for three (a8 ft 
29 Vict. c. 79). Apart from these reductions of time in giving 
the status of irremovability, actual removals to the parish <rf settle- 
nrnt were nazrowed by proviuons ipving to residence in any 
me effect as a residence ii 


part of a union the same c 


i in any parish of that 


C24 ft 35 Vict. c. ss). On the other hand the time during 

parish ruief b received, or during which the person b m any 

poorbouse or hospital or in a prison, b exduded from the compuu- 
tioa of time (9 ft 10 Vict, c 66). 

The removability as well as the settlement of the family, t^. 
of the wife and uoemandpated children, are practically subject to 
one and the same general rule. Wherever any person has a wife 
or children having another settlement, they are removable where 
he is removable, and are not removable from any parish or pbce 
from which he b not removable (11 ft 12 Vict, c 211). 

It is to be borne in mind that no person exempted from liability 
to be reflBOfwed acquires, by reason of such exemption, any settle- 
ncnt in any parish; bat a residence for three years gives a qualified 
settlement (:» ft 40 Vict. c. 61). ,., . . . . 

The cost ofrelwf of paupers rendered ^removable is borne by the 
common fond of the union (i I ft 1 3 Vict. c. 1 10, 1 ^) as union expenses 
(1 6), aad any qucstioa arising in the union with reference to the 


charging relief may be referred to and decided by the local govern- 
ment board (} 4). 

The poor rate is the fund from which the cost of relief b prind- 
pally derived. The statute of Elizabeth (extended in some respects 
as to places by 13 ft 14 Charkss II. c. 12) embraced o^arMf^m. 
two classes of persons subject to taxation — occupien "■•^'cms. 
of real property and inhabitants in respect of personal property, 
although tne rateability under the latter head was reluctantly 
conceded by the courts of law, and. was in practice only' partially 
acted upon. 

As regards occu|Men of land and houses, the correct prindples as 
to the persons liable to be rated were, after many erroneous views 
and dedsions, established by the House of Lords in 1863 in the 
case of the Mersey docks. The only occupier exempt from the 
operation of the act of Elizabeth b the Crown, on the general prin- 
ciple that such lubilities are not imposed on the soverdgn unless 
expressly mentioned, and that principle applies to the direct and 
immedbte senrants of the Crown, whose occupation b the occupa- 
tion of the Crown itself. If there b a personal private beneficbl 
occupation, so that the occupation is by the subject, that occupa- 
tion b rateable. Thus for apartments in a royal palace, ^[ratui- 
tously assijpied to a subject, who occupies them by permission of 
the sovereign but for the subject's benefit, the latter b rateable: 
on the other hand^ where a lease of private property b uken in 
the name of a subiect, but the occupation b by the sovereign or 
hb subjects on hb Sehalf , no rate can be imposed. 

So far the ground of exemption b perfectly intdligible, but it 
has been carried a sood deal further, and applied to many cases in 
which it can scarcely be said naturally, but only theoretically, that 
the sovereign or the servants of the sovereign are in occupation. 
A tong series of cases have established that when property b occu- 
pied for the purposes of the government of the country, including 
under that head the police, and the administratu>n of justice, no 
one b rateable'in respect of such occupation. And thb applies not 
only to property occufned for such purposes by the servants of the 
great departments of state and the post office, the Horse Guards, and 
the Admiralty, in all which cases the occupiers might strictly be 
called the servants of the Crown, but to county buildings occupied 
for the assizes and for the judge's lodgings, to stations for the local 
constabulary, to jails and to county courts where undertaking 
are carried out by or for the government and the government is in 
occupation; the same principles of exemption have been applied 
to jpropertv held by the office of works. 

when tne propoty b not de facto occupied by the Crown or for 
the Crown, It IS rateable; and, although formerly the uses of property 
for public purposes, even where the Crown was not constructively 
interested m the way above pointed out, was treated as a ground 
for exemption, it b now settled that trustees who are in law the 
tenants and occufMere of valuable property in trust for pubtic and 
even charitable purposes, such as hospitals or lunatic asylums, are 
in principle rateable notwithstanding that the buildings are actually 
occupied by paupere who are nek or insane, and that the notion 
that persons m the legal occupatkm of valuable property are not 
rateable if they Occupy in a merdy fiduciary character cannot be 
sustained. 

With respect to the particular person to be retell where there b 
a rateable occupation, it b to be observed that the tenant, as dis- 
tinguished from the landlord, is the person to be rated under the 
statute of Elizabeth; but occujMen of tenements let for short terms 
may deduct the poor rate paid by them from their rents, or the 
vestries may order such ownen to oe rated instead of the occupien; 
such payments or deductions do not affect qualification and fran- 
chises depending on ratii^ (Poor Rate Assessment and Collection 
Act 1869 and Amendment Act 1882). 

To be rated the occupation must be such as to be of value, and 


in this sense the word benefidal occupation has been used in many 
cases. But it b not necessary that tne occupation should be bene- 
fidal to the occupier; for, if that were necessary, trustees occupying 


for various purposes, havinr no beneficbl occupation, would not be 
liable, and their general liability has been established as indicated 
in the examples just given. 

As to the mode and amount of rating it b no exaggeration to 
say that the application of a landlord-and-tenant valuation in the 
terms already given in the Parochial Assessment Act, with the 
deductions there mentioned, has given rise to litigation on whkh 
millions of pounds have been spent with respect to the rating oS 
railways alone, although the established prindple applied to them, 
after much constderation, b to caVnibte the value of the land as 
increased by the line. 

The Parochbl Assessment Act referred to (6 ft 7 Will. IV. c 96). 
comprising various provinons as to the mode of aswfswng the rate 
so far as it authorised the making of a valuation, was repealed in 
1869. in rdation to the metropolis, and other provinons made for 
securing uniformity of the a sse s sment of rateable p r ope rt y there 
(32 & 33 Vict, c 67). 

The mode in which a rate b made and recovered may be condsdy 
stated thus. The guarduns appoint an assessment committee^ <n 
their body for the investigation and supervision of valuations, which 
are made out in the first instance by the overseen according to spedfic 
regulations and in a form showing among other headings the sroat 


78 


POOR LAW 


estimated rental of all property and the names of occupiers and 
owners, and the rateable value after the deduaions specibed in the 
Assessment Act already mentioned, and as prescribed oy the central 
board. This valuation list, made and signed by the overseers, is 
published, and all persons assessed or liable to be assessed, and other 
mterested parties, may, including the officers of other parishes, 
inspect ana take copies of and extracts from that list. A multitude 
of provisions exist in relation to the valuation and supplemental 
valuation lists: Objections on the ground of unfairness or incorrect- 
ness are dealt with by the committee, who hold meetings to hear 
and determine such objections. The valuation list, where approved 
by the committee, is delivered to the overseers, who procieed to 
make the rate in accordance with the valuation lists and in a 
prescribed form of rate book. The parish officers certify to the 
examination and comparison of the rate book with the assessments, 
and obuin the consent of justices as reauired by the statute of 
Elizabeth. This consent or allowance oi the rate is merely a 
ministerial act, and if the rate is good on the face of it the justices 
cannot inquire into its validity. 

The rate is then published and open to inspection. Appeals may 
be made to special or quarter sessions against the rate, subiect to the 
restriction that, if the objection were such that it might have been 
dealt with on the valuation lists, no appeal to sessions is permitted 
unless the valuation list has been duly objected to and the objector 
had failed to obuin such relief in the matter as he deemed to be just. 

In the metropolis a common basis of value for the purposes of 
government ana local taxation is provided, indudihg the promotion 
of uniformity in the assessment of rateable property. Provision is 
made for the appointment of an assessment committee by guardians 
or vestries, and for the preparation of valuation Usts, and the 
deposit and distribution ca valuation lists, and for the periodical 
revision of valuation lists. 

Many endeavours have been made to readjust the buiden of 
local expenditure. The system of making grants from the national 
taxes in aid of local rates has been extended. The principle of the 
metropolitan common poor fund, a device for giving metropolitan 
grants assessed on the whole of London in aid of the London local 
poor law authorities, has been followed, mutatis mutandis, in the 
relations between the national and the local excheoucrs. At the 
time of the repeal of the corn laws. Sir Robert Peel expressed an 
opinion that this fiscal change necessiuted some readjustment 
ol local rates. In that year, 1846, a beginning of grants from the 
national exchequer in aid of local expenditure was made. The 
salaries of poor-law teachers, medical officers and auditors were 
provided from the larger area of taxation, and in 1867 the salaries 
of public vaccinators were added to the list. In 187^ a grant of 
4s. per head per w^k was made for each pauper lunatic paiMcd by 
the guardians to the care of a lunatic asylum. By tne Local 
Government Act 1888, supplemented by the Load Taxation 
(Customs and Excise) Act 1890, this pnndple was more widely 
extended. The various grants in aid were abolished, and in 
substitution the proceeds of certain specified taxes were set aside 
for local purposes. From this source, the gross amount cd which 
of course vanes, there are now distributed to local poor-law authori- 
ties some 4s. a week for lunatics in asylums, and allowances based 
on their average expenditure in previous years in salaries of officials 
and other specified charges. In London, in order not to conflict 
ixnth the operation of the common poor fund, which had already 
spread these charges over a wide area, the grant takes the form 
of a sum equivalent to about 4d. per diem for each indoor pauper. 
The number on which this calculation is based is not, however, to 
be the actual number, but the average of the last five years previous 
to the passing of the act. By this legislation something hke one- 
quarter of the total expenditure on poor law relief is obtained from 
national taxes as opposed to local rates. By the Agricultural 
Rates Act 1896 the occupier of agricultural land was excused 
one-half of certain rates, including the poor rate. The deficiency 
is supplied by a contribution from the national exchequer. 
Meanwhile, the q)ending authority continue to be elected by the 
local ratepayers. In this connexion two further anomalies doerve 
notice. By the Poor Rate Assessment and Collection Act 1869 
owners who compound to pay the rates in respect of tenement 
property are entitled to certain deductions by way of commission. 
Such payments by the owner are constructively payments by the 
occupier, who thereby is to be deemed duly- rated for any qualifi- 
cation or franchise. Under these arrangements a large number 
of electors do not contribute directly to the rate. A converse 
process is also going on, whereby the ownership of an important 
and increasing body of property is practically unrepresented. 
This is due to the great growth of property in the hands of railway 
companies, docks and limited liability companies generally. The 
railways alone arc said to pay considerably over 13% of the local 
taxation of the country, ana they have no local representation. 
There is, in fact, in local administration a divorce between repre- 
sentation and taxation to a greater extent than is generally supposed, 
and it is impossible not to connect the fact with the rapid growth of 
local expenditure and indebtedness. 

Royal Commission of jqos-iqoq. — ^The main points of the 
system of English poor rdicf, as still in force in 1910, are as 


outlined above. That it has been inadequate in dealing with 
the various problems of unemployment and pauperism, which the 
constantly changing conditions of the industrial worid necessarily 
evolve had however been long acknowledged Accordingly, 
in 1905 a royal commission was appointed to inquire into the 
woridng of the law relating to the relief of poor persons, and 
into the various means adopted outside of the poor laws for 
meeting distress arising from want of employment, particularly 
during the periods of severe industrial depression. Thfi commis- 
sion took voluminous evidence* and its report was issued in 
* The appendix volumes to the Report of the Royal Commiasioa 
number thirty-four. Their contents are as follows vol.'i. English 
Official Evidence, minutes of evidence mainly of the officers 01 the 
Local Government Board for England and Wales, vol. ii. Londoa 
Evidence, minutes of evidence mamly of London witnesses; vol. iii. 
Associations and Critics, minutes of evidence mainly ojf critics 
of the Poor Law and of witnesses representing Poor Law and 
Charitable Associations; voL iv Urban Centres, minutes of 
evidence containing the oral and written evidence of the British 
Medical Association and of witnesses from the following provincial 
urban centres — Liverpool and Manchester districts. West Yorkshire. 
Midland Towns; vol. v. Minutes of Evidence containing the oral 
and written evidence of witnesses from urban centres in the fdlowing 
districts — South Walesand North Eastern Counties; vol. vi. Minutes 
of Evidence relating to Scotland; vol. vii. Minutes of Evidence 
containing the oral and written evicfence of witnesses from various 
rural centres in the South Western, Westem and Eastern Counties, 
from the parish of Poplar Borough and from the National Con- 
ference of Friendly Societies; vol. viiL Minutes of Evidence con- 
taining the oral and written evidence of witnesses relating chiefly 
to the subject of " unemployment "; vol. ix. Evidence oifurthar 
witnesses on the subject 01 unemployment; vol. x. Minutes of 
Evidence relating to Ireland ; vol. xi. Miscellaneous Papers. Com- 
munications from Boards of Guardians and others. &c« 
vol. «xiL Reports, Memoranda and Tables prepared by certain dt 
the Commissioners; vol. xiii. Diocesan Reports on the Methods 
of administering charitable assistance and the extent and intensity 
of poverty in England and Wales; vol. xiv. Report on the Methods 
ana Results of the present system of administering indoor and 
outdoor poor law medical relief in certain unions in England and 
Wales, by Dr T. C. McVail; vol. xv. Report on the Admuustrati\-e 
Relation of Charity and the Poor Law, and the extent and the 
actual, and potential utility of Endowed and Voluntary Charities 
in England and Scotland, by A. C. Kay and H. V. Toynbee; vol. xvi. 
Reports on the Relation of Industrial and Sanitary Conditions 
to Pauperism, by Steel Maitland and Miss R. E. Squire: voi. xviL 
Rr—H'- ■— thr rSFect of Outdoor Relief on Wages and the Conditions 
of J:.ii];nii) mviu, bv ThoHias Jones and Miss Williams; voL zviiL 
Rtpurt on the (.onaition of the Children who are in receipt of the 
variuus^ foTnis of Poor Law Relief in certain Unions in London 
and in the Pruvinces, by Dr Ethel Williams and Miss Longman 
and Miits FhilEigis; vol. xix. Reports on the Effects of Employment 
or Ausiftance ^iven to the Unemployed since 1886 as a means of 
relieving dittn^i outside the Poor Law in London, and eenerally 
throLighQut Er^^land and Wales, and in Scotland and Ireland, by 
C>nl J3cksi:»n .okd Rev. J. C. Pringle; vol. xx. Report on Boy 
Lkbont in Umdctn and certain other typical towns, by Cyril Jackson, 
with a Memorandum from the General Post Office on the Omditions 
of Employment of Telegraph Messengere; voL xxi. Reports on the 
Effect of the Refusal of Out-Relief on the Applicants for such 
Relief, by Miss G. Hariock; vol. xxii. Report on the Overlapping 
of the work of the Voluntary General Hospitals with that of Poor 
Law Medical Relief in certain districu of London, by Miss M. B. 
Roberts; vol. xxiii. Report on the Condition of the Children who 
are in receipt of the various forms of Poor Law Relief in certain 
parishes in Scotland, by Dr C T. Parsons and Miss Longman and 
Miss Phillips; vol. xxiv. Report on a Comparison of the Physical 
Condition of " Ordinary " Paupers in certain Scottish Poorhouses 
with that of the Able-bodied Paupere in certain English Workhouses 
and Labour Yards, by Dr C. T. ParKms; volT xxv. Sutistical 
Memoranda and Tables relating to England and Wales, prepared 
by the Staff of the Commission and by Government Depanments 
and others, and Actuarial Reports; vol. xxvi. Documents rdating 
more especially to the administration of charities; vol. xxvii. 
Replies by Distress Committees in England and Wales to Questions 
circulated on the subiect of the Unemployed Workmen Act 1005; 
vol. xxviii. Reports of Viuts to Poor Law and Charitable Instituuons 
and to Meetings of Local Authorities in the United Kingdom; 
vol. xxix. Report on the Methods of Administerin|[ QiaritaUe 
Assistance and the extent and intensity of Poverty m Scotland, 
prepared by the Committee on Church interests appointed by'the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland ; vol. xxx. Documents 
relating especially to Scotland; voL xxxi. Statistical Memoranda 
and Tables relating to Ireland. &c.: vol. xxxii. Report on Visits 
paid by the Foreign Labour Colonies Committee of^the Commis- 
Mon to certain Institutions in Holland, Belgium, Germany and 
Siritserland; vol. xxxiii. Foreign and Coloniu Systems of Poor 


POOR LAW 


79 


1909. It ^consists of a majority report, signed by the chairman 
and IS other memben, and a minority report signed by 4 dis- 
sentient members. To this report and its appendices those 
who wish to obtain an exhaustive account of the working of 
the English poor law must necessarily have recouise. 

The " majority " report opens with a statistical survey of 
poor law prv^IesDS, gives an historical sketch of the poor laws 
down to 1834, and proceeds to deal in detail with 
the historical development and present, condition 
of the various branches of the poor law under their appro- 
priate headings: (a) the central authority; {b) the local 
authority; (c) the officers of the local authority; {d) areas of 
administration; («) indoor relief; (/) outdoor relief; (j) the aged; 
(A) the children; (s) the able-bodied under the poor law and 
(/) the causes of pauperism. Other portions of the report 
deal with medical relief, distress due to unemployment, and 
charities and the relief of distress. In reviewing these various 
subjects the commission lay bare the main defects of the 
present system, which they briefly siunmarize as follows: — 

L The inadequacy of existing poor law areas to meet the 
growing needs of administration. 

ii. "nieexo&sive size of many boards of guardians. 

m. The absence of any general interest in poor law work 
aiMl poor law elecrions, due in great part to the fact that poor 
hw stamis in no organic relation to the rest of local govern- 
ment. 

iv. Hie lack of intelHgent uniformity in the application 
of principles and in general administration. 

V. The want of proper investigation and discrimination 
in dealing with applicants. 

vi The tendency in many boards of guardians to give out- 
door rdief without fAzn or purpose. 

▼ii. The unsuitability of the general workhouse as a test 
or deterrent for the able-bodied; the aggregation in it of all 
classes without sufficient classification; and the absence of any 
system of friendly and restorative help. 

viiL The lack of co-operation between poor Uw and charity. 

ix. The tendency of candidates to make lavish promises 
of oat-relief and of guardians to favour their constituents in 
lis distribution. 

X. General failure to attract capable social workers and 
leading citizens. ' 

xL The genera! rise m expenditure, not always accompanied 
by an increase of efficiency in administration. 

xii. The want of sufficient control and continuity of policy 
on the part of the oentnd authority 

The commission stated that these defects have produced a 
want of confidence in the local administration of the poor law, 
and that they have been mainly the cause of the introduction 
of other forms of relief from public funds which are unaccom- 
panied by such conditions as are imperatively necessary as 
safeguards. 

The commianon proceed to formulate a scheme of reform, the 
mam features of which are summarized bdow: — 

PmbUc AsnsUmu. — ^The commiasicoerc state that the name 
" nxM- law " has gathered about it aMociations of harshness, and 
mm moce of hopidenocfls, which might seriously obstruct the 
xcfomis they recommend, and they suggest that the title " public 
aassstaace " better expresses the cj^tem of help outlined in thdr 
report. They propose the abolition of the existing boards of 
goanlians, the separation of their duties into two categories, and 
the calling into existence of two bodies for the discharse of the 
t«o sees of functions, viz. a local authority, known as the public 
asnstanoe authority, with an area conterminous with the area 
of the oounty or county borou|^, for central administration and 
coomil. and local committees in existing union areas for dealing 
with applications, investigating and supervising cases and under- 
taking such other duties as mayl)e delegated by the public assisunce 
antbority. They recommend that the public assistance authonty 
^.oold be a statutory committee of the County Council, with one-half 
of its memberi appdnted by the council from persons who are 
menabcrs of the council, and the other half of iu members appointed 
hy the council from outside their number, and to consist of perwns 
q ptrieoced in the local administration of public assisUnce or 

Reiaef, with a memorandum on the Relief of Famines in India; vol. 
Alphabetical Lbts of Oral and Non-oral Witnesses. 


other cognate work, women to be eligible for appointment in 
either case. 

Working in cooperation with the public assistance authorities 
are to be voluntary aid councils and committees QLhe former super- 
vising, the latter executive) for aiding persons m distress whose 
cases do not apiiear to be suitable for treatment by the public 
assistance committee. The commission epitomize what they 
consider to be the main principles of a reformed poor law. They 
are (i) that the treatment of the poor who apply for public assbtance 
should be adapted to the needs ot the individual, ana, if institutional, 
should be governed by classification; (3) that the public adminis- 
tration established for the assistance o( the poor should work in 
co-opemtion with the local and fnivate charities of the district: 
(3) that the system of public assistance thus established should 
include jnxxresses of help which would be preventive, curative, and 
restorative, and (4) that every effort should be made to foster the 
instincts of independence and self-maintenance amoxigst those 
assisted. They proceed to recommend : — 

Indoor or ^* InstitutiontU " Relief. — ^That general workhouses 
should be abolished. That indoor rdief should be given in s^iarate 
institutions appropriate to the following classes of apphcants, 
viz. (a) children, (») aged and infirm, (c) sick, (d) able-bodied men. 
(«) able-bodied women, (/) vagrants, and (g) feeble-minded and 
epileptics. Powers of removal to and detention in institutions 
snoutd be given, with proper safeguards, to the public assistance 
authonty. The treatment of inmates should be made as far as 
possible curative and restorative. 

Outdoor Relief or " Home Assistance" — ^This should be given only 
after thorough inquiry, except in cases of sudden and urgent 
necessity; it should be adequate to meet the needs of those to whom 
it is given; persons so assisted should be subject to supervision; 
that such supervision should indude in its purview the conditions, 
moral and sanitary, under which the redpient » living; that 
voluntary agendes should be utilized as far as possible for the 
personal care of individual cases, and that there should be one 
uniform order governing outdoor relief or home assistance. 

CA(^«n.— £ttective step9 should be taken to secure that the 
maintenance of children in the workhouse be no longer recognized 
as a legitimate way of dealing with them. Boanding-out might 
and should be greiativ extended. Power to adopt children <rf 
vidous parents moulcf be more frequently exer dsed and accom- 
panied t^ a strict dealing with the parent, and the public assistance 
authorities should retain supervision of adopted children up to the 
age of twenty-one. A local government board circular of June 
10 10 to boards of ^ardians embodied many of the recommenda- 
tions of the commission. Some recommendations, of course, the 
guardians are not empowered, under exif ting legislation, to carry out. 

The Aged. — ^As regards institutional relief, the aged should 
have accommodation and treatment apart from the able-bodied, 
and be housed on a separate site, and be further subdivided into 
classes as far as practicable with reference to theip physical condition 
and their moral character As regards outdoor relief, greater 
care should be taken to ensure adco uacy of rdief. 

Medical Relief or Assistance. — ^A general system of provident 
dispensaries should be established, of which existing voluntary 
outdoor medical organizations should be invited to form an integral 
part, and every inducement should be ofiwtA to the working classes 
below a certain wage to become, or continue to be, members of a 
provident dispensary. 

Unemployment.— ^Dm commission review the social and industrial 
developments since 1834, deal with the new problems, criticize the 
existing methods of reli^, and on their summing up of the new 
factors and dcvdopmcnts, arrive at the conclusions, {a) that there 
is an increasing aggregation of unskilled labour at the great ports 
and in certain populous districts; (6) that this aggregation of 
low-grade labour is so much in excess ^ the normal local wants as 
to promote and perpetuate under-employment, and (c) that this 
normal condition 01 under-employment, when ag^vated by periodk 
contraction of trade or by inevitable changes in methods of pro- 
duction, assumes such dimensions as to require special machinery 
and organization for its relief and treatment. The commission 
proceed to make the following recommendations: — 

Labour Exchanges. — ^A national system of labour exchanges 
should be established and worked by the board of trade for the 
general purpose of assisting the mobility of labour and of collecting 
accurate information as to unemployment (These were established 
by the Labour Exchanges Act 1009; see Unemployuent ) 

Education and Training cf the Yount for Industrial Life. — ^The 
education in the public elementary schools should be much less 
literary and more practical, and better calculated than at present 
to adapt the child to its future occupation. Boys should be kept 
at school until the age of fifteen; exemption below fifteen should be 
granted only for boys leaving to learn a skilled trade, and there 
should be school supervision tiu sixteen and replacing in school if not 
property employed 

Reguiaritation of Employment. — Government departments and 
local and public authorities should be enjoined to regularize their 
work as far as possible, and to endeavour, as far as possible, to 
undertake thdr irregular work when the general demand for labour 
is slack. 


8o 


POPAYAN 


VnemplcymaU Jmsmranu.—Thte wnhlwhmeat and promotion 
of unempioymeiit ioMirance. especially amoogit t iiwkt il ed and 
unofgaoiaed labour, t* o( paiainouAt impoctaace in averting 
distm* uitiag from unemployment, and t* of •ach national im- 
portaaoe aa to justify, under specuBed conditions oootributioas 
inrni public funds towards its furtherance. The commission 
further state that this insurance can best be promoted by utiliiinff 
the agency of existing trade organisations, or of organizations of 
a similar character. They are of opinion that no scheme of 
unemployment insurance, either foreign or British, which has been 
bitMight before them,, is so free from objections as to justify them 
in recommending it for genend adoption. 

Labour CcUmusj—Tht commission recommend their establish- 
ment and use. (For these see Vagkahct.) 

Four oat of the levoiteen nemben of the oonuniasion, being 
unable to agree with their ooUeaguea, iaaued a separate report, 
which is very nearly as voluminous as that of the 
majority Their itoonunendations were more drastic 
than those of the majority, and had for their aim 
not a reform of the poor law as it c^sU, but its entire break- 
up. The minority agree with the majority in recommending 
the abolition of workhouses, but instead of setting up new 
authorities, they consider that the duties of the guardians should 
be transferred to the county authorities, with an appropriate 
distribution among four existing committees of the county 
council. They recommend that the education committee 
become responsible for the entire care of children of school 
age. That the health committee should care for the sick and 
permanently incapacitated, infants under school age, and the 
aged requiring institutional care. The asylums committee 
should have charge of the mentally defective and the 
pension committee of the aged to whom pensions are awarded. 
The mmority consider there ^ould be some systematic co- 
ordination, within each local area, of all forms of public assis- 
tance and, if possible, of all sssittancy dispensed by voluntary 
agendes, and they recommend the appointment, by the county 
or county borou^ council, of one or more rcspon^ble officers, 
called "registrars of public assistance." Their duties would 
be to keep a register of all persons receiving any form of public 
assistance within their districts; they would assess the charge 
to be made on individuals liable to pay any part of the cost 
of the service rendered to them or their dependants, and re- 
cover the amount thus due. They would also have to consider 
the proposals of the various committees of the councU for the 
payment of out-relief, or, aa the minority prefer to term it, 
" home aliment." Other various duties are allotted to them 
m the report. 

The subject of unemploymettt was oonndered by the mmority 
and they made the following recommendations:— 

Ministry cf Labour. — The duty of organizing the national labour 
market should be placed upon a minister responsible to parliament 
The minist^^<^ labour should have six otstinct and separately 
organiaed divisions; viz. the national labour exchange-, the trade 
insuiano^ division; the maintenance and training division; the 
industrial regulation^ division^ the emigration and immigration 
division, and the statistical division. 

National Labour Exckante.'—'The function of the lutional labour 
exchange should be, not only, (a) to ascertain and report the surplus 
or shortage of labour of particular kinds, at particular places; and 
(6) to diminish the time and energy now nxnt in looking for work, 
and the consequent leaking between jobs; but also (e) so to dovetail 
casual and seasonal employments as to arrange for practical con- 
tinuity of work for those now chronically unemployed. 

Absorption of Surplus Labour. — ^To reduce the surplus of labour 
the minority recommend (a) that no child should be eml>loyed. in 
any occupation whatsoever, below the age of fifteen; no younc 
person under eighteen for more than thirty hours per week, and aU 
so employed should be required to attend some suitable public 
institution for not less than thirty hours per week for physical 
training and technical education; (b) the hours oi labour of railway, 
omnibus and tramway employees should be reduced to a maximum 
of sixty, if not of forty-eight in any one week; and (c) wage-earning 
mothers of young children should be withdrawn from the industrial 
world by giving them sufficient public assistance for the support of 
their famines. 

RtfulariMotton of the National Demand for lo&oiir.— In order to 
meet the periodically recurrent general depressions of trade the 
government should Ukc advantage of there being at these periods 
as much unemployment of capital as there b unemployment of 
labour; that it should definitely undertake, as far as practicable. 


the regolafiaatioo of the national demand for labour, and that it 
shoukl, for this purpose, and to the extent of at least £4,000,000 a 
year, arrai^ a portion of the ordinary work required by each 
department on a ten years* programme; £40.ooo/>oo worth of work 
for the decade being then put m hand, not by equal annual instal- 
ments, but exclusively in the lean years of the trade cycle, being 
paid for out of knns for short terms raised as they are requir^ 
and being executed with the best available labour, at standard 
rates, engaged ia the ordinary way. That in this ten years' 
programme there should be induded works of a£Forestatbn, coast 
protection and land reclamation; to be carried out by the board 
of agriculture exclusively in the lean years of the traae cycle; by 
the most suitable labour obtainable, taken on in the ordinary way 
at the rates kxally current for the work, and paid for out of loans 
raised as required. 

Trade Union Insnrana.'—la view of its probable adverse effect 
on trade union membenhip auid organization the minority com- 
missbners cannot rrrommend the establishment of any plan of 
ffovemment or compulsory insurance against unemployment. 
They recommend, however, a government subvention not exceeding 
one naif of the sum actuallypaid in the last preceding year as out- 
of-work benefit should be offered to trade unions or otner societies 
providing such benefit. 

iiaintenanco and Training.— -Foe the ultimate renduum of men 
in dbtress from want of empkyment the minority recommend 
that maintenance should be freely provided, without dtsfranchise- 
ment, on condition that they submit themselves to the physical 
and mental training that they may prove to require. Swtable 
day training depots or residential farm colonies should be estab- 
lished, where the men's ^ole working time would be abaorbed 
in such varied beneficial training of body and mind as they proved 
capable of; their wives and families being, meanwhile, provided 
with adequate home aliment. 

AuTHORiTiBS.— The Report and Evidence of the Royal Com- 
mission of 1905-1909 is a library in itself on the subject of pauperism. 
The contents of the various vcrfumes are given tupra. Other im- 


of Departmental Committee on Varancy (1906). See also the 
references in the bibliography to Chauty AMD CHAaiTiBS; and 
Sir G. Nicholls and T. Mackay, A History of the Entlish Poor Lam 
(t vols., 1899) ; the publications of the Charity Organization Society; 
Reports of Poor Law Conferences. For list of subjects discussed. 
see index to Report of Central Conferences. 

POPAYAN, a city of Colombia, capital of the department of 
Cauca, about 240 m. S.W. of Bogoti, on the old trade route 
between that dty and Quito, in a"" 26' N., 76* 49' W Pop. 
(1870), 8485; (1906, estimate), 10,000. Popayan is built on 
a great plain sloping N W from the foot of the volcano Purace, 
near the source of the Cauca and on one of its small tribu- 
taries, 57X3 ft. above the sea. Its situation is singtilarly pic- 
turesque, the Purace rising to an elevation of 15,420 ft. about 
20 m. south-east of the dty, the Sotara. volcano to approxi- 
matdy the same height about the same distance south by 
east, and behind these at a greater distance the Pan de 
Azucar, 15,978 ft. high. The ridge forming the water-parting 
between the basins of the Cauca and Patia rivers crosses 
between the Central and Western Cordilleras at this point 
and culminates a few miles to the south. Popayan is the 
seat of a bishopric dating from 1547, whose cathedral was 
btiilt by the Jesuits, and in the days of its prosperity it 
possessed a university of considerable reputation. It has 
several old churches, a college, two seminaries founded about 
1870 by the French Lazarists, who have restored and occupy 
the old Jesuit convent, and a mint established in 1749. Tlie 
dty was at one time an important commercial and mining 
centre, but much of iu importance was lost through the transfer 
of trade to Cali and Pasto, through the decay of neighbouring 
mining industries, and through political disturbances. Earth- 
quakes have also caused much diamage to Popayan, espedally 
those of 1827 and 1834. The modem dty has some small 
manufacturing industries, induding woollen fabrics for doth- 
mg, but its trade is much restricted, and iu importance is 
political rather than commercial. 

Popayan was founded by Sebastian Benalcazar in 1538 on the 
site of an Indian settlement, whose chief, Payan, had the un- 
usual honour of having his name given to the usurping town. 
In 1558 it received a coat of arms and the title of " Muy noble y 
muy leal " from the king of Spain*— a distinction of great 


POPE 


8i 


riprfficinrit ib that disturbed period of coloiiial history. It 
is noted also as the birthplace of OLldas, the Colombian 
naturalist, and of Mosquera, the geographer. There are hot 
sulphurous qnings near by on the flanks of the volcano 
Purace, especially at Cooonuco, which are much frequented 
by Colombians. 

POFB (Gr. ir&aTat, post-dasucal Lat. paf^a, father), an 
gffrlcwastifal title now used exclusively to designate the head 
of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 4th and sth 
' centuries it waa frequently used in the West of any 
bishop (Dtt Cange, «.v.); but it gradually came to be 
rejenred to the bishop of Rome, becoming his official title. 
In the East, on the other hand, only the bi^op of Alexandria 
seems to have used it as a title; but as a popular term i> 
was applied to priests, and at the present day, in thie 
Greek Qiurch and in Russia, all the priests are called pappas, 
which is also transbted "pope." Even in the case of the 
sovereign pontiff the word pope is officially only used as a less 
sdemn style: though the ordinary signature and heading of 
hnds is, e.g. *' Pius P.P.X.J' the signature of bulls is " Pius 
episcopus eccUsiae catkdicae" and the heading, " Pius epi- 
9C9pus, stnus senorum Dei" this latter formula gc&ag back to 
the time of St Gregory the GreaL Other styles met with in 
offidal documents are Pondfex, Summus ponHfeXf Romanus 
potOifex, Scnciissimus, SancHssimus pater, SancHssimus domi- 
uus muUr, Sanctitas sua, BeaHssimus pateff BeaHiudo sua; 
while the pope is addressed in speaking as " Sanciitas vesira" 
or *' Beatissime pater." In the midole ages is also found 
** Dammus aposUdicus " (cf. still, in the litanies of the sainU), 
or simply " Apostdicus." 

The pope is pre-eminently, as successor of St Peter, bishop 
of Rome. Writers are fond of viewing him as representing 
YmHme ^ ^ degrees of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; they 
gaytt say that be is bishop of Rome, metropolitan of the 
•f^l^ Roman province, primate of Italy, patriarch of the 
^'^ western Church and head of the universal Church. 
This is strictly correct, but, with the exception of the first 
and last, these titles are seldom to be found in documents. And 
if these terms were intended to indicate so many degrees in the 
exerdae of jurisdiction they would not he correct. As a matter 
of fact, from the earliest centuries (cf. can. 6 of Nicaea, in 335), 
we see that the popes exercised a special metropolitan juris- 
diction not only over the bishops nearest to Rome, the future 
cardinal bishops, but also over all those (A central and southern 
Italy, including Sicily (cf. Duchesne, Origines du eulte, ch. 1), 
an of whom received their ordination at his hands. Northern 
Italy and the rest of the western Church, still more the eastern 
Outfcfa, (Ud not depend upon him so dosely for their administra- 
tioB. His influence was exercised, however, not only in 
dogmatic questions but in matters of discipline, by means 
of appals, petitions and consultations, not to mention spon- 
taneous intervention. This state of affairs was defined and 
developed in the course of centuries, till it produced the present 
state of centralization, according to a law which can equally 
be observed in other societies. In practice the different 
degrees of jurisdiaion, aa represented in the pope, are of no 
iaaportaace: he is bishop of Rome and governs his diocese 
by direct episcopal authority; he is also the head of the 
Orarcli, and in this capacity governs all the dioceses, though the 
regular authority of each bishop in his own diocese is also 
ocdinaiy and immediate, t.e. he is not a mere vicar of the pope. 

But the mode of exercise of a power and its intensity are 
subject to variation, while the power remains essentially the 
f^^^ same. This £s the case with the power of the pope 
'*^*^* and his primacy, the exerdse and manifestation of 
vUcli have been continually developing. This primacy, a 
primacy of honour and jurisdiction, involving the fdenitude of 
power over the teaching, the worship, the discipline and 
admimstration of the Church, is received by the pope as 
part of the succession of St Peter, together with the episcopate of 
Rome. The whole episcopal body, with the pope at iU head, 
slMukl be considered as succeeding to the apostolic college, 
XTCTL 9* 


presided over by St Peter; and the head of it, now as then, as 
personally invested with all the powers enjoyed by the whole 
body, including the head. Hence the pope, as supreme in mat- 
ters of doctrine, possesses the same authority and the same in- 
fallibility as the whole Church; aa legislator and judge he pos- 
sesses the same power as the episcopal body gathered around and 
with him in oecumenical coimdL Such are the two essential 
prerogatives of the papal primacy: infallibility in his supreme 
pronouncements in matters of doctrine (see Imtauibxuty); 
and immediate and sovereign jurisdiction, under all its aspects, 
over all the pastors and the faithfuL These two privileges, 
having been claimed and enjoyed by the popes in the course 
of centuries, were solemnly defined at the Vatican Council by 
the constitution " Pastor aeternus " of the i8th of July 2870. 
The two principal passages in it are the following, (x) In the 
matter of jurisdiction: *' If any one say that the Ronum Pontiff 
has an office merely of in^)ection and direction, and not the 
full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Chuxdi, 
not only in matters of faith and morals, but also as regards 
discipline and the government of the Church scattered through* 
out the whole world; or that he has only the principal portion 
and not the plenitude of that supreme power; or that his power 
is not ordinary and immediate, aa much over each and every 
church as over each and every pastor and believer: anathema 
sit." (3) In the maUer of infallibility: " We decree that when 
the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when, in 
his capacity as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians he defines, 
in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, a certain doctrine 
concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he 
enjoys, by the divine assistance promised to him la the Blessed 
Peter, that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer has 
thought good to endow His Church in order to define its 
doctrine in matters of faith and morals; consequently, these 
definitions of the Roman Pontiff areirreformable in themselves 
and not ia consequence of the consent of the Church." 

For the history of the papacy, and associated qucstioiis, 
see Papacy, Conclave, Cubia Romana, Casoxnal, ftc. 

The ordinary costume of the pope is similar to that of the 
other clergy and bishops, but white in colour; his shoes alone 
are different, being low open shoes, red in colour, with a cross 
embroidered on the front; these are what are called the " mules," 
a substitute for the campagi of ancient times, formerly reserved 
to the pope and his clergy (cf. Duchesne, op. cit.ch.ii,6). Over 
this costume the pope wears, on less solemn occasions, the lace 
rochet and the red mosetta, bordered with ermine, or the 
camauro, similar to the moMtta, but with the addition of a hood, 
and over all the stole embroidered with his aims. The pope's 
liturgical costume consists, in the first place, of all the elements 
comprising that of the bishops: stockings and sandals, amice, 
alb, cincture, tunicle and dalinatic, stole, ring, gloves, chasuble 
or cope, the latter, however, with a morse ornamented with 
precious stones, and for head-dress the mitre (see Ybsthznts). 
The tiara {q.v.), the pontifical head-dress, is not used strictly 
speaking in the course of the liturgical fimctions, but only for 
processions. To these vestments or insignia the pope adds: 
the falda, a kind of long skirt trailing on the ground all round, 
which the chaplains hold up while he is wJking. Over the 
chasuble he wears the fanone (see Amice); and after that the 
pallium (9.V.). He is preceded by the papal cross, carried with 
the crucifiz turned towards hLn. When going to solemn 
ceremonies he is carried on the sedia, a poruble chair of red 
velvet with a high back, and escorted by two jfoM/t of peacock 
feathers. The papal mass, now rarely celebrated, has preserved 
more faithfully the andent liturgical usages of the 8th and 9th 
centuries. 

BiBUOGEAPHT.— BellarmSne, De romamo poHHIice: Wilmeri, Do 
ekrisH eeetesia (Resensbuig, 1897); Turroel, Hutotre do la tkto' 
lope positioe, vol. ii. (Paris. 19061 ; Hinaohios, iTtrcfaiirvcJkt, vol. L 
(Bcriin, 1869): Rudolph Sohm, Kirchenrecht (i8oa): Duchesne, Les 
Origines du euUe ckritieu (4th ed., Paris, 19081 ; Bouix, De papa 
(Pari*. 1869): Vacant. Etudes IkMogiams sur les eousHtutions du 
eonciU du Vatieau (Paris. 189s): Baibwr de Moatault. Le Coshmo 
et les usagts eccUsiasOgues (Pam. 1897). (A. Bo.*> 

tm 


82 


POPE, ALEXANDER 


POra» ALBXANDBR (i688-i744)f English poet, was bom in 
Lombard Street, London, on the aist of May 1688. His father, 
Alexander Pope, a Roman Catholic, was a linen-draper who 
afterwards retired from business with a small fortune, and fixed 
his residence about 1700 at Binfield in Windsor Forest. Pope's 
education was desultory. His father's religion would have 
excluded him from the public schools, eveii had there been no 
other impediment to his bong sent there. Before he was twelve 
be had obtained a smattering of Latin and Greek from various 
masters, from a priest in Hampshire, from a schoolmaster at 
Twyford near Winchester, from Thomas Deane, who kept a 
school in Maxylebone and afterwards at Hyde Park Corner, 
and finally from another priest at home. Between his twelfth 
and his seventeenth years excessive application to study under- 
mined his health, and he developed the personal deformity 
which was in so many ways to distort his view of Ufe. He 
thought himself dying, but throt^gh a friend, Thomas (after- 
wards the abh€) Southcote, he obtained the advice of the famous 
physician John Raddiflfe, who prescribed diet and exercise. 
Under this treatment the boy recovered his strength and spirits. 
"He thought himself the better," Spence says, "in some 
respects for not having had a regular education. He (as he 
observed in particular) read ori|$inally for the sense, whereas 
we are taught for so many years to rud only lor woids." He 
afterwards learnt French and Italian, probably in a similar 
way. He read translations of the Greek, Latin, French and 
Italian poets, and by the age of twelve, when he was finally 
settled at home and left to himself, he was not only a confirmed 
reader, but an eager aspirant to the highest honours in poetry. 
There is a story, wUch chronological considerations make 
extremely improbable, that in London he had crept into Will's 
ooffee-house to look at Dryden, and a further tale that the old 
poet had given him a shilling for a translation of the story of 
Pyramus and Thisbe; he had lampooned his schoolmaster; he 
had made a play out of John Ogilby's Iliad for his school- 
fellows; and before he was fifteen he had written an epic, his 
hero being Alcander, a prince of Rhodes, or, as he states else- 
where, Deucalion. 

There were, among the Roman Catholic families near Bin- 
field, men capable of giving a direction to his eager amUtion, 
men of literary tastes, and connexions with the literary world. 
These held together as members of persecuted communities 
always do, and were kept in touch with one another by the 
family priests. Pope was thus brought under the notice^ of Sir 
William Trumbull, a retired diplomatist living at Easthamp- 
stead, within a few miles of Bin£eld. Thomas Dancastle, lord 
of the knanor of Binfield, took an active interest in his writings, 
and at Whiteknights, near Reading, lived another Roman 
Catholic, Anthony. Englefidd, "a great lover of poets and 
poetry." Throu|^ him Pope made the acquaintance of 
Wycherley and of Henry Cromwell, who was a disUnt cousin of 
the Protector, a gay man about town, and something of a pedant 
Wychexley introduced him to William Walsh, then of great 
renown as a critic* Before the poet was seventeen he was 
admitted in this way to the society of London " wits " and 
men of fashion, and was cordially encouraged as a prodigy. 
Wycheiley's correspondence with Pope was skilfully manipu- 
lated by the younger man to represent Wycherley as sub- 
mitting, at first humbly and then with an ill-grace, to Pope's 
criticisms. The publication (Elwin and C>>urthope, vol. v.) 
of the originab of Wycherle/s letters from MSS. at Longleat 
showed how seriously the relations between the two friends, 
which ceased in 1710, had been misrepresented in the version 
of the correspondence which Pope chose to submit to the public 
Walsh's contribution to his development vas the advice to 
Study "correctness." "About fifteen," he says, "I got 
acquainted with Mr. Walsh. He used to encourage me much, 
and used to tell me that there was one way left of excelling; 

■ The dates of Pope*s correspondence with Wycherley are 1704- 
1710: with Wabh. 1705-1707. and with Cromwell. 1708-1737; 
with John Caryll (1666-1736) and his son, also neighbottrs, 1710- 


for, though we had several great poets, we never had any one 
great poet that was correct, and he desired me to make that 
my study and aim " (Spence, p. aSo). Trumbull turned Pope's 
attention to the French critics, out of the study of whom grew 
the Essay on Criticism; he suggested the subjea of Wimdscr 
Forest, and be started the idea of translating Homer. 

It sajrs something for Pope's dodlity at this stage that he 
recognized so soon that a long course of preparation was needed 
for such a magnum opus, and began steadily and patiently 
to discipline himself. The epic was put aside and afterwards 
burnt; versification was industriously practised in short 
"essays"; and an elaborate study was made of accepted 
critics and models. He learnt most, as he acknowledged, 
from Dryden, but the harmony of his verse also owed something 
to an earlier writer, George Sandys, the translator of Ovid. 
At the beginning of the 18th century Dryden's success had given 
great vogue to translations and modernizations. The air was 
full of theories as to the best way of doing such things. What 
Dryden had touched Pope did not presume to meddle with — 
Dryden was his hero and master; but there was much more of 
the same kind to be done. Dryden had rewritten three of the 
Canterbury tales; Pope tried his hand at the Merchant's Tale, 
and the Prologue to the Wife of Bath's Tale, and produced also 
an imitation of the House of Fame. Dryden had translated 
VirgO; Pope experimented on the Thebais of Statius, Ovid's 
Heroides and Metamorphoses, and the Odyssey, He knew little 
Latin and less Greek, but there were older versions in Eni^ish 
which helped him to the sense; and, when the correspondents 
to whom he submitted his versions pointed out mistranslations, 
he could answer that he had always agreed with them, but 
that he had deferred to the older translators against his own 
judgment. It was one of Pope's little vanities to try to give 
the impression that his metrical skill was more precocious 
even than it was, and we cannot accept hb published versions 
of Statius and Chaucer (published in " miscellanies " at intervals 
between 1709 and 27x4) as incontrovertible evidence of his pro- 
fidency at the age of sixteen or seventeen, the date, according to 
his own assertion, of thdr composition. But it b indiq>tttable 
that at the age of seventeen hb skill in verre astonbhed a 
veteran critic like Walsh, and some of hb pastorab were in 
the hands of Sir George Granville (afterwards Lord Lansdowne) 
before 1706. Hb metrical letter to Cromwell, which Elwin 
dates in 1707, when Pope was nineteen, b a brilliant feat of 
versification, and has turns of wit in it as easy and spirited as 
any to be found in hb mature satires. Pope was twenty-one 
when he sent the " Ode on Solitude " to Cromwdl, and said 
it was written before he was twdve years old. 

Precodous Pope was, but he was also industrious; and he 
spent some dght or nine years in arduous and enthusiastic 
disdpiine, reading, studying, experimenting, taking the advice 
of some and bu|^iing in his sleeve at the advice of others, 
" poetiy hb only business," he said, " and idleness his only 
pleasure," before anything of hb appeared in print. In these 
preliminary studies he seems to have guided himself by the 
maxim formulated in a letter to Walsh (dated July a, 1706) 
that " it seems not so much the perfection of sense to say things 
that had never been said before, as to express those best that 
have been said oftencst." His first publication was his 
" Pastorals. " Jacob Tonson, the bookseller, had seen these 
pastorab in the hands of Walsh and Congreve, and sent a 
polite note (April 20, 1706) to Pope asking that he might have 
them for one of his miscellanies. They appeared accordingly 
in May 1709 at the end of the sixth volume of Tonson's 
Poetical Miscdlanies, containing contributions from Ambrose 
Philips, Sheffidd, Garth and Rowe, with " January and May," 
Pope's version of Chaucer's " Merchant's Tale." 

Pope's next publication was the Essay on Criticism (i7ti)( 
written two yean earlier, and printed without the author's 
name. " In every work regsrd the writer's end " (L 255) b one of 
its sensible precepts, and one that b often neglected by critics 
of the essay, who comment upon it as if Pope's end had been 
to produce an original and profound treatise on fim prfn^py^' 


POPE, ALEXANDER 


83 


Bis aim was limply to condense, methodise, and give as perfect 
and novel expression as be could to floating opinions about 
tbe poet's aims and methods, and the critic's duties, to " what 
oH was thought, but ne'er so well expressed " (L 298). " The 
town " was interested in belUs leUres, and given to conversing 
on tbe subject; Pope's essay was simply a brilliant contribution 
to the fashionable conversation. The youthful author said 
that he dJd not expect the sale to be quick because ** not one 
gentleman in sixty, even of liberal education, could understand 
it." The sales were slow until Pope caused copies to be sent 
to Lord Lansdowne and others, but its success was none the 
las bxiOiant for the delay. The town was fairly dazzled by 
the yoong poet's learning, judgment, and felicity of expression. 
Many of the admirers of the poem doubtless would have 
thought less of it if they had not believed all the maxims to 
be originaL " I admired," said Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
" Mr Pope's Essay on Criticism at first very much, because I 
had not then read any of the ancient critics, and did not know 
that It was all stolen." Pope gained credit for much that might 
have been found, where he found it, in the InslituUs of 
Qomtilian, in the numerous critical writings of Ren6 Rapin, 
and In Rra£ le Bossu's treatise on epic poetry. Addison has 
been made responsible for the exaggerated value once set on 
the essay, but Addison's paper {Spectator, No. 353) was not 
mimixed praise. He deprecated the attacks made by Pope 
on contemporary literary reputations, although he did full 
jttstioe to the poet's metrical skilL Addison and Pope became 
ecqoainted with one another, and Pope's sacred eclogue, 
" Messiab^," was printed as No. 378 of the Spectator. In the 
Essay ms CriOeism Pope provoked one bitter personal enemy 
in John Dennis, the critic, by a description of him as Appius, 
who "states, tremendous, with a threat'ning eye." Dennis 
retorted in ReJUcHons . . upon a late Rhapsody . . (i7")» abusing 
Pope among other Uiings for his personal deformity. Pope 
never forgot this brutal attack, which he described in a note 
naerted after Dennis's death, as Ute as 1743, as written " in 
s manner perfectly lunatic." 

The Rape of Ike Lock in iU first form appeared in 171 s in 
VmUft Miscellanies; the " machinery " of sylphs and gnomes 
was an afterthought, and the poem was republished as we now 
have It eariy in 1714. William, 4th Baron Petre, had surrep- 
txtionaly cut off a lodi of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair, and the 
libecty had been resented^ Pope heard the story from his friend 
John Caiyll, who suggested that the breach between the 
famlHea ndgbt be healed by making the incident the subject 
of a mock-heroic poem like Bdleau's Lutrin. Pope caught at 
the hint; the mock-heroic treatment of the pretty frivolities of 
fasfaaonable life just suited his freakish sprightliness of wit, and 
his stodies of the grand epic at the time put him in excellent 
vein. The Rape of the Loch is admitted to be a masterpiece of 
amneas. Ingenuity, and exquisite finish. But the poem struck 
Talne as a piece of harsh, scornful, indelicate buffoonery, a mere 
I of oddities and contrasts, of expressive figures un- 
and grinning, an example of English insensibility 
to French sweetness and refinement. Sir Leslie Stephen 
objected on somewhat different grounds to the poet's tone 
towards women. His laughter at Pope's raillery was checked 
by tbe fact that women are spoken of jn the poem as if they 
were aO like Belinda. The poem shows the hand of the 
satirist who was later to assert that "every woman is at 
heart n rake," in the'epistle addressed to Martha Blount. 

Windsor Forest, modelled on Sir John Denbam's Cooper's Hill, 
had been begun, according to Pope's account, when he was 
sixteen or seventeen. It was published in March 17 13 with a 
flattering dedication to the secretary for war, George Granville, 
Lord Lansdowne, and an opportune allusion to the peace of 
Utrecht. This was a nearer approach to Uking a political side 
than Pope had yet made. His principle had been to keep clear of 
poBtks, and not to attach himself to any of the sets into which 
literary men were divided by party. Although incUned to the 
Jacobites by his reBgion, he never took any part in the plots for 
tbe icstocatlon of the Stuarts, and he was 00 friendly tsnns with 


the Whig coterie, being a frequent guest at the ooffee-boose 
kept by Daniel Button, where Addison held his " little senate." 
He had contributed his poem, " The Messiah " to the Spectator; 
he had written an article or two in the Guardian, and he wrote 
a prologue for Addison's Cato, Nevertheless he induced 
lantot the bookseller to obtain from John Dennis a criti- 
cism of Colo. On the publication of Dennis's remarks, the 
violence of which had, as Pope hoped, made their author ridicu> 
lous. Pope produced an anonymous pamphlet, The Narrative 
of Dr Robert Norris concerning the . . . Frenxy of Mr 
John Dennis (17x3), which, though nominally In defence of 
Addison, had for its main purpose the gratification of Pope's 
own hostih'ty to Dennis. Addison disavowed any connivance 
in this coarse attack in a letter written on his behalf by Steele 
to Lintot, saying that if he noticed Dennis's attack at all it 
would be in such a way as to allow him no just cause of 
complaint. Coolness between Addison and Pope naturally 
followed this episode. When the Rape of the Loch was 
published, Addison, who is said to have prsised the poem 
highly to Pope in private, dismissed it in the Spectator with two 
sentences of patronizing faint praise to the young poet, and, 
coupling it with Tickell's " Ode on the Prospect of Peace," 
devoted the rest of the article to an elaborate puff of " the 
pastorals of Mr Philips." 

When Pope showed a leaning to the Tories in Windsor Forest, 
the members of Addison's coterie made insidious war on him. 
Within a few weeks of the publication of the poem, and when it 
was the talk of the town, there began to appear in the Guardian 
(Nos. aa, 23, 28, 30, 32) a series of articles on " Pastorals." Not 
a word was said about Windsor Forest, but everybody knew 
to what the general principles referred. Modem pastoral 
poets were ridiculed for introducing Greek moral deities, Greek 
flowers and fruits, Greek names of shepherds, Greek sports and' 
customs and religious rites. They ought to make use of English 
rural mytbolog^hobthrushes, fairies, goblins and witches; 
they should give English names to their shepherds; they should 
mention flowers indigenous to English climate and soil; and 
they should introduce English proverbial sayings, dress, 
and ctistoms. All excellent principles, and all -neglected by 
Pope in Windsor Forest, Tlie poem was fairly open to criticism 
In these poinU; there are many beautiful passages In it, show- 
ing dose though somewhat professional observation of natoe^ 
but the mixture of heathen deities and conventional archaic 
fancies with modem realities Is incongruous, and the com- 
parison of Queen Anne to Diana was ludicrous. But the 
sting of the articles did not h'e In the truth of the oblique 
criticisms. The pastorals of Ambrose Philips, published four 
years before, were again trotted out. Here was a trae pastoral 
poet, the eldest bora of Spenser, the worthy successor of 
Theocritus and VirgQI 

Pope took an amusing revenge, which turned the laugh 
against his assailants. He sent Steele an anonymous psper 
in continuation of the articles in the Guardian on pastoral 
poetry, reviewing the poems of Mr Pope by the light of the 
principles laid down. Ostensibly Pope was censured for 
breaking the rules, and Philips prdsed for conforming to them, 
quotations being given from both. The quotations were 
sufficient to dispose of the pretensions of poor Philips, and Pope 
did not choose his own worst passages, accusing himself of 
actually deviating sometimes into poetry. Although the 
Cuardian^s principles were also brought into ridicule by bur- 
lesque exemplifications of them after tbe manner of Cay's 
Shepherd's Weeh, Steele, misled by the opening sentences, was 
at first unwilling to print what appeared to be a direct attack 
on Pope, and is said to have asked Pope's consent to tbe 
publication, which was graciously granted. 

The links that attached Pope to the Tory party were strength- 
ened by a new friendship. His first letter to Swift, who 
became warmly atUched to him, is dated the 8th of December 
1713. Swift had been a leading member of the Brothers' 
Club, from which the famous Scriblerus Club seems to have 
been an offshoot. The leading members of this informal 


8+ 


POPE, ALEXANDER 


literary aodety were Swift, Aibuthnot, Congreve^ Bishop 
Atterbury, Pope, Gay and Tliomas FamelL Their chief object 
was a general war against the dunces, waged .with great spirit 
by Arbuthnot, Swift and Pope. 

The estrangement from Addisoo was completed hi oonnexion 
with Pope's translation of Homer. Tliis enterprise was 
definitely undertaken in 1713. The work was to be published 
by subscription, as Dryden's Virgil had been. Men of all 
parties subscribed, their unanimity bemg a striking proof of 
the position Pope had attained at the age of twenty-five. It 
was as if he hid received a national commission as by genenl 
consent the first poet of his time. But the unanimity was 
broken by a discordant note. A member of the Addison dique, 
TickeU, attempted to run a rival version. Pope suspected 
Addison's instigation; Tickell had at least Addison's encoucag»> 
ment. Pope's famous fharactfr of Addison as '^ Atticus " in 
the EfisUe to Dr Arbulkiui (iL X9l-si5) was, however, hi- 
spired by resentment at insults that exited chiefly. in hisown 
imagination, though Addison was certainly not among his 
warmest admirers, ^ope afterwards claimed to have been 
magnanimous, but he spoiled his case by the petty inventiona 
of his account of the quarreL 

The translation of Homer was Pope's chief empbyment for 
twelve years. The new pieces in the miwcrllnnifn publi^ed in 
X717, his " Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady," and his " Eloisa 
to AbeUrd," were probably written some years before their 
publicatkic. His "Ebisa to Abebrd" was based on an 
English translation by John Hughes of a French vernonof-the 
LeUvt, which differed very considerably from the original 
Latin. The Iliad was delivered to (he subscribers in install 
ments m 1715, 1717, 1718 and 1730. Pope's own defective 
scholardiip made help necessary. William Broome and John 
Jortin supplied the bulk of the notes, and Thomas Pamell the 
preface. For the translation of the Odyssey he took Elijah 
Fenton and Broome as coadjutorB, who between them trans- 
lated twelve out of the twenty-fotir books.^ It was completed 
in 1715. The profitableness of the work was Pope's chief 
temptation to undertake it. His receipts for his earlier poems 
had totalled about £150, but he cleared more than £8000 by the 
two translations, after deducting all payments to coadjutors— 
a much larger sum than had ever been received by an English 
author before. 

The translation of Homer had established Pope's repuUtion 
with his contemporaries, and haa endangered it ever since it 
was challenged. Opinions have varied on thepurdy literary 
merits of the poem, but with regard to it as a translation few 
have differed from Bentlejr's criticism, " A fine poem, Mr Pope, 
but you must not call a Homer." Hb collaboration with 
Broome (^.t.) and Fenton {qj9.)* involyed him m a series of 
recrimhiations. Broome was weak enough to sign a note at 
the end of the work undersuting the extent of Fenton's assist- 
ance as well as his own, and asaibing the merit of their trans- 
lation, reduced to less than half ita real proportions, to a 
regular revision and correction— mostly imaginary— at Pope's 
hands. These falsehoods were deemed necessary by Pope to 
protect himself against possible protests from the subscribers. 
In i7aa he edited the poems of Thomas Pamell, and in 1735 
made a considerable sum by an unsatisfactory edition of Shake- 
speare, in which he had the assistance of Fentoo and Gay. 

Pope, with his economical habits, was rendered independent 
by the pecuniary success of his Homers and enabled to live near 
London. The estate at Binfield was sold, and he removed 
with his pannU to Mawson's Buildingi, Chiswick, in 1716, and 
in 1719 to Twickenham, to the house with which his name n 
assorlatfd. Here he practised elaborate hmdscape gardening 
on a small scale, and built his famous grotto, which was really 
a tunnel under the road connecting the garden with the lawn 
on the Thames. He was constantly visited at Twickenham 
by his intimates, Dr John Arbuthnot, John Gay, Bolingbroke 

* r, 4, 19 and 20 are by Fenton;. a, 6, 8, 11, la, 16, 18, 23, with 
to all • ' • "* 


I the books, by Broome. 
ThccorTe8pondcQoewiththemisgiveaiovol.viilof Elwia and 
Courthope's edition. 


(after his return in 1793)9 ani Swift (during Us brief visiu to 
England in 1736 and r7a7), and by many other friends of the 
Tory party. Wih Atterbury, bishop of Rochester, he was on 
terms of affectionate intimacy, but he blundered in his evidence 
when he was called as a witness on his belialf in 1723- 

In X717 his father died, and he appears to have turned to the 
Blounts for sympathy in what was to him a very serious 
bereavement. He had early made the acquaintance <^ Martha 
and Teresa Blount, both of them intimately connected with 
his domestic history. Their home was at Mapledurham, near 
keadiog, but Pope probably first met them at the house of 
his nei^bour, Mr Englefield of Whiteknights, who was their 
grandfather. He begun to correspond with Martha Blount 
in Z712, and after 17x7 the letters are much more serious 
in tone. He quarrelled with Teresa, who had apparently 
injured or prevented his suit to her sister; and alt hough, after 
her father's death in 1718, he paid her an annuity, he seems 
to have regarded her as one of his most dangerous enemies. 
His friendship with Martha lasted all his life. So long as his 
mother lived he was unwearying in his attendance on her, but 
after her death in 1733 his association with Martha Blount was 
more constant In defiance of the scandal-mongers, they 
paid visits together at the houses of common friends, and at 
Twickenham ^e spent part of each day with him. His earlier 
attachment to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was apparently a 
more or less literary passion, which perished under Lady Mary's 
ridicule. 

The year 1725 may be taken as the beginning of the third 
period of Pope's career, when he made his fame as a moralist 
and a satirist It may be doubted whether Pope had the stay^ 
ing power necessary for the composition of a great imaginative 
work, whether his cnzy constitution would have held together 
through the strain. He toyed with the idea of writing « grand 
epic. He told Spence that he had it all hi his head, and gave him 
a vague (and it must be admitted not very promising) sketch 
of the subject and plan of it. But he never put any of it on 
pi4>er. He shrank as with instinctive repulsion from the stress 
and stram of complicated designs. Even his prolonged task 
of translating weighed heavily on his spirits, and this was a much 
less formidable effort than creating an epic. He turned rather 
to designs that could be accomplished in detail, works of which 
the parts could be separately laboured at and put together with 
patient care, into which happy thoughts coi^ be fitted that 
had been struck out at odd momenU and in ordinary levels of 
feeling. 

Edward Young's satire. The Universal Passion, had just 
appeared, and been received with more enthusiasm than any 
thing published since Pope's own eariy successes. This alone 
would have been powerful inducement to Pope's emulous tem« 
per. Swift was finishhig GuUieer's Traeds^ and came over to 
England in 1726. The survivors of the Scriblerus Qub— Swift, 
Pope, Arbuthnot, and Gay — resumed their dd amusement of 
parodying and otherwise ridiculing bad writers, especially bad 
writers in the Whig interest. Two volumes of their Uis- 
ceUanies in Prose and Verse were published in 1727. A third 
volume appeared in 1728, and a fourth was added in 173*. 
According to Pope*s own history of the Dmnciad, an Heroic 
Poem in Three Books, which first appeared on the 28th of May 
1728, the idea of it grew out of this. Among the Miscellaniea 
was a " Treatise of the Bathos or the Art of SinUng in Poetry," 
in which poets were classified, with iUustrations, according to 
their eminence in the various arts of debasing instead of elevating 
their subject. No names were mentioned, but. the apecimena 
of bathos were assigned to various letters of the alphabet, which, 
the authors boldly asserted, were taken at random. But no 
sooner was the treatise publ^ed than the scribblers proceeded 
to take the letters to themselves, and in revenge to fill the news- 
papers with the most abusive falsehoods and scurrilities they 
could devise. This gave Pope the opportunity he had hoped 
for, and provided him with an excuse for the perwaalitiea 
of the Dunciadf which had been m his ndnd as eariy as 1720. 
Among the raott prominent objects of his satire were Lewis 


POPE, ALEXANDER 


85 


TheoUId, CoOey Gibber, John Dennis, Richard Bentley, Aaron 
Hm and Bernard Lintot, who, in spite of his former relations 
mixh Fdpe, -was now daised with the piratical Edmund Curll. 
The book was published with the greatest precautions. It was 
andnymoos, and professed to be a reprint of a Dublin edition. 
When the soooess of the poem was assured, it was republished 
in 1719, and a copy was presented to the king by Sir Robert 
Walpole. Names took the place of initials, and a defence 
of the satire, written by Pope himself, but si|^ed by his friend 
WnUam Odand, was printed as *' A letter to the Publisher." 
Vaiiotts indeies, notes and parUculars of the attacks on Pope 
made by the different authors satirised were added. To avoid 
any danger of prosecution, the copyright was assigned to Lord 
(Moid, Lord Bathurst and Lord Burlington, whose position 
tendered them practically unassailable. We may adinit that 
personal spite influenced Pope at least as much as disinte- 
rested seal for the honour of literature, but in the dispute as to 
the oomparative strength of these modves, a third b apt to be 
overlooked that was probably stronger than either. This was 
an nnscrapukms elfish lore of fun, and delight in the creations 
of a hamomis imagination. Certainly to represent the Dtm- 
dad as the outcome of mat personal spite is to give an ezag- 
gexated Uea of the malignity of Pope's disposition, and an 
attoly wrong impressiott of the character of his satire. Hewas 
not, cicqit in rare esses, a moroie, savage, indignant satirist, 
bat airy and grsceful in his malice, revengeful perhaps and 
exc ess iv e l y sen^tive, but restored to good humour as he thought 
over his wrongs by the ludicrous amceptions with which he 
invested his adversaries. The most unprovoked assault was 
on Ridiard Bentley, whom he satirised in the reconstruction 
and cnhigement of the Dunciad made in the last years of his 
life at the instigation, it is said, of William Warburton. In 
the earlier editions the place of hero had been occupied by 
Lewis Hwobald, who hsd ventured to critidxe Pope's Shake- 
sptan. In the edition which appeared in Pope's Works (1742), 
be was dethroned in favour of Colley Qbber, who had just 
written his LeUer-from Mr Cibber to Mr Pope inqitmng into 
ti€ mtotiHi thai migjd vnduu him in his satyrical wriiings to be 
Mo JreqmenUy fond of Mr CUber't name (1742). Warburton's 
nane ii attached to many new notes, and one of the preliminary 
ilisarrtsfinni by Ricardus Aristarchus on the hero ol the poem 
seems to be by him. 

Tlie four epistles of the Essay on Man (1733) were also 
intinaatdy connected with passmg controversies. They belong 
to the same intellectual movement with Butler's Analogy— ihe 
effort of the x8th century to put religion on a -rational basis. 
Bat Pope was not a thinker Eke Butler. The subject was 
suggested to him by Henry St John, Lord Bolingbroke, who 
liad retomed from exile in r723, and was a fellow-member of 
the Sdibkrus CInb. Bolingbroke is said—and the sUtement 
is supported by the contents of his posthumous works— to 
have famished most of the arguments. Pope's contribution 
to tlie controversy consisted in brilliant epigram and illustra- 
tion. In this didactk work, as hi his Essay on Criticism, he 
pat together on a sufficiently simple plan a series of happy 
sayings, separately elaborated, picking up the thoughts as he 
loond them in miscellaneous reading and conversation, and 
trying only to fit them with perfect expression. His readers 
wcie too daszled by the verse to be severely criUcsl of the sense. 
Ftope himself had not comprehended the drift of the arguments 
he had adopted from Bolingbroke, and was alarmed when he 
found that his poem was generally interpreted as an apology 
lor the free-thfaikers. Warburton is said to have qualified 
iu doc t rines as " rank atheism, " and asserted that it was put 
tofrthrr from the " worst passages of the worst authors." The 
csany was soon translated into the chief European languages, 
and in 1737 its orthodoxy was assailed by a Swiss professor, 
Jean PSene de Crousas, in an Examen do Pessay do if. Pope 
sm fkonme, Warburton now saw fit to revise his opinion 
of Pope's abilities and principles— for what reason does not 
appear. In any case he now became as enthusiastic in his 
pniK of Pope's orthodoxy and his genius as he had before been 


scornful, and proceeded to employ his unrivalled powers of 
sophistry in a defence of the orthodoxy of the conflicting and 
inconsequent positions adopted in the Essay on Man, Pope 
was wise enough to accept with all gratitude an ally who was 
so useful a friend and so dangerous an enemy, and from that 
time onward Warburton was the authorized commentator of 
his worics. 

The Essay on Man was to have formed part of a series of 
phflosophic poems on a systematic plan. The other pieces 
were to treat of human reason, of the use of learning, wit, 
education and riches, of civil and ecclesiastical polity^ of the 
character of women, &c. Of the ten epistles of the Moral 
Essays, the first four, .written between 1731 and 1735, ue 
connected with this sdieme, which was never executed. 

There was much bitter, and sometimes unjust, satire in the 
Moral Essays and the Imitations of Horace, In these epistles 
and satires, which appeared at intervals, he was often the mouth- 
piece of bis politicsl friends, who were liU of them in opposition 
to Walpole, then at Xhe height of his power, and Pope chose 
the object of his attacks from among the minister's adherents. 
Epistle m., " Of the Use of Riches," addressed to Allen Bath- 
urst. Lord Bathurst, in 1732, is a direct attack on Walpok's 
methods of corruption, and on his financial policy in general; 
and the two' dialogues (1738) known as the '* Epilogue to the 
Satires," professedly a defence of satire, form an eloquent 
attack on the court. Pope was attached to the prince of Wales's 
party, and he did not forget to insinuate, what was indeed the 
truth, that the queen had refused the prince her pardon on 
her deathbed. The " Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot " contains a de- 
scription of his personal attitude towards the scribblers and is 
made to serve as a " prologue to the satires." The gross and 
unpardonable insults bestowed on Lord Hervey and on Lady 
Mary Wortley Biontagu in the first sathe " to Mr Fortescue " 
provoked angry retaliation from both. The description of 
Timon's ostentatious villa in Epistle IV., addressed to the eari 
of Burlington, was generally taken as a picture of Canons, the 
seat of John Brydges, duke of Chandos, one of Pope's patrons, 
and caused a great outcry, thou^ in this esse Pope seems to 
have been innocent of express allusion. Epistle II., addressed 
to Martha Blount, contained the picture of Atossa, which 
was taken to be a portrait of Sarah Jennings, duchess of 
Marlborough. One of the worst imputations on Pope's character 
was that he left this passage to be published when he had in 
effect received, a bribe of £1000 from the duchess of Marl- 
borough for its suppression throu^ the agency of Nathanael 
Hooke (d. 1763). As the passage eventuaJly stood, it might 
be applied to Katherine, duchess of Buckingham, a natural 
daui^ter of James H. Pope may have altered it with the 
intention of diverting the satire from the original object. 
He was scrupulously honest in money matters, and always in- 
dependent in matters of patronage; but there is some evidence 
for this discrediuble story beyond the gossip of Horace Wal- 
pole {J¥orks, ed. P. Cunningham, i. cxliv.), though not suffi- 
cient to justify the acceptance it received by some of Pope's 
biographers. To appreciate fully the point of his allusions 
requires an intimate acquaintance with the political and social 
gossip of the time. But apart from their value as a brilliant 
strongly-coloured picture of the time Pope's satires have a 
permanent value as literature. It is justly remarked by Mark 
Pattison* that "these Imitations are among the most original 
of his writings." The vigour and terseness of the diction is 
still unsurpassed hi English verse. Pope had gained complete 
mastery over his medium, the heroic couplet, before he used 
it to express his hatred of the political and social evils which 
he satirised. The eUborate periphrases and superfluous orna- 
ments of his earlier manner, as exemplified in the Pastorals and 
the Homer, disappear^; he turned to the uses of verse the 
ordinary knguage of conversation, differing from everyday 
speech only in its exceptional brilUanoe and point. It is in 
these satires that his best work must be sought, and by them 
that his position among Eng^ poets must be fixed. It was 
« In his edition of the 5altrM and Epistles (18(66). 


86 


POPE, ALEXANDER 


the Homer chiefly that Wordsworth and Coleridge had in their 
eye when they began the polemic against' the " poetic diction " 
of the 1 8th century, and struck at Pope as the arch-corrupter. 
They were historically unjust to Pope, who did not originate 
this diction, but only furnished the most finished examples 
of it. At the beginning of the XQth century Pope still had 
an ardent admirer in Byron, whose first satires are written in 
Pope's couplet. The nuich abused pseudo-poetic diction in 
su^tance consisted in an ambition to " rise above the vulgar 
style," to dress luture to advantage— a natural ambition when 
the arbiters of literature were people of fashion. If one com- 
pares Pope's " Messiah " or " Eloisa to Abelard," or an im- 
passioned passage from the Iliads with the originals that be 
paraphrased, one gets a more vivid idea of the consistence of 
pseudo-poetic diction than could be furnished by pages of an- 
alysis. But Pope merely made masterly use of the established 
diction of his time, which he eventually forsook for a far more 
direct and vigorous style. A passage from the GuafduMj in 
which Philips was commended as against him, runs: ** It is 
a nice piece of art to raise a proverb above the vulgar style 
and still keep it easy and unaffected. Thus the old wish, ' God 
rest his soul,' is very finely turned. — 

" * Then gentle Sidney Uv'd. the shephera's friend. 
Eternal blesMngt on his shade attend 1 ' " 

Pope would have despised so easy a metamorphosis as this 
at any period in his career, and the work of his coadjutors in 
the Odyssey may be distinguished by this comparative cheapness 
of material. Broome's description of the dothes-washing by 
Nausicaa and her maidens in the axth book may be compared 
with the original as a luminous specimen. 

Pope's wit had won for him the friendship of many distin- 
guished men, and his small fortune enabled him to meet them 
on a footing of independence, tie paid long visits at many 
great houses, especially at Stanton Harcourt, the home of his 
friend Lord Chancellor Harcourt; at Oakley, the seat of Lord 
Bathurst; and at Prior Park, Bath, where his host was Ralph 
Allen. With the last named he had a temporary disagree- 
ment owing to some slight shown to Martha Blount, but he 
was reconciled to him before his death. 

He died on the 30th of May 17441 And he was buried in the 
parish church of Twickenham. He left the income from his 
property to Martha Blount till her death, after which it was to 
go to his half-sister Magdalen Rackett and her children. His 
unpublished MSS. were left at the discretion of Lord Boling- 
broke, and his' copyrights to Warburton. 

If we are to judge Pope, whether as a man or as a poet, with 
human fairness, and not merely by comparison with standards 
of abstract perfection, there are two features of his times that 
must be kept steadily in view— the character of political strife 
in those days and the political relations of men of letters. As 
long as the succession to the Crown was doubtful, and political 
failure might mean loss of property, banishment or death, 
politicians, playing for higher stakes, played more fiercely and 
unscrupulously than in modem days, and there was no con- 
trolling force of public opinion to keep them within the bounds 
of common honesty. Hence the age of Queen Anne is prt- 
eminently an age of intrigue. The government was almost as 
unsettled as in the eariy days of personal monarchy, and there 
was this difference— that it was policy rather than force upon 
which men depended for keeping their position. Secondly, 
men of letters were admitted to the iimer circles of intrigue as 
they had never heea before and as they have never been since. A 
generation later Walpole defied them, and paid the rougher 
instrumenu that he considered sufficient for his purpose in 
solid coin of the realm; but Queen Anne's statesmen, whether 
from difference of tastes or difference of policy, paid their prin- 
cipal literary champions with social privileges and honourable 
public appointments. Hence men of letters were directly in- 
fected by the low political morality of the unsettled time. And 
the character of their poetry also suffered. The most promi- 
nent defecU of the age— the lack of high and sustained 
imagination, the genteel liking for "nature to advantage 


dressed," the incessant striving after wit— were fostered, .if 
not generated, by the sodal atmosphere. 

Pope's own ruling passion was the love of fame, and he had 
no scruples where this was concerned. His vanity and his 
childish love of intrigue are seen at their worst in his petty 
manoeuvres to secure the publication of his letters during his 
lifetime. These intricate proceedings were unravelled with 
great patience and ingenuity by Charles Wentworth Dilke, 
when the false picture of his rehitions with his contemporaries 
which Pope had imposed on the public had been practically 
accepted for a century, Elizabeth Thomas, the mistress of 
Henry Cromwell, had sold Pope's early letters to Henzy 
Cromwell to the bookseller Curll for ten guineas.' These 
were published in Curll's Miscellanea in 1726 (dated 1727)1 And 
had considerable success. This surreptitious publication seems 
to have suggested to Pope the desirability of publishing his own 
correspondence, which he immediately began to collect from 
various friends on the plea of preventing a similar clandestine 
transaction. The publication by Wycherley's ejcecutors of a 
posthumous volume of the dramatist's prose and verse fur- 
nished Pope with an excuse for the appearance of his own 
correspondence with Wycherley, which was accompanied by a 
series of unnecessary deceptions. After manipulating his cor- 
respondence so as to place his own character in the best light, 
he deposited a copy in the library of Edward, second earl of 
Oxford, and then he had it printed. The sheets were offered 
to CurU by a person calling himself P.T;, who professed a desire 
to injure Pope, but was no other than Pope himself. The copy 
was deliverni to CurU in 1735 after long negotiations by an 
agent who called himself R. Smythe, with a few originals to 
vouch for their authenticity. P. T. had drawn up an adver- 
tisement stating that the book was to contain answers from 
various peers. Curll was summoned before the House of Lords 
for breach of privilege, but was acquitted, as the letters from 
peers were not in fact forthcoming. Difficulties then arose 
between Curll and P. T., and Pope induced a bookseller named 
Cooper to publish a Narrative of the Method by which Mr 
Pope's PrivaU Letters were procttred by Edmund CurU, Booh- 
seller (1735). These preliminaries cleared the way for a show 
of indication against piratical publishers and a " genuine " 
edition of the Letters of Mr Alexando' Pope (x737> foL and 
4to). Unhappily for Pope's reputation, his friend Caryll, who 
died before the publication, had taken a copy of Pope's letters 
before returning them. This letter-book came to light in the 
middle of. the XQth century, and showed the freedom which 
Pope permitted himself in editing. The correspondence with 
Lord Oxford, preserved at Longleat, afforded further evidence 
of lus tortuous dealings. The methods he employed to secure 
his correspondence with Swift were even more discreditable. 
The proceedings can only be explained as the measures of a 
desperate man whose maladies seem to have engendered a 
passion for trickery. They are reUted in detail by Elwin in 
the introduction to voL i. of Pope's Works. A man who is said 
to have " played the politician about cabbages and turnips," 
and who " hardly drajik tea without a stratagem," was not 
likely to be straightforward in a matter in which his ruling 
passion was concerned. Against Pope's petulance and " general 
love of secrecy and cxmning " havb to be set, in any fair judg- 
ment of his character, his exemplary conduct as a son, the 
affection with which he was regarded in his own circle of 
intimates, and oumy well-authenticated instances of genuine 
and continued kindb'ness to persons in distress. 

Bibliography. — ^Various collected editions of Pope's Works 


liberally. By his notes he wilfully misropreflentcd the meaning of 
the allusions in the satires, and made them more agreeable to hia 
friends and to the court, while he made oppkortunities for the graUfi- 


cation of his own spite against various individuals. Joseph Warton'a 
edition in 1797 added to the mass of commentary without giving 
much new eluadatbn to the allusions of the text, which even bwift« 


with his exceptional facilities, had found obscure. In 176^1807 an 
edition was issued which included Owen Ruffhcad's Life of Alexander 


POPE, A.— POPE, SIR T. 


87 


Pope (l7€9), inapired by Warfouiton. The notf? of m^nx com- 
roentaton, with some letten and a mcmair^ werr indiided In the 
Works of AUxoMdtr Pope, edited by W. l_ Bowles (10 volft., \%Qfi\. 
Hi* Potiual Work* were edited by Alexander Uvce (igjt^): t>y ^ 
Camithen (1858) for Bohn's Library; by A. W. mrd (Gt^tbe Ediiwn^ 
1869), &c Materials for a definitive eaiiion wltc cDUrcced by John 
Wilson Croker, a&d formed the basis of wh j t has becDm e the e m n da nl 
wsioa. The Works of AUxander Pope (10 vol^^ [^^71-1893). inc[LidLr>e 
unpubtiahed letters and other new mate rial, with intn^Juction and 
notes by W. Elwin and W. J. Coiirth"|:«- The life ol f*ope in 
vol. V. was contributed bv Professor G>urtfjope. The chief on^inol 
authority besides Popes correspondeii'Le and RuHlicaid'B li/« is 
Joseph Spence's Anudotes, published by S. W. Sinaer in jSjo. 
Samud Johnson gives a good estimate oi Pope in hij Livri cf ths 
Poets. The best modem lives are thaL by ProfcsBor Courthcp«, 
already noentioned'; and Alexander Pope, by Sir L. Stepht^n, in the 
Enf^isk Men of Letters series (i8&>). See also Cecir«? F^^toru Mr 
Pope: His Life and Times (190^). The £ r-^r check to the admiratian 
that prevailed during Pope s lifetime was ^Ivf^n by tlie Liiibticaiion cf 
Joseph Warton's Euay on the Writings ond Genius a/ i*i>pe {ypt i.. 
1757; voL iL, 1782). Warton had a smccre appreeiiTioti of Papi's 
itock, but he'besan the reaction which culminated with the 
romantic writers 01 the banning of the [qrth ccniuryn abd 9c: ihe 
fashion of an undue disparagement of Pope's genius as a pd«t «Sth 
enduring effects on pomilar opinion. Thomas CampbeU's rriUfUm 
in hb Specimens cf tie British Poets provoked a contmvcfsy to w hich 
William Haalitt. Byron and W. L Bowks cooEriboted. For a 
discusaioa of Pope's position as one of thi ^tvsit men of letten in the 
1 8th century who emancipated thems<.'hu& Inm patronagt> *tt 
A. Betjame, Le Public et les hommes de Iriirgj m An^ifUrre au d-ix- 
k*itiime siicle (1881); a section of Is T ? r^tlfs, QuJirTth cf 
Authors is devoted to Pope's literary an ; iind ttiq^e impor- 

tant contributions to many vexed <iue 1 the tiia^raphy of 

Pope, especially the publication of his leucrr», ^t:ie made by C W. 
Dilke in Notes and Queries and the Aiktnaenm. These articles 
were reprinted by his grandson, Sk Charted Dilke, in tS?j, aa The 
Papers of a Critic (W. M.; M* Bsl) 

font AliKXAHD&R (1763-183 5), Imh actor and puunter, 
was born in Cork, and was educated lo follow his tiihcfs 
profcuaaa of miniature painting. He continued to paint 
miniatures and exhibit them at the Royal Academy as late as 
x32i; but at an early date he took the stagCj Unit appearing 
in London as Oroonoko in 1785 at Covent Garden. H? remained 
at this theatre almost continuously for nearly iwenty yczr^, 
then at the Haymarket mitil his retlremieDt, playbg leading 
parts, chiefly tragic He was particularly esteemed aa Othello 
and Henry VHI. He died on the 22nd of K J arch iSjj. Pope 
was thzice married. His first wife, EEizabelh Pope {c. 1744- 
I797)» » favourite English actress of great vcr^tiiiiy, was billed 
be£(»e her marriage as Miss Younge. Hi$ second wife, Mjirin An n 
^opc (1775-1803), also a popular actress, was a member of kj) 
Irish fainily named Campion. His third wife, Clara ^laria ro[>e 
(d. 1838), was the widow of the artu>'. Irancis \S"hi'atlcy, and 
herself a skilful painter of figures and of slower?. 

pops; jane (i 742-1 818), English actressK daughter gf a 
London theatrical wig-maker, who bc^an pbying in a LjIIl- 
putian company for Garrick in 1756. Frairi this she speedily 
developed into soubrette r61es. She v,a^ Mrs Candour in Th^ 
ScJkodfor Scandal at its first presentation (1777)1 ^d thrttaftcr 
she had many important pans confided to htr. She was the 
life4oHig friend of Mrs Clive, and erected tht moiiumfnt at 
Twickenham to the latter's memory. She was not only an 
admirable actress, but a woman of bbmdesa liff, and was 
praised by all the literary critics of her d^y— tmuscd to such & 
combination. She died on the 30th of Jul y j S i S. 

POPE, JOHN (1822-1893), American soldier, was tht son cf 
Nathaniel Pope (1784-1850), U.S. judge for the di&tr[ci of 
Illinois, and was bom at Louisville, Kcntuck>r, on the i6ih pf 
March 1822. He graduated at the Uniied States Military 
Academy in 1842 and was assigned to the eogineera. He served 
in the Mexican War, receiving the brevets of t£t lieutenant and 
captain for his conduct at Monterey and Buena Vista. Sub- 
sequently he was engaged in engineenpg and e^loring work, 
oi^nly in New Mexico, and in lurveyinf^' tbi^ route for & Paci^c 
railroad. He was commissioned captsJn in ]S56. He was 
actively <^>posed to the Buchanan adminiitraLioD, and a speech 
which be made in connexion with thu preiidecLtia] campaisif) 
of i86d caused him to be summoned before a court -mart la), 
Eariy in the Ovil War be jns pUced, at a brigadier-general 


U.S.V., in charge of the district of Missouri, which by vigorous 
campaigning against guerrilla bands and severe administration of 
the dvii population he quickly reduced to order. In 1863, along 
with the gunboat flotilla (commanded by Commodore A. H. 
Foote) on the Mississippi, Pope obtained a great success by the 
capture of the defences of New Madrid and Island No. xo, with 
nearly 7000 prisoners. Pope subsequently joined Halleck, and in 
command of the Anny of the Mississippi took part in the siege of 
Corinth. He was now a major-general U.S.V. The repu- 
tation he had thus gained as an energetic leader quickly 
placed him in a high command, to which he proved to be quite 
unequal The " Army of Virginia," as his new forces were 
styled, had but a brief career. At the very outset of his Virginian 
campaign Pope, by a most ill-advised order, in which he con- 
trasted the performances of the Western troops with the failuies 
of thie troops in Virginia, forfeited the confidence of his officers 
and men. The feeling of the Army of the Potomac (which was 
ordered to his support) was equally hostile, and the short opera- 
tions culminated in the disastrous defeat of the second battle of 
Bull Run. Pope was still sanguine and ready for another trial of 
strength, but he was soon compelled to realise the impossibility 
of retrieving his position, and resigned the command. Bitter 
controversy arose over these events. Halleck, the gcneral-in* 
chief, was by no means free from blame, but the public odium 
chiefly fell upon generals McQellan and Fits-John Porter, against 
whom Pope, while admitting his own mistakes, made grave 
charges. Pope was not again employed in the Civil War, but in 
command of the Department of the North-West he showed his 
former skill and vigour in dealing with Indian risings. In 1865 
he was made brevet major-general U.SA. (having become 
brigadier-general on his appointment to the Army of Virginia), 
and he subsequently was in charge of various military districts 
and departments until his retirement in x886. In 1882 he was 
promoted to the full rank of major-general y.S.A. General 
Pope died at Sandusky, Ohio, on the 23rd of September 1892. 

He was the author of various works and papers, including railway 
reports (Pacific Railroad Reports voL iii.) and The Campaign of 
Virginia (Washington, 1865). 

pope; SIR THOMAS (c. x sof-rssp), founder of Trinity CoUe^. 
Oxford, was bom at Deddington, near Banbuiy, Oxfordshire, 
probably in 1507, for he was about sixteen years old when his 
father, a yeoman farmer, died in X523. He was educated at 
Banbury school and Eton College, and entered the court of 
chancery. He there found a friend and patron in the lord- 
chancellor Thomas Audley. As clerk of briefs in the star 
chamber, warden of the mint (X534-X536), derk of the Crown in 
chancery (1537), and second officer and treasurer of the court 
for the settlement of the confiscated property of the smaller 
religious foundations, he obtained wealth and influence. In this 
last office he was superseded in X54X, but from 1547 to 1553 he 
was again employed as fourth officer. He himself won by grant 
or purchase a considerable share in the spoils', for nearly thirty 
manors, which came sooner or later into his possession, were 
originally church property. He could have rode." said Aubrey. 
" in his owne lands from Cogges (by Witney) to Banbury, about 
x8 miles." In X537 he was knighted. The reb'gious changes 
made by Edward VI. were repugnant to him, but at the beginning 
of Mary's reign he became a member of the privy council. In 
X556 he was sent to reside as guardian in Elizabeth's house. 
As early as 1555 he had begun to arrange for the endowment of a 
college at Oxford, for which he bought the site and buildings of 
Durham College, the Oxford house of the abbey of Durham, from 
Dr George Owen and WiUiam Martyn. He received a royal 
charter for the establishment and endowment of a college of the 
" Holy and Undivided Trinity " on the 8th of March 1556. The 
foundiation provided for a president, twelve fellows and eight 
scholars, with a schoolhouse at Hooknorton. The number of 
scholars was subsequently increased to twdve, the schoolhouse 
being given up. On the 28th of March the members of the 
college were put in possession of the site, and they were formally 
admitted on the 29th of May 1556. Pope died at Oerkenwell 
on the 29th of January 1559, and was buried at St Stephen''' 


88 


POPE-JOAN— POPILIA, VIA 


Walbrook; but his remains were subsequently removed to 
Trinity College, where his widow erected a semi-dothic alabaster 
monument to his memory. He was three times married, but 
left no children. Much of his property was left to charitable 
and . religious foundations, and the bulk of his Oxfordshire 
estates passed to the family of his brother, John Pope of 
Wroxton, and his descendants, the viscounts DiUon and the 
earls of Guilford and barons North. 

The life, by H. E. D. Blakistoa, in the Did, Nat. Biot., corrects 
many errors m Thomas Warton's Lift of Sir Thomas Pope (i77a)> 
Furtner notices by the ame authonty are in his Trinity CoUegt 
(1898). in the "College Histories" Sericii, and in the EMf^tsk 
HisUfrical Rnitm (April, 1996). 

POPB^OAM» a round game of cards, named after a legendary 
female Pope of the 9th century. An ordinary pack is used, from 
which the eight of diamonds has been removed, and a special 
round board in the form of eight compartments, named respec- 
tively Pope- Joan, Matrimony, Intrigue, Ace, King, Queen, Knave 
and Game (King, (^ueen and Knave are sometimes omitted). 
Each player — any number can play — contributes a stake, of 
which one counter is put into the divisions Ace, King, (^ueen. 
Knave and Game, two into Matrimony and Intrigue, and the 
rest into Pope-Joan. This is called " dressing the board." The 
cards are dnlt round, with an extra hand for " stops," «.e. cards 
which stop, by their absence, the completion of a suit; thus the 
absence of the nine of spades stops the playing of the ten. The 
last card is turned up for trumps. Cards in excess may be dealt 
to " stops," or an a^eed number may be left for the purpose, so 
that all players may have an equal number of cards. If an 
honour or " Pope " (nine of diamonds) is turned up, the dealer 
takes the counten in the compartment so marked. Sometimes 
the tuming-up of Pbpe settles the hand, the dealer taking the 
whole pool. The Ace is the lowest card, the King the bluest. 
The player on the dealer's left plays a card and names it; the 
player who has the next highest then plays it, till a stop is played, 
i.e. a card of which no one holds the next highest. All Kkkgs are 
of course stops, also the seven of diamonds; also the cards next 
below the dealt stops, and the cards next below the played cards. 
After a stop the played cards are turned over, and the player of 
the stop (the card last played) leads again. Tlie player who gets 
lid of all his cards first takes the counters in " Game," and 
receives a counter from each player for eVery card left in his 
hand, except from the player who may hold Pope but has not 
l^yed it. The player of Ace, King, (jueen or Knave of trumps 
takes the counters from that compartment. If King and (^een 
of trumps are in one hand, the holder takes the counters in 
" Matrimony "; if a (^ueen and Knave, those in " Intrigue "; if 
all three, those in the two compartments; if they are in different 
hands these counters are sometimes divided. Unclaimed stakes 
are left for the next pooL Pope is sometimes considered a 
universal " stop." 

POPERINGHB, an ancient town of West Flanders, xa m. W. of 
Ypres. Pop. (1904), ix,68a It contains a fine church of the 
xxth centuxy, dedicated to St Betin. In the X4th century it 
promised to become one of the principal communes in Flanders; 
but having incurred the resentment of Ypres on a matter of trade 
rivalry it was attacked and captured by the dtixens of that 
place, who reduced it to a very subordinate position. There are 
extensive hop gardens, bleaching grounds and tanneries in the 
neighbourhood of the town. 

POPHAM, SIR HOME RI008 (X763-X820), British admiral, 
was the son of Stephen Popham, consul at Tetuan, and was 
his mother's twenty-first child. He entered the navy in 1778, 
and served with the flag of Rodney till the end of the war. In 
1783 he was promoted lieutenant, and was for a time engaged 
on survey service on the coast of Africa. Between 1787 and 1793 
he was engaged in a curious series of adventures of a commercial 
nature in the Eastern Sea— «ailing first for the Imperfal Ostend 
Company, and then in a vessd which he purchased and in part 
loaded himself. During this time he took several vimy% and 
rendered some services to the East India Company, whidi were 
officially acknowledged; but in 1793 his ship ifis seized, partly 


on the ground that he was carrying contraband and partly 
because he was infringing the East India Company's monopoly. 
His loss was put at £70,000, and he was entaiiiBled in litigation. 
In 1805 he obtained compensation to the amount of £25,000. 
The case was a hard one, for he was undoubtedly sailing with the 
knowledge of officials in India. While this dispute was going 
on Popham had resumed his career as a na^ officer. He 
served with the army under the duke of York in Flanders as 
" superintendent of Inland Navigation " and won his confidence. 
The protection of the duke was exercised with so much effect that 
Popham was promoted commander in 1794 and post captain lix 
X795. He was now engaged for years in co-operating in a naval 
capacity with the troops of Great Britain and her allies. In the 
Red Sea he was engaged in transporting the Indian troops em- 
ployed in the ezpujbioa of the French from Egypt. His bills 
for the repair of his ship at Calcutta were made the excuse for 
an attack on him and for charging him with the amount. It 
was just the time of the general rdorm of the dockyards, and 
there was much suspicion in the air. It was also the case that 
St Vincent did not like Popham, and that Benjamin TUcker 
(i763-x8a9), secretary to the admiralty, who had been- the 
admiral's secretary, was his creature and sycophant. Popham 
was not the man to be snuffed out without an effort. He 
brought his case before Paxliament, and was at^e to prove that 
there had been, if not deliberate (Hshonesty, at least the very 
grossest carelessness on the part of his assailants. In x8o6 he 
co-operated with Sir David Baird in the occupation of the Cape. 
He then persuaded the authofities that, as the Spanish Cdonies 
were discontented, it would be easy to promote a rising in Buenos 
Ayres. The attempt was made with Popham's squadron and 
X400 soldiers; but the Spanish colonists, though discontented, 
were not disposed to accept British help, which would in all 
probability have been made an excuse for establishing dominion. 
They rose on the soldiers who landed, and took them prisoners. 
Popham was recalled, and censured by a court martial for leaving 
his station; but the City of London presented him with a sword 
of honour for his endeavours to " open new markets," and the 
sentence did him no harm. He held other commands in con- 
nexion with the movements of troops, was promoted rear admiral 
in x8x4, and made K.C.B. in X815. He died at Chdtenham on 
the xoth of September x8ao, leaving a large family. Popham 
was one of the most scientific seamen of his time. He did much 
useful survey work, and was the author of the code of 1 
adopted by the admiralty in 1803 and used for many years. 

POPHAM, SIR JOHN (c. X53X-X607), English judge, was 
bom at Huntworth, in Somerset, about x 53 x . He was educated at 
Balliol CoUege.Oxf ord, and called to the bar at the Middle Temple. 
Concerning his early life little is known, but he was probably a 
member of the parliament of 1558. He was recorder of Bristol, 
and represented that dty in parliament in 1571 and irom X57a 
to X583. He was elected Spieaker in 1580, and in xs8x becaLme 
attorney-general, a post which he occupied until Ids appoint- 
ment as lord chief justice in 1592. He presided at the 
trials of Sir Walter Raleigh and Guy Fawkes. Towards the end 
of his life Popham took a great interest in colonisation, and was 
instrumental in procuring patents for the London and Plymouth 
companies for the colonization of Virginia. Popham was an 
advocate, too, of transportation abroad as a means of punishing 
rogues and vagabonds. His experiment in that direction, the 
Popham colony, an expedition under the leadership of his brother 
(George (c. x 550-1608), had, however, but a brief career in .its 
settlement (1607) on the Kennebec xivtr. Popham died on the 
xoth of June 1607, and was buried at Wdlington, Somerset. 

See Fois, Lm$ </ lAc Juigux J. Winsor, History •/ Amtrica, 
voL iiL 

FOPIUA (or Popillza), VIA, the name of two andent roads in 
Italy. (0 A highroad nmning- from the Via Appia at Capua to 
Regium, a distance of 321 m. rl^t along the length of the 
peninsula, and the main road through the interior of the cou&tiy, 
not along the coast. It was built in X59 b.c. by the censor M. 
POpOius Laenlu or in xja b.c by the consul P. Popilius. fa) A 


POPINJAY— POPLAR 


89 


htg^hsoad from Aiiminum to Aqufleia alo&g the Adriatic coast. 
It no doubt origiDaUy came into use when Aquileia was founded 
as a frontier foltrcn of Italy in i8z B.C., and Polybius gives the 
distance conectly as Z7S m. In 133 it was reconstructed (mtwito) 
by the consul P. Popilius, one of whose milestones has been 
found near Atxia. It ran aJong the shore strip (Lido) bom Ari- 
minum to Ravenna (53 m.), where it waa usual in imperial times 
for travellers to take ship and go by canal to Altinum (9.V.), 
and there resume their journey by road, thou^ we find the 
statkms right through on the Tabula Peutingeriana, and Narses 
marrhfd in 552 from Aquileia to RavenAa. (T. As.) 

PGPIMJAT (O. Fr. papegai, or popingay, onomatopoeic, 
original), an old name for a parrot. Except in its transferred 
sense of a dressed-up, vain or conceited, empty-headed person, 
the word is now only used historically of a representation or 
image 6f a partot swinging bonta high pole and used as a mark 
for archery or shooting matches. This shooting at the popinjay 
(see Ascekky) was formerly a favourite sport. "Popinjay " 
is still the proper heraldic term for a parrot as a bearing or 
charge. 

FOFLAB, an eastern metropolitan borou^ of London, 
England, bounded N. by Hackney, S. by the river Tluanes, and 
W. by Stepney and Bethnal Green, and extending £. to the 
boundary of the county of London. Pop. (xgiox), 168,82a. 
The river Lea, which the eastern boundary genjcrally follows, is 
believed to have been crossed towards the north of the modem 
boKoogih by a Roman road, the existence of which is recalled by 
the district-name of Old Ford; while Bow (formerly Stratford- 
le-Bow or Stratford-atte-Bowe) was so named from the " bow " 
or arched bridge which took the place of the ford in the time of 
Henry II. South of thoe districts lies Bromley; in the south- 
east the Unough includes Blackwall; and a deep southward bend 
of the Tliafflcs here embraces the Isle of Dogs. Poplar falls 
within the great area commonly associated with a poor and 
densely crowded population under the name of the " East End." 
It is a district of narrow, squalid streets and mean houses, among 
whidi,' however, the march of modem improvement may be seen 
in the erection of model dwellings, mission houses and chprches, 
and various public buildings. In the north a part of Victoria 
Tvk is included. In Blackwall and the Isle of Dogs streeU 
give place to the extensive East and West India Docks (opened 
bk z8o6) and Millwall Dock, with shipbuilding, engineering, 
rhrmiral and other works along the river. Blackwall has been 
a shipping centre from early times. From the aouth of the 
Isle of Dogs (the portion called Cubitt Town) a tunnel fo^ foot- 
paawMgrrs (xgoa) connects with Greenwich on the opjposite 
aboceof the Thames, and lower down the river is the fine Black- 
waO tunnel, carrying a wide roadway, completed by the London 
County Conndl in 1897 at a cost, inclusive of incidental expenses, 
^ £<ii85,soa. Among institutions the Poplar Accidents Hospital 
nay be mentioned. Near the East India Docks is the settlement 
of St Fiideswide, supported by Christ Church, Oxford. In 
Canning Town, which continues this district of poverty across 
the Lea, and so outside the county of London, are Mansfield 
House, founded from Mansfield College, Oxford; and a Women's 
Settlement, especially notable for its medical work. The 
metropolitan borough of Poplar includes the Bow and Bromley 
and the Poplar divisions of the Tower Hamlets parliamentary 
borough, each returning one member. The borough council 
coQsisU of a mayor, 7 aldermen and 42 councillors. Area, 
2327-7 acres. 

POFLAR (Ltft. Populus), the name of a small group ol catkin- 
bearing trees belonging to the order SaUcaceat, The catkins 
of the poplars differ from those of the nearly allied wiUows in 
the presoice of a rudimentary perianth, of obliquely cup-shaped 
ionn, within the toothed bncteal scales; the male flowers 
ooatain from eight to thirty stamens; the fertile bear a one- 
ceiled (neariy divided) ovary, surmounted by the deeply deft 
atagmas; the two-valved capsule contains several seeds, each 
famished with a. long tuft of silky or cotton-like hairs. The 
leaves are broader than in most willows, and are generally 
citlicr deltoid or ovate in shape, often cordate at the base, and 


frequently with slender petioles vertically flattened. Many of 
the species attain a large size, and all are of very rapid growth. 
The poplars are ahnost entirely confined to the north temperate 
zone, but a few approach or even pass its northern limit, and they 
are widely distributed within that area; they show, like the 
willows, a partiality for moist ground and often line the river-sides 
in otherwise treeless districts. There are about twenty spedcs, 
but the number cannot be very accurately defined— several, 
usually regarded as distinct, bdng probably merely variable 
forms of the same type, and the ease with which the trees inter- 
cross has led to the appearance of many hybrids. All yield a 
soft, easily-worked timber, which, though very perishable when 
exposed to weather, possessed^ sufficient durability when kept 
dry to give the trees a certain economic value. Many of the 
species are used for paper-making. 

Of the European kinds one of the most important and best 
marked forms is the white poplar or abele, P. o/to, a tree of 
large sixe, with rounded spreading head and curved' branches, 
which, like the trunk, are covered with a greyish white bark, 
becoming much furrowed on old stems. The leaves are ovate 
or neariy round in general -outline, but with deeply waved, 
more or leas lobed and indented margins and cordate base; 
the upper side is of a dark green tint, but the lower surface is 
clothed with a dense white down, which likewise covers the 
young shootsr— giving, with the bark, a hoary aspect to. the whole 
tree. As in all poplars, the catkins expand in early spring, long 
before the leaves unfold; the ovaries bear four linear stigma lobes; 
the capsules ripen in May. A nearly reUted form, which may 
be regarded as a aub-spedes, canescens, the grey poplar of the 
nurseryman, is distinguished from the tme abde by iu smaller, 
less deeply cut leaves, which are grey on the upper side, but not 
so hoary beneath as those of P, alba; the pistil has eight stigma 
lobes. Both trete occasionally attain a hdght of 90 ft. or more, 
but rardy continue to form sound timber beyond the first half- 
century of. growth, though the trunk will sometimes endure for 
a hundred and fifty years. The wood is very white, and, from 
its soft and even grain, is employed by tumers and toy-makers, 
while, bdng tough and little liable to split, it is also serviceable 
for the construction of packing cases, the lining of carts and 
waggons, and many similar purposes; when thoroughly seasoned 
it makes good flooring planks, but shrinks much in drying, 
weighing about 58 lb per cubic foot when green, but only 33} lb 
when dry. The white poplar is an ornamental tree, from its 
gracdul though somewhat irregular growth and its dense 
hoary foliage; it has, however, the. disadvantage of throwing up 
numerous suckers for some yards around the trunk. 

The grey and white popUrs are usually multiplied by long 
cuttings; the growth is so rapid in a moist loamy soil that, 
according to Loudon, cuttings 9 ft. in length, planted beside 
a stream, formed in twdve years trunks 10 in. in diameter. 
Both these allied forms occur throughout central and southem 
Europe, but, though now abundant in England, it is doubtful 
whether they are there indigenous. P. <tlba suffers mudi from 
the ravages of wood-eating Isme, and also from fungoid growths, 
especially where the braziches have been removed by pruning or 
acddent. 

P. mfra, the black poplar, is a tree Of large growth, with dark, 
deeply-furrowed bark on the trunk, and adi-ooloured branches; 
the smooth ddtoid leaves, serrated regulariy on the margin, are 
of the deep green tint which has given name to the tree; the 
petioles, slightly compressed, are only about half the length of 
the leaves. The black poplar is common in central and southem 
Europe and in some of the adjacent parts of Asia, but, though 
abundantly planted in Britain, is not there indigenous, libe 
wood is of a yellowish tint. In former days tUs was the preva- 
lent poplar in Britain, and the timber waa employed for the 
purposes to which that of other spedes is applie;di but has been 
superseded by P. monUifera and its varieties; it probably fur- 
nished the poplar wood oi the Romans, which, from its lightness 
and soft tough grain, was' in esteem fpr shield-making; in con- 
tinental Europe it is still in some request; the bark, in Russi? 
is used for uaning leather, while in Kamchatka it is someti^ 


90 


POPLIN— POPOCATEPETL 


ground up and mixed with meal; the gum secreted by the buds 
was employed by the old herbalists for various medicinal 
purposes, but is probably nearly inert; the cotton-h'ke down of 
the seed has been converted into a kind of vegetable felt, and 
has also been used in paper-making. A closely related form is 
the well-known Lombardy poplar, P. fastiiiata, remarkable for 
its tall, cypress-like shape, caused by the nearly vertical growth 
of the branches. Probably a mere variety of the black poplar, 
its native land appears to have been Persia or some: neighbouring 
country; it was unknown la Italy in the days of Pliny, while 
from remote times it has been an inhabitant of Kashmir, the 
Punjab, and Persia, where it is often planted along roadsides 
for the purpose of shade; it was probably brought from these 
countries to southern Europe, and derives its popular name 
from its abundance along the banks of the Po and other rivers 
of Lombardy, where it is said now to spring up naturally from 
seed, like the indigenous black poplar. It was introduced 
into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany 
and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not 
earlier. The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an orna- 
mental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, 
erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a 
relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in'contrast to the 
horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to 
grow. In Lombardy and France tall hedges are sometimes 
fornyed of this poplar for shelter or shade, while in the suburban 
parks of Britain it is serviceable as a screen for hiding buildings 
or other unsightly objects from view; its growth is extremely 
rapid, and it often attains a height of 100 ft. and upwards, 
whQe from 70 to 80 ft. is an ordinary size in favourable situa- 
tions. 

P. canadensis, the " cotton-wood " of the western prairies, and 
its varieties are periiaps the most useful trees of the genus, often 
forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the i[reat 
American plains. It ia a tree of rather large growth, sometimes 
100 ft. high, with nigged grey trunk 7 or 8 ft. in diameter, and with 
the ^oots or young branches more or less angular; the glossy 
deltoid leaves are sharply pointed^ somewhat cordate at the base, 
and with flattened petioles; the fertile catkins ripen about the middle 
of June, when their opening capsules discharge the cottony seeds 
which have given the tree its common western name; in New England 
It is sometimes called the " river poplar." The cotton-wood 
timber, though soft and perishable, is of value in Its prairie habitats, 
where it is frequently the only available wood either for carpentry 
or fuel; it has been planted to a conuderable extent in some parts of 
Europe, but in England a form of this species known as P. monilifera 
' preferred from its larger and more rapid growth. In 


this weli-Iuiown variety the young shoots are but slightly angled, 
and the branches in the second year become round; the deltoid 
short-pointed leaves arc usually straight or even rounded at the base, 
but sometimes are slightly cordate; the capsules ripen in Britain 
about the middle of May. This tree is of extremely rapid growth, 
and has been known to attain a height ol 70 ft. in uxteen years; 
it succeeds best in deep loamy soil, but will flourish in neany any 
moist but well-drained situation. The timber is much used in some 
rural districts for flooring, and is durable for indoor purposes when 
protected from dry-rot; it has, like most pof^r woods, tne property' 
of resisting fire better than other timber. The native country Of 
thb form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many 
British nurseries as the " black Italian poplar," it u now well ascer- 
tained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the 
States, and u a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been 
first brought to England from Canada in i^7a. In America it 
seldom attains the large size it often acquires in England, and it is 
there of less rapid growth than the jprevailing form of the western 
plains; the name of^' cotton-wood " is locally given to other species. 
P. macropkylta or candieatu, commonly known as the Ontario 
poplar, is ranarkable for iu veiy large heart-«haped leaves, some- 
times 10 in. long; it is found in New England and the milder parts 
of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth b 
extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covned with a balsamic 
secretion. The true balsam boplar, or tacamahac, P. halsamifera, 
abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a 
tree df rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with 
round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp-pointed leaves, the base never 
cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above 
but somewhat downy below. This tree; the "Hani" of the 
Canadian voyageur, abounds on many of the river sides of the north- 
western plains; it occurs in the neighbourhood of the Great Slave 
Lake ana along the Mackenzie River, and forms much of the drift- 
wood of the Anrtk coast. ' In these northern habitats it attains 
a large size ; the wood is very soft ; the buds yiekl a gum-like balsam. 


from which the common. name is derived; conskfered valuable as an 
antiscorbutic, this is said also to have diuretk properties; it was 
formeriy imported into Europe in small quantities under the name of 
" baume focot," being scraped off in the spring and put into shells. 


This balsam gives the tree a fragrant odour when the leaves are 

unfolding. The tree growt * _ " 

a consklerable size. Iu fragrant shoots and the fine yellow green 


I tree grows well in Britain, and acquires occasionally 


of the young leaves recommend it to the ornamental planter. It is 
said by Alton to have been introduced into* Britain about the end 
of the 17th century. 

P. eupkroHca, believed to be the weeping wfllow of the Scriptures, 
is a large tree remarkable for the variability in the shape of its leaves, 
which are linear in young trees and vigorous shoots, and broad and 
ovate on older brinches. It is a native of North Africa and Western 
and Central Asia, including North-West India. With the date 
palm it is believed to have furnished the rafters for the buildings of 
Nineveh. 

POPUN, or Tabdiet, a mixed textile fabric consisting of a 
silk warp with a weft of worsted yam. As the weft is in the form 
of a stout cord the fabric has a ridged structure, like rep, which 
gives depth and softness to the lustre of the silky surface. 
Poplins are used for dress purposes, and for rich upholstery 
work. The manufacture is of French origin; but it was brought 
to England by the Huguenots, and has long been specially 
associated with Ireland. The French manufacturers distinguish 
between popdines units or plain poplins and popelines A dis- 
positions or £eossaiseSf equivalent to Scotch tartans. In both of 
which a large trade is done with the United States from Lyons. 

POPOCATEPETL (Aztec popoca " to smoke," kpeU " moun- 
tain "). » dormant volcano in Mexico in lat. x8* 59' 47' N., 
long. 98* 33' x' W., which with the neighbouring Ixtacdhuatl 
(Aztec '' white woman ") forms the south-eastern limit of the 
great basin known as the " Valley of Mexico." As it lies in 
the state of Puebla and is the dommating feature in the views 
from the dty of that name, it is sometimes called the Puebla 
volcano. It is the second highest summit in Mexico, its shapely, 
snow-covered cone rising to a height of 17,876 ft., or 438 ft. 
short of that of Orizaba. This elevation was reported by the 
Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geo- 
graphical Society calculated the elevation at 17.888 ft., it may 
be accepted as nearly correct. The bulk of the mountain con- 
sists of andesite, but porphyry, obsidian, trachyte, basalt, and 
other similar rocks are also represented. It has a stratified 
cone showing a long period of activity. At the foot of the 
eastern slope stretches a vast lava field— the "malpays" 
(malapais) of Atkchayacatl— which, according to Humboldt, 
Ues 60 to 80 ft. above the plain and extends 18,000 ft. east to 
west with a breadth of 6000 ft. lU formation must be of great 
antiquity. The ascent of Popocatepetl is made on the north- 
eastern slope, where rough roads are kept open by sulphur 
carriers and timber cutters. Describing his ascent in 1904, 
Hans Gadow states that the forested region begins in the foot- 
hills a little above 8000 ft., and continues up the slope to an 
elevation of over 13,000 ft. On the lower slopes the forest is 
composed in great part of the long-leaved Pinus tiopkylla, 
accompanied by dedduous oaks and a variety of other trees 
and shrubs. From about 9500 ft. to 11,500 ft. the Mexican 
** oyamd," or fir (Abies religiose) becomes the prindpal spedes, 
interspersed with evergreen oak, arbutus and dder. Above this 
belt the firs gradually disappear and are succeeded by the short- 
leaved Pinus monlesumaet or Mexican "ocote"— one of the 
largest spedes of pine in the republic These continue to the 
upper tree-line, accompanied by red and purple Penistenum and 
light blue lupins in the open spaces, some ferns, and occasional 
masses of alpine flowers. Above the tree line the vegetation 
continues only a comparativdy short distance, consisting 
chiefly of tussocks of coarse grass, and occasional flowering 
plants, the highest noted being a little Draba. At about X4>S<» ft. 
horses are left behind, though they could be forced farther 
up through the loose lava and ashes. On the snow-covered 
cone the heat of the sun is intense, though the thermometer 
recorded a temperature of 34** in September. The reflection 
of light from the snow is blinding. The rim of the crater is 
reached at an elevation of about i7>500 ft. Another descrip- 
tion places the snow-line at 14,368 ft., and the upper tree-line 


POPPER— POPPY OIL 


91 


a thousaad feet lower. A detailed description of the volcano 
was published by the Mexican geological survey in 1895 accord- 
ing to which the crater is elliptical in form, aoo8 by 131 3 ft., and 
has a depth of 1657 ft. below the summit of the highest pinnacle 
and 673 ft. below the lowest part of the r2m, which is very 
irregular in height. The steep, ragged walls of the crater show 
a great variety of c(dours, intensified by the light from the deep 
blue sky above. Huge patches of sulphur, some still smouldering, 
are everywhere visible, intermingled with the whit^ streaks of 
snow and ice that BH the crevices and cover the ledges of the 
black rocks. The water from the melted snow forms a small 
lake at the bottom of the crater, from which it filters through 
fissures to the heated rocks below and thence escapes as steam 
or through other fissures to the mineral springs at the moun- 
tain's base. . The Indian sulphtur miners go down by means 
of ladders, or are lowered by rope and windlass, and the mineral 
is sent down the mountain side in a chute aooo to 3000 ft. Some 
observers report that steam is to ber Seen rising from fissures in 
the bottom of the crater, and all are imited in speaking of the 
fumes of burning sulphur that rise from its depths.- That 
vokanic influences are still present may be inferred from the 
drcnmstance that the snow cap on Popocatepetl disappeared 
just before the remarkable series of earthquakes that shook the 
whole of central Mexico on the 30th and 31st of July 1909. 

It is believed that Diego de Ordaz was the first European to 
reach the summit of Popocatepetl, though no proof of this remains 
farther than that Cortes sent a party often men in 1 519 to ascend 
a burning mountain. In 1532 Francisco MontafU) made the 
ascent and had himself let down mto the crater a depth of 400 or 
500 ft. No second ascent is recorded until April and November 
1827 (see Brantz Mayer, Mexico ^ vol. ii.). Other ascents were 
made in 1834, 1848 and subsequent years, members of the 
Mexican gecJogical survey spending two days on the summit in 

1895- 

POPPER. DAVID (1846- ), Bohemian violoncellist, was 
bom at Plague, and educated musically at the conservatorium 
there, adopting the 'cello as his professional instrument He was 
soon recognized, largely through von Bfilow, as one of the 
finest soloists of the time, and played on tours throughout the 
European capitals. In 1872 he married the' pianist Sophi 
Menter, from whom he was separated in 1886. In 1896 he 
became professor at the Royal Conservatoire at Budapest. He 
published various works, mainly compositions for the 'ceUo, 
together with four volumes of studies arranged as a viobncello 
scbooL 

POFPO, ERNST FRIEDRICH (1794-2866), (krman classical 
scholar and schoolmaster, was bom at Guboi in Brandenburg 
on the 13th of August, 1794. In z8x8 he was appointed director 
of the gymnasium at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, where he died on 
the 6th of November x866, having resigned his post three ye^ 
before. Poppo was an extremely successful teacher • and 
ocipmizer, and in a few years doubled the number of pupils 
At the gymnasium. He is chiefly known, however, for his 
exfaanstive and complete edition of Thucydidcs in four parts 
(xi vols-, X82X-X840), containing (i.) prolegomena on Thuc/dides 
as an historian and on his language and style (Eng. trans, by 
G. Surges, 1837), accompanied by historical and geographical 
essays; (n.) text with scholia and critical notes; (iii) commentary 
on the text and tcMia; (iv.) indices and appendices. For the 
ordinary student a smaller edition (Z843-18SX) was prepared, 
revised after the author's death by J. M. Stahl (1875-X889). 

See R. Schwarxe hi AUgemetMe indsehe Biograpkie and authorities 
tbexe fdTcrred to. 

POPPT, in botany, a genus of plants known botanically as 
fapaatr, the type of the family or natural order Papaveraceae. 
They are annual and perennial erect herbs containing a milky 
juice, with k>bed or cut leaves and generally long-stalked regular 
sbowy flowers, which are nodding in the bud stage: The 
sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as 
the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or su) petals, which 
are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily. Tlie numerous 
stasnens surround the ovary, which is composed of 4 to z6 carpels 


and is surmounted by a flat or convex rayed disk bearing the 
stigmas. The ovary is incompletely divided into many chambers 
by the ingrowth of the placentas which bear numerous ovules 
and. form in the fruit a numy-seeded short capsule opening by 
sfaiall valves below the upper edge. The valves are hydroscopic, 
responding to increase in the amount of moisture in the atmo- 
sphere by -dosing the apertures. In dry weather the valves 
open, and the sinaU seeds are ejected through the pores when 
the capside is shaken by the wind on its long stiff slender stalk. 
The flowers contain no honey and are visit^ by pollen-seeking 
insects, which alight on the broad stigmatic surface. The 
genus contains about 40 spedes, mostly luitives of central and 
south Europe and temperate Asia. Five species a^ British; 
P. Rkoeas is the coounon scarlet poppy found in cornfields and 
waste places. Cultivated forms of this, with exquisite shades 
of colour and without any blotch at the base of the petals, are 
known as Shirley poppies. P, somnifentm, the opium poppy, 
with large white or blue-purple flowers^ is widely cultivated (see 
Onxju). The Oriental poppy (P. orieniak) and its several 
varieties are fine garden plants, having huge bright crimson 
flowers with black blotches at the base. Many hybrid forms of 
varying shades of colour have been raised of late years. The 
Iceland poppy {P. undicauU), is one of the showiest species, 
having grey-green pinnate leaves and flowers varying in colour 
from 'pure white to deep orange-yellow, orange-scariet, &c. 
Specially fine varieties with stalks 18-34 ui. high are cultivated 
on a large scale by some growers for market. The Welsh poppy 
bdongs to an allied genus, Meconopsis; it is a pereimial herb 
with a yellow juice and pale yellow poppy-like flowers. It is 
native in the south-west and north of En^and, and in Wales; 
also in Ireland. The prickly poppy {Argemone grandifiora) is 
a fine Mexican perenxiial with large wlutfrflowers. 

To the same family bdongs the homed poppy, Gaucium 
lifteum, found in sandy sea-shores and characterized by the waxy 
bloom of its leaves and large golden-ydlow short-stalked 
flowers. Another member of the family is EKhschciUaa call- 
fornica^ a native of western North America, and well-known 
in gardens, with orange-coloured flowers and a long two-valved 
fruit pbd. 

The plume poppy (Bocamia cordate and B. microcarpa) are 
ornamental foliaige plants of great beauty. The cyclamen 
poppy {Eomecon clHonantha) is a pretty Chinese pereimial, 
having roxmdish dightly lobed leaves and pure white flowers 
about a in. across. The tree poppy {Dendromecon rigidum) is 
a Califomian shrub about 3 ft. high, having golden-yellow flowers 
about 3 in. across. The Califomian poppy (Platystemon cali- 
fomicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow 
flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the wbite bush poppy 
{Romneya CouUeri) is a very attractive perennial and semi- 
shrubby plant 3-8 ft. high, with piimatifid leaves and large 
sweet scented white flowers often 6 in. across. 

POPPY HEADS, a term, in architecture, given to the finials 
or other ornaments which terminate the tops of bench ends, 
dther to pews or stalls. They are sometimes small human heads, 
sometimes richly carved images, knots of foliages or finials, and 
sometimes fieurs-de4is simply cut out of the thickness of the 
bench end and chamfered. The term is probably derived 
from the French poupSe, doll, puppet, used also in this sense, 
or from the flower, from a resemblahce in shape. 

POPPY OIL {Oieum papaveris), a vegetable oil obtained by 
pressure from the minute seeds of the garden or opium poppy, 
Papaver somniferum. The • white-seeded and black-seeded 
varieties are both used for oil-pressing; but, when the production 
of oil is the prindpal object of the culture, the black seed is 
usually preferred. The qualities of the oQ yidded by both 
varieties and the proportion they contain (from 50 to 60%) are 
the same. By cold pressing seeds of fine qdality yield froni 30 to 
40% of virgin or white oil {huile blancke)^ a transparent limpid 
fluid with a slight yellowish tinge, bland and pleasant to taste, 
and with ahnost no perceptible smdl. On second pressure with 
the aid of ^eat an additional 30 to 35% of inferior oil {kuUe dc 
fabrique or huSe russe) is obtained, reddish in colour, possessr 


92 


POPULATION 


of a biting taste, and a linaeed-Ulctf imelL The oil belongs to 
the linoldc or drying series, having.as its principal constituent 
linolein; and it po s s es ses greater drying power than raw linseed 
oiL Its specific gravity at 15' C. is 0*935. Poppy oil is a valu- 
able and much used medium for artistic oil painting. The fine 
<iualities are largely used in the north of France {kuiU d* aittdte) 
and in Germany as a salad oil, and are less liable than olive oil 
to rancidity. The absence of taste and characteristic smeU in 
poppy oil also leads to its being much used for adulterating olive 
oil. The inferior qualities are principally consumed in soap- 
making and vanish-making, and for burning in lamps. The 
oil is very extensively used in the valley of the Ganges and 
other opium regions for food and domestic purposes. By native 
methods in India about 30% of oil is extracted, and the remam- 
ing oleaginous cake is used as food by the poor. Ordinary 
poppyi^U cake is a valuable feeding material, rich in nitrogenous 
constituents, with an ash showing an unusually large proportion 
of phosphoric acid. The seed of the yellow homed poppy, 
XHaucium luieum, yields from 30 to 35% of an oil having the 
same drying and other properties as poppy oil; and from the 
Mexican poppy, Argtmone mexkana, is obtained a non-drying 
oil used as a lubricant and for burning. 

POPULATION (Lat. populus, people; populan, to populate), a 
term used in two different sigm'fications, (i) for the total number 
of human beings existing within certain area at a given time, and 
(a) for the "peopling" of the area, or the influence of the 
various forces of whidi that number is the result The popu- 
lation of a country, in the former sense of the word, is ascertained 
by means of a census (9.9.), which periodically records the number 
of people found in it on a certain date. Where, as is generally 
the esse, detail of sex, sge, conjugal condition and birthplace 
is included in the return! the census results can be co-ordinated 
with those of the parallel registration of marriages, births, deaths 
and migration* thus forming the basis of what are summarily 
termed vital statistics^ the source of our information regarding 
the nature and causdi of the process of " peopling," i.e. the 
movement of the population between one census and another. 
Neither of these two operations has yet reached perfection, 
cither in scope or accuracy, though the census, being the subject 
of special and concentrated effort, is goierally found the superior 
in the latter respect, and is in many cases taken in countries 
where registration has not yet been introduced. The countries 
where neither is in force are still, unfortunately, very 
numerous. 

The Population of the World, and its Geographical DistribuHon, 
— ^Man is the only animal which has proved able to pass from 
dependence upon its environment to a greater or less control 
over it. He aloqe, accordingly, has spread over every' quarter 
of the globe. The area and population .of the worid^ as a whole, 
have been the subject of many estimates in scientific works for 
the last three centuries and are still to a considerable extent 
matteiB of rough approximation. Every decade, however, 
beings a diminution of the field of conjecture, as some form of 
dviHzed administration is extended over the more backward 
tracts, and is followed, in due course, by a survey and a census. 
It is not necessary, therefore, to dte the estimates framed before 
x88a, when a carefully revised summary was published by Boehm 
and H. Wagner. Since then the laborious investigations of 
P. F. Levasseur and L. Bodio have 
been completed in the case of Europe 
and America, and, for the rest of the 
world, the figures annually brought up 
to date in the Statesman's Year Book 
may be taken to be the best avail- 
able. From these sources the 
abstract at foot of page has been 
derived* 

The principal' tracts still un- 
measured and unenumerated (in any 
strict sense) in the Old Workl are the 
Turkish Empire, Persia, Afghanistan, 
China and the Indo-Chinese peninsula 


and nearly nine-tenths of Africa. In the same category must be 
placed a considerable proportion of central, southern and Polar 
America (see Census). There is little of the world which is 
entirely uninhabited; still less permanently uninhabitable and 
unlikely to be reqtured to support a population in the course of 
the expansion of the race beyond its present abodes. Probably 
the polar regions alone do not fall within the category of the poten- 
tially productive, as even sandy and alkaline desert is rendered 
habitable when irrigation can be introduced; and vast tracts 
of fertile soil adapted for inunediate exploitation, especially 
in the temperate zones, both north and south, only remain 
impeopled because they aro not yet wanted for colonization. 
The geographical distribution of the population of the world 
is therefore extremely irregular, and, omitting from consideration 
areas but recently colonized, the density if regulated by the 
means of subsistence within reach. " La population," says 
G. de Molinari; " -a tendance de se proportionner i son d6bouch6." 
These,' in their turn, depend nudnly upon the character of the 
people who inhabit the country. Even amongst savages there 
are few communities, and those but sparse, whidi subsist entirely 
upon what is directly provided by nature. As human intelli- 
gence and industry come into play the means of livelihood are 
proportionately extended; population niultiplies, and with this 
multiplication production increases. Thus, the higher deositiet 
are found in the eastern hemisphere, within the zone in which 
arose the great civilizations of the world, or, roughly speaking, 
between north parallels 25 and 40 towards the east, and 25 and 
55 in the west. Here large areas with a mean density of over 
500 to the sq. m. may be fotmd either supported by the 
food directly produced by themselves, as in the great agricultural 
plains of the middle kingdom of China and the Ganges valley and 
delta; or else, as in western Europe, relying largely upon food 
from abroad, purchased by the products of manufacturing 
industry. In the one dass the density is mainly rural, in the 
other it is chiefly due to the concentration of the population 
into large urban aggregates. It is chiefly from the populations 
of the south-west of Europe that the New Worid is being colo- 
nized; but the territories over which the settlers and their itcniits 
from abroad are able to scatter are so extensive that even the 
lower densities of the Old World have not yet been attained, 
except in a few tracts along the eastern coasts of Australia and 
North America. Details of area and populatkm are given under 
the headings of the respective countries, and the only general 
point in connexion with the rehttion between these two facts 
which may be mentioned here is the need to bear in mind that the 
larger the territory the less likely is its, mean density-figure to 
be typical or really representative. Even in the case of small 
and comparatively homogeneous countries such as Holland, 
Belgium or Saxony there is considerable deviation from \f^ 
mean in the deiisity bf the respective component subdivisions, 
a difference which when extended over more numerous aggre- 
gates often renders the general mean misleading or of little value. 
Distribution of Population by 5ex.— After geographical dis- 
persion, the most general feature amongst the human race is its 
division by sex. The number of speculations as to the nature 
of this distinction has been, it is said, well-nigh doubled since 
Drelincourt, in the x8th century, brought together 36a ** ground- 
less hypotheses," and propounded on his own part a theory 

Tablk I. 


Continent. 

Sq. m. In 

PoDulation. in 
thousands. 

Population 

persq.ra. 

(1907). 

Unascertained 
Pertenuge of. 

(1907). 

1882. 

1907. 

Areaun- 

surveyed. 

Population 

Europe 
Asia . . . 
Africa . . . 
Amenca . 
Oceania . . 

3.828* 
15.773 

3.44« 

327.743 
795.591 
205,823 
100415 
4.232 

405.759 
918.324 
126,734 

I06t 

58 

II 
9t 
17 

25* 

43-2 
901 
50S>» 
5-4 

1-3 
S9-4 
77-4 

9-1 
19-6 

Total 

51.764 

1.433.804 

1,606.54a 

3i-7t 

50-4* 

41-4 


t Eidudinc Pebr nciiM 


POPULATION 


93 


whkh has rinoe been hdd to be the 263rd in tht series. It is 
not propoied to deal here with inddents appertsining to the 
** aate>iiAtal glooiii/' and we are concerned only with human 
beings when once they have been bom. In regard to the division 
ol these into male and female, the first point to be noted is that, 
in all communities of western civilization, more boys are born 
than girls. The excess ranges from 30 to 60 per thousand. 
In Greece and Rumania it is exceptionally high, uid in some 
Oriental or semi-Oriental countries it is said to fl^ve place to a 
defidt, though in the latter case the returns are probably not 
trustworthy. From the more accurate statistics available it 
appears that the excess of male births varies amongst different 
races and also at different times in the same community. It 
is high in new colonies and amongst the Latin races, with the 
exception of the French. These, with the English, show a 
much smaller excess of boy-births than the average of western 
Europe, and the proportion, moreover, seems to be somewhat 
dfrlining in both these countries and in Belgium, from causes 
which have not yet been ascertained. As the mortality amongst 
boys, especially during the first year, is considerably above that 
of the other sex, numerical equilibrium between the two is estab- 
Usbed in early youth, and in most cases girls outnumber boys, 
except for a few years between twelve and sixteen. Then follows 
the chequered period of the prime of life and middle age, during 
whidi the liability of men to industrial acddents, war and other 
causes of special mortality, irrespective of their greater incli- 
nation to emigrate, is generally sufficient to outweigh the dangers 
of diildbirth or premature decay among the women, who tend, 
accordingly, to predominate in number at this stage. In old 
age, again, thdr vitality rises superior to that of the men, and 
they continue to form the majority of the community. The 
general results are an excess of females over males throughout 
western Europe: but though the relative proportions vary from 
time to time, remaining always in favour of what is conventionally 
called the weaker sex, it is impossible, owing to daturbing factors 
like war and migr^on, to ascertain whether there is any general 
tendency for the [Proportion of females to increase or not. In 
oomparatively new settlements, largely fed by immigration, the 
number o£ males is obviously likely to be greater than that of 
females, but in the case of countries in Asia and eastern Europe 
in which also a considerable defidency of the latter sex is indi- 
cated by the returns, it is probable that the strict sedusion 
imposed by convention on women and the consequent reticence 
regarding them on the part of the householders answering 
the oflidal inquiry tend towards a short count. On the other 
hand, the lower position there assigned to women and the very 
considerable amount of hard work exacted from them, may 
caose them to wear out earlier than under higher conditions, 
though not to the extent implied in the statistics. In the 
Tablb II. 


Cmmtif. 

i 


Cootty. 

1 

ii 

fSiwien 

Seodand 
llfdaad 
rHdiaiid 
. Bdgiam 

Gernany 
lAa«fta. 

IE 


losa 

i? 

1038 

I03S 
IOI3 
1099 
IQ4S 

1033 

lOZI 

1049 
1093 

946 

946 

950 
956 
950 

GaUda 

rIS; : 

Greece . . . 

Servia . . . 
Bulgaria . . 
Ru2ia . . . 

rS^) : 
ISSr : : 

'Umtcd Sutes ! 

Canada . . 

Af^entine . . 

Cape Colony . 

Australia . . 
^New Zealand . 

1019 
1009 
964 
931 
946 
959 

ion 

g 
Vi 

900 

941 
949 

1^ 

945 
927 

948 
950 


foUowing Uble the latest available mformation on this head is 
given for representative-countries of western and eastern Europe, 
the East and the New Worid. 

DislributioH by Age.— Few (wets are more uncertain about an 
individual than the number of years he will live. Few, on 
the contrary, as was pointed out by C. Babbage, are less subject 
to fluctuation than the duration of life amongst people taken in 
large aggregates. The age^nnstitution of a community does 
indeed vary, and to a considerable extent, in course of time, but 
the changes are usually gradual, and often spread over a genera- 
tion or more. At the same time, it must be admitted that 
those which have recently taken place amongst most of the 
communities of western Europe are remarkable for both their 
rapidity and their extent; and are probably attributable, in 
part at least, to influences which were almost inoperative at the 
time when Babbage wrote. The distribution of a population 
amongst the different periods of life is regulated, in normal 
circumstances, by the birth-rate, and, as the mortality at some 
of the periods is far greater than At others, the death-rate falls 
indirectly under the same influence. The statistics of age, there- 
fore, may be said to form a link between those of the population, 
considered as a fixed quantity, as at a census, and those which 
record its movement from year to year. To the correct interpret 
tation of the latter, indeed, they are fssfntial, as will appear 
bek>w. Unfortunately, the return of age is amongst the less 
satisfactory results of a general enumeration, though its inaccu- 
racy, when Q>read over millions of persona, is susceptible of 
oonection mathematically, to an extent to make it serve its 
purpose in the directions above indicated. The error in the 
ori^mal return generally arises bom ignorance. An illiterate 
population is very prone to state its age in even multifides of five, 
and even where education is widdy spread this tendency is not 
altogether absent, as may be seen from the examples given in 
Tablb III. 



Numberretumedatcacbagepef 10,000 of Population. | 


United Sutes, 

Russia. 1897. 


Age. 

Germany, 
1900. 

1900. 


Ii^U. 
Females. 

Native 



Asia, 



Whites. 

Negroes. 

Europe. 

Females, 


19 

180 

196 

204 

166 

iia 

64 

20 

182 

200 

252 

223 

385 

505 

21 

181 

191 

204. 

143 

113 

54 

a9 

130 
149 

146 
170 

Ill 

Ǥ 

60 
456 

.s 

31 
49 
50 


125 

156 

74 

1 

13 
386 

51 

61 

38 

35 

it 

12 

S 

62 

43 

30 

9$ 

10 

s; 

49 

105 

163 

179 

281 

61 

33 

15 

22 

35 

II 


Table III. Deliberate mis-sutements, too, are not unknown, 
especially amongst women. This has been repeatedly illustrated 
in the English census reports. Irrespective of the wish of women 
between 3$ and 40 to return themsdves as under 35, there appean 
to be the more practical motive of obtaining better terms in 
industrial insurance, whilst an oversUtement of age often has, it 
is said, the object of getting better wages in domestic service, or 
better dietary in the workhouse I In all countries, moreover, 
there seems to be an inclination to exaggerate bngevity after the 
three score years and ten have been passed. In order to minimize 
the results of such Ixutccuracy, the return of ag^ is compiled in 
aggregates of five or ten years and then redistributed over single 
years by the method of differences. The present purpose being 
merdy to illustrate the variation of distribution amongst a few 
repreaenUtive countries, it is unnecessary to enter into more 
detail than such as will serve to distingubh the proportions of 
the populatfon in main divisions of life. Thus it may be said 
that in the west of Europe about one-third of the people, roughly 
speaking, are under fifteen; about one-half, between that age and 
fifty, and the remaining sixth older than fifty. The middle period 


94 


POPULATION 


may conveniently be extended to sixty and subdivided at forty, 
as is done in Table IV. The differences between the several 
countries in their age-constitution can best be appreciated by 
reference to 80(ne recognised general standard. The one here 
adopted is the result of the co-ordination of a long series 
of enumerations taken in Sweden during the last century and 
a half, prepared by Dr G. Sundbirg of Stockholm. It is true 
that for practical use in connexion with vital statbtics for a 
given period, the sggregate age-distribution of the countries 
concerned would be a more accurate basis of comparison, but 
the wide period covered by the Swedish observations has the 
advantage of eliminating temporary disturbances of the balance 
of ages, and may thus be held to compensate for the compara- 
tively narrow geographical extent of the field to which it rdates. 

Tablb IV. 


Country. 


Standard . 

Sweden 
Norway . 
Finland . 
Denmark 

England . 
ScotUnd 
Ifdand . 

Holland . 
Belgium 
Gcnnaay 
Austria . 

France . 
Italy . 
Portugal. 

Galida . 

Hungry 

Servia 

Bulpria 

Greece 


Russia (Europe) 
IndU (males) 
Japan . . 

United Sutes 


Australasia . 
Cape Colony 


Census 
Year. 


1900 


1901 


1899 
1900 


1901 
1900 


1889 

1897 
1891 
1898 

1900 
1901 

1904 


Per 1000 of Population. 


Under 15. 


354 
345 
339 

334 
334 
304 

348 

344 

338 

377 
356 
419 
414 

393 

350 
391 
335 

S» 

349 

4»5 


iS-40. 


J89 

366 
361 

376 

4^3 

416 
407 

3«4 
404 
395 
402 

389 
366 
375 

399 
379 
395 
32a 
400 

385 

iS- 

4as 

409 
431 
409 


40-6a 


i 

179 

18 

;s 

196 
191 

!a 

14s 
17s 
(55 

180 
163 
193 

!S 

157 
1*9 


Over 60. 


119 

8a 
99 

74 
77 
109 

93 

?i 

134 

44 
9a 

5a 
85 

75 
47 


As regards correspondence with the standard distribution, it 
will be noted that Fmland, the next country to Sweden geo- 
graphically, comes after Japan, far detached from northern 
Europe by both race and distance, and is followed by Portugal, 
where the conditions are also very dissimilar. The other 
Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, appear, like 
Sweden itself in the present day, to bear in their age-distribution 
distinct marks of the emigration of adults, or, at least, the 
temporary absence from home of this class at the time of enume- 
ration. The same can be said of Italy in its later returns and of 
Germany m those before 189$* On the contrary, the effect of 
the inflow of adult migrants is very marked, as is to be expected, 
in the returns for the new countries, such ss the United States, 
Canada and Australasia. In the case of the Old Worid, the 
divergence from the standard which most deserves notice is the 
remarkable preponderance of the young in all the countries of 
eastern Europe, as well as in India, accompanied by an equally 
notable deficiency of the older elements in the population. 
AffUn, there are in the west two well-known instanifs of deficient 
rdnforoement of the young, France and Ireland, in which 
countries the proportion of those under 15 falls respectively 
75 and 32 per mflle below the standard; throwing those over 
60 up to 41 and a6 per mille above it. The table does not in- 
clude figures for earlier enumerations, but one general character^ 


istic in them should be mentioned, via. the tax higher pioportion 
borne in them of the young, ss compared with the more recent 
returns. In England, for instance, those under 15 anMunted to 
360 per mille in 1841, against 334 sixty years later. In Ireland 
the corresponding fall has been still more marked, fn>m 38a to 
304. The ratio in Frailce was low throughout the 19th century, 
and during the last half fell only from 273 to a6x, raising the 
proportion of the old above that resulting in northern Europe 
and Italy from emigration. It is remarkable that the same 
tendency for the proportion of the young to fall off is perceptible 
in new countries as well ss in the older civilisations, setting aside 
the influence of immigration at the prime of life in depressing 
the proportion of children. The possible causes of this wide- 
spread tendency of the mean age of a western community to 
increase appertain to the subiect of the movement of the 
population, which is dealt with bekiw. 

Th€ Movemeia trf PopulaHon.—** Thit true greatness of a 
State " says Bacon, " consisteth essentially in population and 
breed of men "; and an increasing population is one of the most 
certain signs of the well-being of a community. Successive 
accretions, however, being spread over so k>ng a term as that of 
human life, it does not follow that the population at any given 
time is necessarily the result of contemporary prosperity. Con- 
versely, the traces left by a casual set-back, sudi as famine, war, 
or an c^deadc disease, remain long after it has been succeeded 
by a period of recuperation, and are to be found in the age- 
constitution and the current vital statistics. Population is 
continually In a sute of motion, and in large aggregates the 
direction is invariably towards increase. The forces underijring 
the movement may differ from time to time in their respective 
intensity, and, hi highly exceptional cases, may approach 
equilibrium, thdr natural tendendes being interrupted by special 
causes, but the hutances of general decline are confined to wild 
and compantivdy small communities brought into contact 
with alien and more dviUsed races. The factors upon wfaicfa 
the growth of a population depend are internal, operating 
within the community, or external, arbing out of the relations 
of the conununity with other countries. In the latter case, 
population already In existence is transferred from one territory 
to another by migration, a subject which will be referred to 
later. Far more important is the vegetative, or ** natural " 
increase, through the excess of births over deaths. The 
prindpal influences upon this, in dvHised life, axe the number 
of the married, the age at which they marry or bear childibn, 
the fertility of marrisges and the duration of life, each of whidi- 
is in some way or other connected with the others. 

Aforriaft.— In every country a small and generally diminMi- 
ing proportion of the children is bora out of wedlock, but the 
primary regulator of the native growth of a community b' the 
institution of marriage. Wherever, it has been said, there is 
room for two to live up to the conventional standard of comfort, 
a marriage takes pUoe. So dose, indeed, up to recent times, 
was the connexion held to be between the prosperity of the 
country and the number of marriages, that Dr W. Farr used to 
call the latter the barometer of the former. The experience 
of the present generation, however, both in En^^and and other 
countries, seems to justify some relaxation of that view, as wiU 
appear bdow. The tendency pf a commimity towards matri- 
mony, or its " nuptiality," as it is sometimes termed, is usually 
indiated by the ratio to the total population of the persons 
married eadi year. For the purpose of comparing the circum- 
stances of the same community at successive periods this method 
is fairly trustworthy, assuming that there has been no material 
shifting of the age-proportions during the intervals. It is not 
a safe guide, however, when appKed to the comparison of 
di&rent communities, the age-composition of which is probably 
by no means identical, but in consideration of its familSarity 
it has been adopted in the first section of Table V. bdow. at 
three periods for each of the countries selected as representaUve. 

One of the features which is prominent throughout the return 
is that in every country except Belgium the rate per mille 
attained a maximum in the early seventies, and has diioe ihowa 


POPULATION 


95 


A ftfyrnding tendency, notwithsUnding the fact, noted in the 
preceding pangnph, that the yoathful population, which, of 
counc, wctgfas dom the rate, has also been rdativdy deaeaaing. 
Countries of Oriental and lemi-Oiiental habits have not been 
shown, owing to the difference in their marriage qfitem from 
that of western Europe. It may be mentioned, however, in 
passing, that their marriage rate is generally oonsiderably higher 
than that here indicated, as may be seen from the example ^t 
Gahda, which is here shown separately from ds-Leithian Austria. 


years of age and decreases rapidly as that period is left behind. 
A Swedish return of 1896-1900 shows that the annual births per 
thousand wives of 20-as are fewer by nearly 17% than those of 
wives under aa Between as and jo the number falls off by 
one-fifth, and after 40 by about 44%. In the oountries 
mentioned in Table V. the average proportion borne by wives 
under jo to the total under 45 is just over one-third. Th^t 
proportion is exceeded in southern Europe, where women develop 
earlier, and in Galicia. In Engbmd and France it stands at 


TABf.B V. 


Country. 


Per looo of Population. 


Persons Married Ycariy. 


Wonwn, 15 to 45 (1900). 


i86i-i87a 1871-1875. 1895-1904. |( Total 


Married. Unmarried. 


M«n, ao-^. 


Unmarried. 


Sweden . 
Norway . 
Finland . 
Denmark 

England. 
Scotland. 
IreUnd . 


Germany 
Bdcium . . 
Austria (W.) 


Fiance 
Italy. 


Galicia 


131 
13-3 
iS-5 
14-9 

167 
14-0 
io>5 

16.4 
170 

\U 

15-6 
i5-a 

19-7 


14*0 
146 
179 
159 

171 
14-9 
10*7 

16-6 
l8-9 
IS- 1 
177 

16^ 
15*0 

X97 


I2'0 
132 
141 

14-6 

15-8 
143 

lO-I 

14-9 
164 
i6«4 
15-7 

152 
144 

17-6 


ai9 
aai 

as© 

?4a 
235 

ai8 

226 

230 

227 

228 
214 

335 


88 
91 
103 
104 

"7 
102 
76 

96 

in 

106 

120 

116 

12$ 


102 
115 
III 

127 

»35 
«53 

118 
107 
117 
115 

too 
9» 


«3 
71 

i? 

77 
90 
125 


II 

82 

7» 

67 


In the opposite direction will be noted the case of Ireland, 
whoe the rate is abnormally low; and returns more recent 
than those included in the table ahow that of late the rates in 
Sweden 'and Norway have also fallen to but little above iz per 
mille. In regard to the necessity of taking into consideration 
the factor of age in the return of maniage-rates, an example may 
be here gSven from the daU for England. The rate taken upon 
the total population was z6*7 per mille in 1870-1871 and Z5*3 in 
1905; by eiduding the population under fifteen the corre- 
^xmding figures sie 57*2 and 46*6 per mille. Thus the decline, 
which by the first method is only 8%, becomes, by the second, 
19%; and if the age-distribution of 1905 were reduced to that of 
the earlier period, the difference would increase to 22%, the 
most accurate figure of the three. For the present purpose it 
is sufficient to connect the rate of marriage with that of births 
by using as a basb for the former the number of women of 
coDceptive age, or bietween 15 and 45 years cidL The propor- 
tion of these is given in the latter portion of the table. Again 
taking En^^and as an enmple, the women of the above ages 
bore the proportion to the total population of 23% in 
1871 and Ittd risen to 25% in 1901; but at the former time, 
49-6% were noanied, whflst thirty years later, only 46*8 were 
thus situated. The table also shows that the proportion of 
the women of the ages in question who were married exceeds 
half only in Italy, France and Germany, not to mention Galida. 
In other countries the average proportion is about 45%. In 
Sweden and Norway it is only 41 and in Ireland less than a 
third. In Scandinavia, and perhaps in Italy, the rate may be 
affected by the emigration of adult males, but the later columns 
of the table indicate that this is not the cause of the low rate in 
Ireland, which appears to b6 mainly due to abstinence from 
Boarriage at the ages specified. 

Next to the proportion of the married to the total marriageable 
the most important factor, connected with the natural increase 
of the population is the age at which marriage takes place. 
Where the proportion of the married is high, the average age of 
the wives is low, and ear)y marriage is conducive to relatively 
rapid increase. In the first place, the interval between genera- 
tiotts is shortened, and the elder is contemporaneous with the 
younger for a longer period. Then, again, the fecundity of women 
amoagst western peoples is at its maximum between 18 and 35 


36. In Ireland and Sweden it is only 28, and hi Denmark, 
Holland and Norway, too, it is below the average. The registrar- 
general of England has pointed out a marked tendency towards 
the postponement of marriage in that country. Between 1876 
and 1905, for instance, the proportion of minors married receded 
hy 43%. in the case of men and 32% amongst women. . The 
mean age of husbands married in 1873 was 25>6 years and of 
wives 24*2, whereas thirty years later the corresponding ages 
were 28*6 and 36-4. The general results of the dedlne of the 
marriage-rate and the postponement of marriage upon the 
natural growth "of population will be discussed in connection 
with the birth-rate, though the statistics available do not permit 
of the accurate measurement (rf the respective influence oi these 
factors, and there are others, too, which have to be takm into^ 
consideration, as will appear below. 

Births.— Aput bom the information which the statistics of 
birth furnish Ss to the growth of population, they have, like 
those of marriage, and perhaps to even a greater extent, a 
special social interest bom thdr bearings upon the moral con- 
ditions of the community to which they rdate. It is in their 
former capacity, however, that they enter into the present sub- 
ject. A birth-rate, taken as it usually is upon the toUd popu- 
lation, old and young, is open to the objections made above 
respecting the maniage-rate, and with even more force, as the 
basis is itself largely the product of the fact which is being 
measured by it. The internal variations of the rate in a single 
community, however, can befairiy indicated in this way, as is 
done in Table VI., which, it is to be noted, refers to those bom 
alive, only and exdudes the still-bom, statistics regarding whom 
are incomplete. 

The cmde birth-rate, it wOl be noted, Is m general harmony 
with that of marriage. In the countries where the former is 
high the rate of marriage is also above the average. In eastern 
Europe, so far as the figures can be trusted, this is markedly 
the case, and the birth-rates range between 39 per mille in 
Hungary and 49 in Russia, where the tradition of encouraging 
prolifidty amongst the peasantry has not been effaced. Among 
the lower rates which prevail In westem Europe, however, 
the connexion is not so direct, and a low birth-rate is some- 
times found with a relatively higher marriage rate and vice 
versa, a deviation from the natural course of events which will 


96 


POPULATION 


be diiOiMed prcMntly. The birth-tate, like the marriage-rate, 
aeems to have reached its acme in the seventies, except 
in the three southern coontries, France, Italy and Spain. The 
dedine since the above period is very marked and exceeds 
that noted in the case of the rate of marriage. It is worth 
noting, too, that the fall in the crude birth-rate is not confined 
to the Old World, but has attracted special attention in 
Australia and New Zealand, where a rate of 40 per mille in 
the period i86i~r87o has now given place to one of 36. In 
Massachusetts and other of the older settlements of the United 
States, moreover, the same feature has been the subject of 
investigation. 


other than abstinence from marriage, at all events at the princi- 
pal reproductive period; and perhaps to a decrease in manriaae 
or remarriage after middle life, a period of which the weight 
in the age^tribudon has been increasing of late. On the 
other hand, the postponement of marriage in the case of women 
of conceptive ages is a tendency which seems to be growing kk 
other countries a* well as in England and undoubtedly hu % 
depressing effect upon the rate of births. It would conduce, 
therefore, to further accuracy in the comparison of the rates of 
different countries if the latter were to be correlated with greater 
subdivision of the ages amongst wives between 15 and 45. 
The proportion of wives below 30 to the total of that group was 


TablbVI. 


Country. 

(A) Born alive, per 1000 of Total 

(B) Legitimate Births, per 

1000 Wives, 

15 to 45 years old. 

(C) Illegitimate 
Births, per 1000 
Unmarried and 
Widowed Women, 
15 to 45. 

1841-1850. 

1861-1870. 

1871-1875, 

1900-1905. 

1880-1883. 

1890-1893. 

1900-1903. 

1896-1900. 

Sweden . 

Finland . . . 
Denmark . . . 

England . . . 
Scotland . . . 
Ireland . . . 

Holland . . . 
Belgium . . . 
Germany . . 
Austria (W.) . . 

France . . . 
luly . . . . 
Spain .... 

311 
30-7 
35-5 
30-5 

34;6 

330 
305 
361 
35-9 

27J 

314 
309 
347 
310 

36^ 

It:? 
37a 

35-7 

263 
37-5 
37-8 

307 
303 
370 
308 

360 

361 

3a-4 
389 
37a 

1! 

36*5 

a6-7 
29-7 
33a 

29-7 

290 
39-7 

S:j 

35-5 
34a 

ai-7 
33§ 
34-8 

293 
314 

287 

a86 

3i* 
383 

347 
313 

a8i 

^^ 
258 

380 
307 

m 

301 
393 

^§ 

S64 

369 
303 

359 
335 

'4 

315 

384 

359 

i8-o 
33-6 

8-8 
141 
3-9 

.n 

377 
417 

181 

31*1 


The crude rates which have been discussed above afford no 
explanation of this change, nor do they always illustrate its full 
extent. It is necessary, therefore, to eliminate the difference 
in the age-constitution of the countries in question by exduding 
from the field of observation, as before, all except possible 
mothers, basing the rate upon the respective numbers of women 
of the conceptive age, that is between 15 and. 45. The pro- 
portion borne by tUs group to the total population' is in most 
cases fairly up to that set forth by Dr Sundblirg in his standard. 
It is well above it in all three parts of the United Kingdom and 
falls materially below it only in Scandinavia^and Italy. Indeed, 
during the last generation, this proportion has been in most 
cases slightly increased, in consequence of the fall of the 
birth-rate which set in anterior to this period. The stock, then, 
from which wives are drawn is ample. The question remains, 
how far advantage is taken of it. According to the Sundb&rg 
standard the percentage married is 48. As has been shown 
in the preceding paragraph, this is surpassed in Italy, France 
and Germany, and approached in most of the rest, with the 
exception of Sweden, Norway and Scotland, which are six or 
seven points below it, and Ireland, where less than a third 
are married. The proportion married, moreover, has slightly 
increased since 1880, except in the United Kingdom. In 
England the marriage-rate (on the age basis) fell off by 4*6% 
and in Scotland by 3%, whilst the crude birth-rate declined 
by 15 and 11% respectively. In Ireland the case was different, 
as the marriage-rate declined by xa% and the birth-rate by no 
more than 5*7 %. In New South Wales and New Zealand, too, 
the marriage-rates fell off in the same period by xi and 28% 
respectively, whilst the decline in the birth-rates amotmted to 
35 and 31%. In the above countries, therefore, abstinence from 
matrimony may be said to have been a factor of some importance 
in the decline. On the continent of Europe, however, looking 
at the divergence in direction between the crude marriage-rate 
and that corrected to an age;basis, it is not improbable that 
the decline in the fonher may be attributable to some cause. 


mentioned in connexion with the marriage-rate, and in the 
figures relating to some 30 years back some traces can be found 
of a connexion between a high birth-rate and a high proportion 
of young wives. In the present day, however, these indications 
do not appear, so it would seem that the tendency in question 
had been interrupted by some other influence, a point to which 
reference will be made below. 

If abstinence from marriage and the curtailment of the 
reproductive period by postponement of marriage be insufficient 
to account for the material change which has taken place in the 
birth-rate within the last few decades, it is dear that the latter 
must be attribuuble to the diminished fertility of those who are 
married. On this question the figures in the second portion of 
Table VL throws some light. Here the annual number of 
legitimate births is shown in its proportion to the mean number 
of married women of conceptive age at each of the three latest 
enumerations. The rate, it will be seen, has fallen in all the 
countries specified, except for a slight increase of a% in Ireland 
and an almost stationary condition in Austria and Spain. The 
dedine in Italy and Norway is small, but in France, where for a 
long time the fertility of the population has been very much 
bdow that of any other European country, the birth-rate thus 
calculated fell by nearly 20%, the same figure being approached 
in Belgiimi, where however, the fertility of married women is 
considerably greater. The case of England is remarkable. In 
the earlier period its crude birth and 'marriage-rates were above 
the average and. its proportion of young wives well up to it. 
Its fertOity-rate, however, which was by no means high in 1880, 
fell by nearly x8% by igox, and since that date a further fall 
is reported by the registrar-general, to 24%, leaving the rate 
below that of all the other European countries except France. 
The States of Australasia, again, have experienced a decline 
even more marked. In 1880-1882 their fertility-rate ranged 
from 300 to 338, a low proportion for a new country, but nearly 
up to the European sUndard. By X90&-1902, however, the rate 
had fallen in all the larger States by from 23 to 31 % and the 


POPULATION 


97 


bigiicil iste recorded, 353 per thousand oOnceptive wives, was 
lower than that of any European country except France and 
BeSgium. The cessation of assated immigration early in the 
life of the pi^sent generation is alleged to have had considerable 
influence upon the rate, in Victoria, at least, owing to the curtail- 
ment of the supply of adult women of the more oonceptive ages 
and the ageing of those Who had reached the country at an 
earlier date. But neither this nor the diminution of the marriage- 
late amongst women of those ages suffices to account for more 
than a fraction of the decline. The same tendency, moreover, 
is traceable in the New Rngland States of America, so &r as 
statistics are available. 

It has been held by some that a phenomenon so widely 
diffiiVid over the western world must be attributable to physio- 
logical causes, such as alcoholism, syphilis, the abuse of narcotics 
and so on. Herbert Spencer, again, before the decline in 
question set in, put forward the hypothesis that " the ability to 
maintain individual life and the ability to multiply vary in- 
versely "; in other words, the strain upon the nervous system 
involved in the struggle for life under the conditions of modern 
dviliaation, by reacting on the reproductive powers, tends 
towards comparative sterility. These theories, however, being 
supported, according to the authorities of to-day, by no evidence, 
statistical or other, need not be hoe considered. 

Nor, again, can the decline in fertility be connected with 
any diminution of material prosperity. On the contrary, the 
fertility-rate appears to be best maintained in countries by no 
means distinguished for their high standard of living, such as 
Spain, Italy, Ireland, and, perhaps, Austria. In this respect 
Holland stands by itself; but in the others mentioned, with the 
exception of Ireland, both marriage and birth-rates arc high 
and there has been a comparatively insignificant fall in proUfi- 
dty. The decline has been greatest where the standard of 
comfort is notoriously high, as in the United States, England 
and Australasia; also in France, where the general wellbeing 
reacha probably a lower depth in the commimity than in any 
other part of Europe. The comparison of the rates in France 
with those of Ireland is an instructive illustration of the point 
nnder consideration. In France more than half the women 
of conceptive age are married: in Ireland less than a third, 
and the proportion of youthful wives in the latter is 28% below 
that in France. In both the crude birth-rate is far below that 
of any other European country. But the fertility of the Irish 
wife exceeded that of her French compeer by 44% in 1880 and 
by no less than 84% twenty years kter. So steady, indeed, 
has been the prolificity of Irdand, that from being ninth on the 
list at tiie earlier period mentioned, it is now inferior only to 
HoQand and perhaps Finland in this respect. 

It need not be assumed, however, that because these rates 
cannot be associated with the comparative degree of prosperity 
attained by the individual community they are altogether inde- 
pendent of the economic factors mainly contributing to that 
condition, such as trade, employment and prices. It is difficult, 
indeed, H not impracticable, to disentangle the effects which 
should be respectively attributed to influences so closely related 
to each other; but, of the three, prices alone tend to sufiident 
uniformity in their couiae in different countries to justify a 
supposition that they are in some way connected with a phenom- 
enon so widely diffused as that of the decline in mairiage and 
fertility. It is not improbable, therefore,' that the fall in wfaole- 
saJeprices which, with temporary interruptions, persisted between 
1870 and X900, in general harmony with the other movement, 
may have conduced to reluctance on the part of those who 
have enlarged their notions of the standard of comfort to en- 
danger their prospects of enjoying it by incurring the additional 
expenses of family life. Matrimony may be postponed, or, when 
entered upon, may be rendered a lighter burden upon the bread- 
winner. The economic element in the situation, which is 
imposed upon the individual by drcumstances, is thus modified 
voiontarfly into a moral or prudential consideration. In this 
case dimintshed protifidty where unaccompanied by a decrease 
in the Dumber of marriages at reproductive ages, is attributable 


to the voluntary restriction of child-beaxing on the part of the 
married. Tliis explanation of the decline is supported by 
the almost unanimous opinion of the medical profession in the 
countries in question, and substantial evidence can be 
found everywhere of the extensive prevalence of the doctrine 
and practice of what has been termed, in f uKher derogation of 
the repute of the " much misrepresented Malthus," Ntomat- 
tkusiamsm. Preventive measures of this kind have long 
been in use in France, with the result ^own in Tables V. 
and VI., and from that country they have spread, mostly since 
1870, nearly all over western Europe, as well as to the Anglo- 
Saxon world beyond the seas; but are scarcely apparent in 
countries where the Roman church has a strong hold on the 
people. It is generally held that the practice of thus limiting 
families usually prevails, in the first instance, among the better- 
off classes, and in time filters down, as " the gospel of cozofort " 
is accepted by those of less resources, until the prolifidty of the 
whole community is more or less affected by it. The registrar 
general for England, indeed, has stated that whilst no more than 
about 17% of the decline in the birth-rate can be attributed 
to abstinence or postponement of marriage, nearly 70% should 
be ascribed to voluntary restriction. 

Hie question of illegitimate births is the last to be here 
mentioned. It appears to be connected to a considerable extent 
with the subject dealt with above. In nearly every country the 
rate of these births has of late years shown a marked fall, which 
is by some ascribed to the adoption of the same expedients in 
illidt intercourse as are becoming conventional amongst the 
married. The rates given at the end of Table VI. are calculated 
upon the number of women most llkdy to produce them, that 
is, the spinsters, widows and divorced of oonceptive age. Iq 
comparing the different countries, .it may be noted that In some 
parts of Europe the rate is raised by the indusion of the off- 
spring of marriages not registered as demanded by law, though 
duly performed in church. Then, again, the possibility of 
legitimisation by subsequent marriage tends to raise the rate. 
Italy and Scotland may be taken as examples of these two 
influences, and in Germany, too, the rates in Saxony and Bavaria, 
which are among the highest in Europe, are in part due to the 
non-registration of marriages sanctioned by religious ceremony 
only. The low rates in Irdand, Holland and England are 
eq;)edally noticeable, and in the last named, the decrease 
between 1870 and 1905 amounted to more than 50%, not, 
however, entirdy due, it is said, to improved morality. 

Deaths. — ^The forces tending towards the natural growth of 
population, which have been described above, differ from that 
which acts in the opposite direction in two material features. 
Marriage and child-bearing, in the first place, are operative 
amongst a fraction of the population only — ^those of conceptive 
age; whereas to the Urn of Death, as Dr Farr expressed it, all ages 
are called upon to contribute in their differing degrees. Then, 
again, the former are voluntary acts, entirdy und^ the control 
of the individual; but mortality, though not beyond human 
regulation, is far lesa subject to it, and in order to have sub- 
stantial results the control must be the outcome of collective 
rather than individual co-operation. The coune of the marriage 
and birth-rates, set forth above, affords evidence that the 
control over both has been exercised of recent years to an un- 
precedented extent, and it will appear from what is stated 
bdow, that partly owing to this cause, partly, also, to improved 
hygienic conditions in western life, there has been an even more 
pronounced decline in the rate of mortality. The general 
results of both upon the natural increase of population in the 
countries sdected for illustration of this subject will be found 
at the end of this paragraph. For the purpose of showing this, 
the crude death-rate, taken, like that of births, upon the whole 
population, without distinction of age or sex, will suffice. Where, 
however, the tendency to mortality, not its results, is in question, 
both the above factors must be taken into account, as they have 
been above in distinguishing the rate of fertility from that of 
births. The process of correcting the mere numbers of annual 
deaths per thousand of population into a form which renders 


98 


POPULATION 


the return comparable with those for communities differently 
constituted is somewhat complicated, but it is amply justified 
by its necessity in adapting the figures to the important services 
they perform in actuarial and sanitary science. This subject 
can only be dealt with here in outline. In the first place, sex 
must be distinguished, because, from infancy upwards, except 
between the ages of lo and ao, the mortality amongst females 
b considerably less than amongst the other sex, and appears, 
too, to be declining more rapidly. So far as adult life is con- 
cerned this superior vitality is no doubt attributable to com- 
parative immunity from the risks and hardships to which men 
are exposed, as, also, to the weaker inclination of women towards 
intemperance of different kinds. Thus, though the generally 
higher proportion of females in the community may seldom fa« 
enough to depress more than slightly the death-rate as a whole, 
it has a substantial effect upon it at the ages where women are in 
more marked numerical predominance, as in later life, and in 
places where the number of domestic servants is unusually 
great. Age is a factor still more important than lex in a return 
intended to serve as an index of mortality. The liability to 
• death is extremely high amongst infants, decreasing with every 
month of life during -the first year, but continuing above the 
mean rate until about the age of five. From the; latter period 
until the fifteenth or sixteenth year vitaUty is at its best. 
The death-rate then gradually rises, slowly till 25, more rapidly 
later, when, from about 45 onward deterioration asserts itself 
more pronouncedly, and by three score years and ten the rate 
b^ns to exceed that of childhood. Thus, all other considera- 
tions being set aside, mortality tends to vary inversely with 
the proportion of the population at the healthy period s to 25. 
As the replenishment of this group depends upon the conditions 
prevailing at the earlier ages, it is to the mortality in childhood 
that most weight, from the standpoint of hygiene, must be 
ftttached. In most European countries not much less than half 
the annual deaths take place amongst children below five years 
of age, upon the total number of whoqii the incidence falls to the 
extent of from 40 to 1 20 per mille. The greater part of this is 
debitable, as just pointed out, to the first year, in which the 
mortality, calculated upon the number of births, ranged, in the 


decenm'um 1895-1904, between 70 per mille, in the exceptionally 
favourable circumstances of the Australasian States, to nearly 
270 in European Russia. It should be renuirked, in passing, 
that these rates are enormously higher amongst illegitimate 
children than amongst those bpm in wedlock, and tLat the 
proportion of still-bom amongst the former is also in excess of 
that amongst the latter by some 50%. Infantile mortab'ty is 
higher, too, in urban tracts, especially those associated with 
manufacturing industries. In Table VII. below, in which the 
crude rate alone is dealt with, evidence will be found of the 
general decline which has taken place in the mortality, thus 
expressed in different countries. 

The difference in the rates for the various oountzks must not 
be taken as a measure of difference in mortality, since, as accord- 
ing to the table, much of it is ascribable to difference in age- 
constitution. At the same time, where the range is very wide, 
as between the rates in Scandinavia an4 Australia, and those in 
southern and eastern Europe, the variation, to a great extent, 
cannot be accounted for otherwise than by difference in hygienic 
conditions, more especially in the light thrown by the figures 
of infantile mortality in the second part of the table. The 
variations from period to period in the same country are more 
instructive. They show that in the 35 years covered the death- 
rate has generally declined by over. 20%. The exceptional 
cases are, first, Ireland and Norway, with their emigrating 
tendencies; then Spain, where the returns, have probably to be 
discounted for improved registration, and France, where the 
population is all but stationary. In Finland the death-rate 
at the earlier period taken for the comparison was abnormally 
swollen by epidemic disease, and if it be set on one side tiM 
decline appears to have been in harmony with that in its Scan- 
dinavian neighbours. The decline in mortality has been much 
greater than that in the crude birth-rate evexywhexe except in 
France, Australia, and, of course, Ireland; and it is only in the 
two former that it has been exceeded by that in the fertiUty- 
rate. The standard mortality of each community is deduced 
from a life-table, representing a "generation " of people assumed 
to be born at the same moment and followed throughout their 
hypothetical life, in the light of the distribution by age ascertained 


Tablb VIT. 


Country. 

(A) Death per 1000 of ToUl 

(B) Deaths under one 

(C) Decline per cent. 

»Pn>babIc 
Lifetime. 

Population. 

year per 1000 Births. 

1861-1870 to 
1895-1904. 

Fertility- 
rate. 

1841-1850. 

I86I-I870. 

1895-1904. 

1874-1883. 

1 895-1904. 

Death- 
rate. 

Birth- 
rate. 

1880-1882 to 
1900-1902. 

Yeara. 

Sweden .... 
Norway .... 
Finland . . . . 
Denmark . . . 

England. . . . 
Scotland . . . 
IreUnd . . . . 

Holland . . . . 
Belgium . . . . 
Germany . . . 
Austria (W) . . 

France .... 
Italy: . . . . 
Spain . . . . 

SSS^ : : : 

ServU . . . . 
Rusna (Eur.) . . 

N. S. Wales . . 
Victoria .... 
New Zealand . . 

206 

l8-2 

23-5 

205 
262 

Itt 
29-8 

23-2 

20-2 
180 

32-6 
19-8 

166 
254 

'4 

291 

23-6 

309 
306 

330 

33-5 
309 
371 

16-2 

167 
13-2 

15-8 

187 
158 

17-2 

i8-o 

170 
178 

20-8 

240 
204 

in 

Vr\ 

23-6 
312 

II-7 
9-8 

128 
104 
164 
14' 

149 
122 
96 

208 « 
255 

? 

277 

117 

98 

90 
134 
127 

150 
126 
103 

147 
156 
198 > 
224 

153 
170 
182 

216 

108 
105 
79 

217 

206 

+8-4 

33-0 
25-2 
226 
17-5 

91 

170 
170 
23.6 

15-9 
27-7 

20*4 

257 

150 
3-9 
7-2 
4-2 

19-4 

14-7 
U-l 

9.0 
9-8 
4-6 
42 

175 
107 
8-0 

6-2 

,S| 

2*2 
322 

37-2 
35- » 

8-2 

y$ 

9-3 

17-8 
125 

+21 
9.3 

19-8 
2-5 

307 
24.1 
245 

52-3 
522 

iU 

27-8 
451 
407 

47-4 
43;0 

401 

512 
55-4 


> Mean after lifetime at birth. ' Finland from 1850-1891, decrease 20*4. * Prusua only; Saxony, 284 and 272; Bavaria, 308 257. 


POPULATION 


99 


thioiigb the census and the number of deaths at each age 
observed for as many years, generally from to to 20, as suffice 
to fixmish a trustworthy average. The population thus dealt 
with is supposed to be stationary, that is, the loss by death at 
each ace is at once made good by the addition of an equal 
number of the same age, whilst the survivors pass on to the 
age above. Of the many calculations set forth in these valuable 
tables there is only room here to refer to the " afCbrlifetime " 
for such countries as it is available, which is quoted in the last 
column of Table VII. It shows the average number of years 
which posons of a given age, or, as here, of all ages, will live, 
00 the assumption that they are subject to the calculated 
probabilities of survival. It is sometimes known as the 
** expectation of life," a term, however, which involves a 
mathematical hypothesis now discarded. 

The relation between the birth and the death rates has been 
the subject of much analysis and controversy. Observation has 
demonstrated that the two rates are generally found to move 
along parallel lines. A high birth-rale is accompanied by high 
mortaUty; conversely, when one is low, so is the other. A birth- 
rate continuously in excess of the death-rate tends to lower the 
latter through the supply it affords of people annually reaching 
the more healthy ages. If the supply be diminished, the narrower 
field open to the risks of infancy has the immediate effect of 
further decreasing the mortality. In course of time, however, 

Tablb VIII 


Country. 


Norway 
Fiolaod 
Denmark. 

England 
Scotland 
Ireland 

Holland 
Belgium . 
Gornany. . 
Austria (W.). 

Fmnce 

bpam. 

Raaiia 
Hungary 
bcrvia 
Calida 

New Sooth Wales 
Victoria . . 
New Zealand . 


Serial order 
according 
to formula 


1895-1904- 


8 
9 
13 


18 
15 
19 

30 
18 
14 
17 

a 

3 

I 


Per 1000 of Population. 


Annual ex- 
ecu of Births 
over Deaths. 


1861- 
1871. 


II-3 

12-9 

3-1 
II-I 

13-6 
13*0 
9.6 

9-9 
78 
10*3 
7.9 

U 

77 
12.7 

,U 

xo-9 

24-8 
24-7 
27.0 


1895- 
1904. 


10-9 
146 
135 
139 

II-8 
11*9 
5-2 

151 

lO-J 

14.7 

10*2 

10-8 
7-0 

X7-5 
115 
i6| 
X5-6 

161 
12.7 
16-3 


Total annual 
increase. 


1861- 
1871. 


7-7 
7-9 
1-3 
10*4 

12-5 

-6-9 

84 

H 

5-6 

2-8 
60 
51 

117 

8-2 

10*9 

36-9 
30'8 
63*0 


1891- 
1901. 


71 
11-3 
ii'i 
11-5 

iO'6 

12'7 

9-8 
13-2 
0-5 

1-6 
6-2 
4-9 

'U 

144 
10-4 

184 
5-2 
19*0 


/Approximate 

loss by 
emigration. 


i86t- 
1871. 


3-7 
51 
1-0 

0.3 

1*1 
3-6 
150 


-I- 0-2 
09 

2'I 

0-7 

04 


+ 61 


I89I- 
1901. 


under the same influence, those passing from their prime into 
the second period of danger acquire a numerical preponderance 
which throws its weight upon the general death-rate and tends 
to raise it. It is assumed that throughout the above course the 
hygienic conditions of Ufe remain unchanged. If, however, they 
undergo marked improvement, the duration of life is extended 
and lK>th birth and death-rates, being spread over a wider 
field of the living, tend to decrease. On the other hand, an 
accidental set-back to popdlation, such as that caused by famine 
or a disastrous war, leaves room which an increasing birth-rate 
hastens to occupy. A similar result follows in a lesser degree 
a wave of emigration. Examples of all the aboye tendencies 
may be gleaned from the returns of the countries named in the 
table, though space does not admit of their exhibtion. In 
both France and Germany, for instance, the process of replenish- 
L after a great war can be traced both earlv and late in the 


XQth century. In England,. the decre&M fai "natality " is in 
itself enough' to account for the decline in the death-rate, apart 
from any considerations of improved hygiene. In France, on 
the contrary, the low natality having been so long continued, 
has raised the death-rate, by reason of the balance of propor- 
tion having been shifted by it from youth and the prime of life 
to old age. It may be inferred from the above that a high birth- 
rate does not imply a high rate of increase of population, any 
more than does a decreasing mortality, but the two rates must 
be considered in their relations to each other. The death-rate, 
however, is often taken by itself as the measure of the relatively 
favourable conditions or otherwise of the different countries; 
but it indicates at best the maintaining power of the community, 
whereas the increasing power, as manifested in the birth-rate, 
has also to be taken into account. Here, again, it is not sufficient 
to rely upon the mere rate of natural growth, or the difference 
between the t^yo rates, since this may be the same in acommunity 
where both the rates are very high as in one where they are 
relatively low, a distinction of considerable importance. It has 
been suggested by Dr Rubin of Copenhagen, that if the death 
rate(^ be squared and divided by the birth-rate (6), due influence 
is allowed to each rate respectively, as well as to the difference 
in the height of the rates in different countries {Journ. R, 
Statist. Soc., London, 1897, p. 154). The quotient thus obtained 
decreases as the conditions are more favourable, and, on the 
whole, it seems to form a good index to the merit of 
the respective countries from the standpoint of vital 
forces. The first column of Table VIII. shows the 
order in which the countries mentioned are found to 
stand according to the above test. 

The three Australasian states head the list in virtue 
of their remarkably low death-rate, which outweighs 
the relative paucity of their births. The next countries 
in order all belong to north-western Europe, and theii 
index-quotients are all very close to each other. 
Sweden falls below its geographical neighbours owing 
to its low birth-rate, and Finland because of its higher 
mortality. England and Scotland, in spite of their 
higher birth-rates, are kept below. Scandinavia by the 
higher death-rate, but their birth-rate places them 
above Belgium. Ireland and France are pulled down 
by their low natab'ty. The latter, with the same 
mortality as Germany, stands far below it for the 
above reason, as Ireland as raised by its lower death- 
rate above the prolific countries of eastern Europe. 
The rate of natural growth is given in the second part 
of the table. In the case of two of the Australasian 
states, of Holland, Finland, Spain and Italy, the 
order is in accord with that given by the test applied 
above, and the difference between the two in Austria, 
Ireland and France is not large. The great difference 
between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists 
by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remark&bly high 
rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the 
case of most of the other countries in question, shows 
that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in 
the estimate of hygienic balance. 
Migration. — Passing from the internal factors in the move- 
ment of population, the influence has to be taken into account 
of the interchange of population between different countries. 
The net results of such exchange can be roughly estimated by 
comparing the rate of natural growth with that of the total 
increase of the community between one census and another, 
as set forth in Table VIII., in the last section of which the approxi- 
mate loss by emigration, as calculated by Dr SundbSrg, is given. 
It will be seen that the only European country which gains by 
the exchange is France, and there the accretion is almost insig- 
nificant. Between many of .the countries there is a good deal 
of migration which is only seasonal or temporary, according to 
the demand for labour. From Russia, too, there is a stream of 
colonization across the Urals into western Siberia, and amongst 
the western Mediterranean populations there Is consCar* 


3-7 

2-7 
2-3 
«-3 

0>2 

1*2 

10*7 

1-5 

0-1 

07 
0.5 

-H-o 
4-6 
04 

1-6 
09 
0-6 
41 

+ *-J 
+ 3-7 


100 


POPULONIUM— PORCH 


migratioii to North Africa The greatest drain from Europe, 
however, has been across the sea to the United States, Canada 
and Australasia, espedaily to the first-named. Dr Sundb&rg's 
returns give about 28 millions as the number which left Europe 
by sea during the xgth century, of whom all but 4 millions 
emigrated during the last half of that period. Between 1821 
and 1904, about 22 millions landed from Europe in the United 
States; alx>ut 2} millions in Canada; 2 milUons in Australia, 
besides a good number in Brazil, the Argentine and South 
Africa. The return of birthplace which usually forms part of 
the census inquiry, affords supplementary information on the 
subject of inmiigration. In Canada, for instance, those born 
abroad numbered 17 % of the population in 1871, and about 
13 % thirty years later. In New South Wales, the correspond- 
ing figures were 41 and 28 %, and in Victoria 55 and 27. In New 
Zealand the consequences of the cessation of special encourage- 
ment to emigration were still more marked, the foreign-bom 
declining in proportion from 63 to 33 %. On the other hand, 
in the United Sutes, from 9*7 % in 1850 the proportion rose to 
X3'7 in X900, and has tinct reached still higher figures, as has 
been the case recently In Canada also. Up to the early 'nineties 
the greater part of the immigrants into America were fumkhed 
by Germany, Ireland and Great Britain, but for the next fifteen 
years the place of those countries was taken by Italy and eastern 
Europe. The general results of the two movements in Europe 
have been thus summarised by Dr Sundb&rg>~ 

Tablb IX. 



Annual rate per 1000 of population. | 

i8oi-i85a 

i85O-i90a 

Births. 

Deaths. 

Births 
above 
Deaths. 

Census 
Increase. 

Births. 

Deaths. 

Births 
above 
Deaths. 

Census 
Increase. 

Europe. N.W. 

.. S.W. 

E. . 

Total Europe 

35-4 
33-6 
45-9 

26.3 
38- 1 

89 

u 

81 

7-7 

34-4 
31-4 
462 

34-7 

II-O 

"•5 

8-6 
10-6 

38-6 

31-2 

7-4 

71 

380 

284 

96 

82 

United Sutes 
Canada . . 
Australasia . 

- 

- 

— 

pi 

859 

■~~ 

—" 

- 

24-0 

I6-3 

482 


Differences tend to be smoothened out, of course, in dealing 
with a population so large and varied as that of a continent, 
but the figures suffice to show the contrast between the eariy 
part of the centuiy and the period following the great migratory 
movements to the new goldfields. In the countries receiving 
the stream of newcomers, the intercensal rate of increase was 
obviously very different from those of the older countries, though 
it seems to have largely spent itself or been counteracted by 
other influences. The latest rates, for instance, were only 18 
per mille per aimum in Australia; ix in Canada and X9 in the 
United States. 

BmLrOGRAPUT,— A vtry tull bibllonaphy tip to 1899 is appended 
10 von Fincke'a Bnoikrru r^g ^r /, r» nnd Beodlkerungspolilik. Reference 
may alia be nijtti? lo M,irtficws Duncan, Fecundity, Fertility and 
Sicnliiy (ed. iJi?!): Ncw^la^ Ime, Elements of Vital Statistics (cd, 
1S90), jxid hi* |jflppr on bin l^-ratcs, Journ^ K. Statist. Soc. («996) : 


,-,, * pt, .. _. . _ 

W. PiTj. Viiai Siaii Jilts ( 1 SS^f j ; Coghlan, Report on Decline in 
rate, Nrw SpuIA Wai^i {i^y, and report oi Royal Commissiion on 
thjt decline (1904): Bon^ir, M.Utkus and his Work (1885): Bertillon. 
^Umtnii dr d^cerapine ; Cornier, Du Principe de ^pidationx de 
MDlinaH, Rdtniisjrmcnt du moiaement de la population; Bertheau. 
£jjai iBf ^i hit df k popvLition: Starkenburg, Die Betdlkerungs- 
Wiiienuk&fi: Sticda^ D^i irxud Verh&ltniss der Ceborenen; Rubin 
and W«ter^a:ird, Statutik drr Eken; Westeigftard, Die Lekre von der 
Mortalim and MorbUUat, and DieGnmdaOieder Tkeorie der Slatistik-, 
Gonnoj-iJ, L'Smigralisn cvn^pienne, (J* A. B.) 

POPULONIUM (Etruscan Puplum), an ancient seaport town 
of Etruria, Italy, at the north end of the peninsular of Monte 
Massoncello, at the south end of which is situated the town 
of Piombino {q.v.). The place, almost the only Etruscan town 


built directly on the sea, was situated on a bfty hiU^ now 
crowned by a conspicuous medieval castle and a poor modem 
village (Populbnia). Considerable remains of its town walla, 
of large irregular, roughly rectangular blocks (the form is that 
of the natural splitting of the schist ose sandstone), still exist, 
enclosing a circuit of about x| m. The remains existing within 
them are entirely Roman— a row of vaulted substructions, a 
water reservoir and a mosaic with representations of fishes. 
Strabo mentions the existence here of a look-out tower for the 
shoals of tunny-fish. There are some tombs outside the town, 
some of which, ranging from the Villanova period (9th century 
B.C.) to the middle of the 3rd century B.C., were oq>Iored in 
X908. In one, a large drcular tomb, were found three sepulchral 
couches in stone, carved in imitation of wood, and a fine 
statuette in bronze of Ajax ^mmitting suidde. Qose by was 
found a horse collar with 14 bronze bdls. The remains of a 
temple, devastated in ancient times (pMsibly by Dionysius 
of Syracuse in 384 b.c), were also discovered, irith fragments of 
Attic vases of the 5th century B.C., which had served as ex 
votos in it. Coins of the town have also been found in silver 
and copper. The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper 
of the mainUnd, were owned and smdted by the people of 
Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m. to the E. (Aqiiae 
Populaniae) on the high road— Via Aurelia— along the coast. 
At this point a road branched off tO Saena (Siena)^ According 
to Virgil the town sent a contingent to the help of Aeneas, and 
it furnished Sdpio with iron in 205 B.C. It 
offered considerable resistance to Sulla, who 
took it by siege; and from this dates its 
decline, which Strabo, who describes it weU 
(v. 2, 6, p. 223), already notes as beginning, 
while four centuries later Rutilius describes 
it as in ruins. The harbour, however, 
continued to be of some importance, and 
the place was still an q>iscopaI see in the 
time of Gregory the Great. 

See G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries efEtntria 
(London. 1883, ii. 212 sqq.); I. Falchi in Notiaie 
degfi Scan (1903-1904;; L. A. Milani, ibkL 
(1908), 199 sqq. 

PORBANDAR, a native state of India, 
in the Kathiawar political agency, Bombay, 
extending along the S.W. cOast of the 
peninsula of Kathiawar. Area, 636 sq. xn.; 
pop. (1901), 82,640, showing a decrease of 4 % in the decade. 
Estimated gross revenue, £65,000; tribute, £3,233. The chief, 
whose title is rana, is a Jethwa Rajput. Limestone is largely 
exported to Bombay. This limestone ia used for buildings in 
Porbandar without mortar, and is said to coalesce into a solid 
block under the influence of moisture. The town of Porbandar 
is the maritime terminus of the Kathiawar railway system. Pop. 
(1901), 24,620. A large trade is conduaed in native boats as far 
as the east coast of Africa. 

PORCELAIN, the name of that kind of ceramic ware which ia 
characterized by a translucent body, also loosdy used for the 
finer kinds of ware generally, p<^ularly known as " china " 
(sec Ceramics). The French porcelaine, from which the word 
comes into English, is an adaptation of the Italian parceBana, 
a cowrie-shell, the beautifully polished surface of which caused 
the name 10 be applied to the ware. The Italian word is generally 
taken to be from porcellCf diminutive ol.porcOf pig, from a sui>- 
posed resemblance of the shell to a pig's back. 

PORCH (through the Fr. poreke, from Lat. portkus; . the 
Ital. equivalent is portico, corresponding to the Gr. i"&p9i)(; 
Gcr. VorkaBe), a covered erection forming a shdter to the 
entrance door of a large building. The earUest known are the 
two porches of the Tower of the Winds at Athens; there would 
seem to have been one in front of the entrance door of the villa 
of Diomede outside the gate at Pompeii; in Rome they were 

' It commands a fine view, and Corsica is tomettmes visible, though 
not Sardinia, as Strabo (and following him. Lord Macaulay) erro- 
neously sute. 


PORCUPINE— PORDENONE, IL 


Vnbtbty not allowed, but on dtlier lide of the entrance door of 
a maaaaoo, porticoes let back behind the line of frontage were 
provided, acoocding to F. Maaoia, as ahdten from sun and rain 
for those who paid early visits before the doors were opened. 
In front of the early Christian basilicas was a long arcaded porch 
caOed " narthes " iq.9.) In later times pojches assume two 
fonna^— one the projecting erection covering the entrance at 
the west front of cathednls, and divided into three or more 
doorways, Ac, and the other a kind of covered rhj^mtyr open 
at the encb, and having small windows at the sides as a protection 
from rain. These generally stand on the north or south sides 
of churches, though in Kent there are a few instances (as Snodl&nd 
and Bozley) where they are at the west ends. Those of the Nor- 
man period generally have little projection, and are sometimes 
so flat as to be little more than outer dressings and hood- 
moulds to the inner door. They are often richly ornamented, 
and, as at Southwell in England and Kelso in Scotland, have 
rooms over, which have been erroneously called parnses. Early 
English porches are much kmger, and in larger buildings fre- 
quently have rooms above; the gables are generally bold and hi^ 
pitched. In larger buildings also, as at Wells, St Albans, &c., 
the interiors are as rich in design as the exteriors. Decorated 
and Ptependicular porches partake of much the same character- 
istics, the piuh of roof, mouldings, copings, battlements, &c., 
being, of course, influenced by the taste of the time. The later 
porches have rooms over them more frequently than in earlier 
times; thesejoe often approached from the kmer storey by small 
winding stairs, and sometimes have fire-places, and are supposed 
to have served as vestries; and sometimes thoe are the remains 
of a piadna, and relics of altars, as if they had been used as 
diantry chapels. It is probable there were wooden porches at 
an periods, particulariy in those places where stone was scarce; 
but, aa may bfi expected from their exposed position, the earliest 
have decayed. At Cobham, Surrey, there was one that had 
ranges of semicircular arches in oak at the sides, of strong 
Norman character. It is said there are several in which portions 
of Early English work are traceable, as at Chevington in Suffolk. 
In the Decorated and later periods, however, wooden porches 
are common, some plain, others with rich tracery and large 
boards; these frequently stand on a sort of half storey of stone 
work or bokmi. The entrance porches at the west end of cathe- 
drals are generally called portalst and where they assume the 
fharafter of separate buildings, are designated galUeet; e.g. the 
porticoea on the west side of the south transept of Lincoln 
Cathedral, and at the west end of the nave of Ely Cathedral, and 
the chapd at the west end of Durham Cathedral. The finest 
rtamplf in England of an open projected porch is that of 
Peterborough Oithedral, attached to the Early Norman nave. 

The term " porch " is also given to the magnificent portals 
of the French cathedrals, where the doors are so deeply recessed 
as to become porches, such as those of Reims, Amiens, Chartres, 
Trqyes, Rouen, Bouxges, Paris, and Beauvais cathedrals, 
St Ouen, Rouen, and earlier Romanesque churches, as in St 
Trophime, Aries and St Gilles. Many, however, have detached 
porches in front of the portals, as in Notre Dame at Avlgon, 
Chartres (north and south), Noyon, Bourges (north and south), 
St Vincent at Rouen, Notre Dame de Louviers, the cathedrals 
of Albi and Le Puy, uid in Germany those of Spires and Regens- 
bufg, and the churches of St Laurencj and St Sebald at 
Nuremberg. (R. P. S.) 

PORCUrarS (Fr., p9rc-4pk, "spiny plg")> the name of 
the largest European representative of the terrestrial rodent 
mammals, distinguished by the spiny covering from which it 
takes its name. The European porcupine (Hystrix eristata) is 
the typical representative of a famUy of Old World rodents, the 
Hystrieidae^ all the members of which have the same protective 
covering. These rodents are characterized by the imperfectly 
rooted cheek-teeth, imperfect clavicles or collar-bones, cleft 
upper Up, rudimentary first front-toes, smooth soles, six teats 
and many cranial characters. They range over the south of 
Europe, the whole of Africa, India and the MaUy Archipdago 
as far east as Borneo. They are all stout, heavily-buOt animals, 


lOI 

with blunt rounded heads, fleshy mobile snouts, and coata of 
thick cylindrical or flattened spines, which form the whole 
covering of their body, sod are not intermingled with ordinary 
hairs. Their habits are strictly terrestrial. Of the three genera 
Hystrix is characterized by the inflated skull, in which the nasal 
chamber is often considerably hu^er than the brain-case, and 



The Porcupine {Hystrix eristata). 
the short tail, tipped with numerous slender-stalked open qtiills, 
which make a loud rattling noise whenever the animal moves. 
The- common porcupine (H. eristata) t which occurs throughout 
the south of Europe and North and West Africa, is replaced in 
South Africa by H. afrieaeausiralis and in India fay the hairy- 
nosed porcupine -(if. leucura), 

Beddes these Urge crested qwcies, there are several smaller species 
without crests to north-east India, and the Malay regioa from Nepal 
to Bomea The genus Atkerura includes the brush-uiled ponnipioes 
which are much small^ animals, with long tails tiroed with bundles 
of flattened q>ines. Two n>ecies are found in the Malay region and 
one in West Africa. Trichys, the last genus, contains two species, 
T. faseieulata of Borneo and T. macroHs of Sumatra, both externally 
very like Atkerura, but differing from the members of that genus 
in many CFsnialtcharacteristicft. In the New World the porcupines 
are represented by the members oi the family Er«tkuotuida«, or 
Coemitdae, which nave rooted molars, complete collar-bones, entire 
upper lips, tuberculated solea^ no tnce of a first front-toe, and four 
teats. The spines are mixed with long soft hairs. They are less 
strictly nocturnal in their babiu; aixl with one exceptkm live 
entirely in trees, having in correspondence with this long and power- 
ful prehensile tails, 'uiey include three ^nera, of which the first 
is represented by the Canadian porcupine (Er^kison dorsatus), 
a stout, heavily-built animal, with long hairs almost or quite hiding 
its spines, four front- and five hind-toes, and a short, stumpy uil. It 
is a native of the greater part of Canada and the United States, 
wherever there u any remnant of the original forest Idt. SyuOkerts, 
or Caendu, contains some eight or ten species, known as tree-poccu- 
pines. found throughout tromcal South America, with one extending 
into Mexico. They are of a lighter build than the grou nd-porcupines. 
with short, close, many-coloured spines, often mixed with nairs, 
and prehensile tails. The hind-feet have only four toes, owing to 
the suppression of the first, in place of whicn they have a flnhy 
pad on the inner side of the foot. Between which and the toes boughs 
and other objects can be firmly graned as with a hand. Ckaetomys, 
distinguished by the shape of its skull and the ereater complexity 
of its teeth, contains C. subspinosmSt a native of the hottest parts 
ofBmxiL (W. H. F.;R.L.«) 

PORDBNONB, IL (i483>x539), an eminent painter of the Vene- 
tian school, whose correct name was Giovanni Antonio Licinio, 
or Lidno. He was commonly named II Pordenone from having 
been bom in 1483 at Corticelli. a village near Pordenone (9.9.) 
in Italy. He ultinuttdy dropped the name of Lidnio. having 
quarrdled with his brothers, one of whom had wounded him in 
the hand; be then called himself Regillo, or De Regillo. His 
signature runs " Antonius Portunaensis," or " De Portunaonis." 
He was created a cavaliere by Charies V. 

As a painter Licinio was a scholar of Pellegrino da S. Danide, 
but the leading influence which governed his style was that of 
Giorgione; the popular story that he was a fellow-pupil with 
Titian under Giovanni BeUlni is incorrect. The district 


I02 


PORDENONE— PORISM 


about Pordeno&e had been somewhat fertile in capable 
painters; but Lidnio excelled them all in invention and design, 
and more tsptdaHy in the powen of a vigorous chiaroscurist 
and flesh painter. Indeed, so far as mere flesh-painting is 
concerned he wss barely inferior to Titian in breadth, pulpiness 
and tone; and he was for a while the rival of that great painter 
in public regard. The two were open enemies, and Lidnio 
would sometimes affect to wear arms while he was painting. 
He excelled Giorgione in light and shade and in the effea of 
relief, and was distinguishMl in perspective and in portraits; 
he was equally at home in fresco and in oil-colour. He executed 
many works in Pordenone and elsewhere in FriuH, and in Cremona 
and Venice; at one time he settled in Piacenza, where ii one of 
his most cdebrated church piaures, " St Catherine disputing with 
the Doctors in Alexandria "; the fi^pire of St Paul in connexion 
with this piauxe is his own portrait. He was formally invited 
by Duke Hercules II. of Ferrara to that court; here soon after- 
wards, in XS39, he died, not without suspidon of poison. His 
latest works are oomparativdy csrdess and superficial; and 
generally he is better in male figures than in female— the latter 
being somewhat too sturdy— and the composition of his subject- 
pictures is scarcely on ^ level with their other merita. Pordenone 
appears to have been a vehement self-asserting man, to which 
his style as a painter corresponds, and his morals were not 
unexceptionable. Three of his prindpal scholars were Bernar- 
dino Lidnio, named II Sacchiense, his son-in-law Pomponio 
Amalteo, and Giovanni Maria CalderarL 

The following may be named among Pordenone's works: 
the picture of " S Luigi Giustiniani and other Saints," originally 
in S Maria dell' Orto, Venice; a " Madonna and Saint*'' (both 
of these in the Venice academy); the." Woman taken in Adul- 
tery," in tKe Berlin museum; the " Annunciation," at Udine, 
reguded by Vasari as the artist's masterpiece, now damaged by 
restoration. In Hampton Court is a duplicate work, the 
" Painter and his Family **; and in Burghley House are two fine 
pictures now assigned to Pordenone — ^the " Finding of Moses " 
and the " Adoration of the Kings." These used to be attributed 
to Titian and to Bassano respectively. 

PORDBNONB, a town of the province of Udine, Venetia, 
Italy, 30 m. W. by S. of Udine on the railway to Treviso. Pop. 
(iQox), 8435 (town); 12,409 (commune). It was the birthplace 
of the painter generally known as D Pordenone iq.v.). Paintings 
from his brush adorn the cathedral (which has a fine brick 
campanile), and others are preserved in the gallery of the town 
haO. Cotton industries are active, and silk and pottery are 
manufactured. 

PORB, a smsU opening or orifice, particularly used of the open- 
ings of the ducts of the sweat-glancb in the skin or of the sUmala 
In the epidermis of plants or those through which the pollen 
or seed are discharged from anthers or seed capsules. The 
word is an adaptation through the French from Lat. ^orus. 
Or. v6pof, passage. In the sense of to look dosdy at, to read 
with persistent or dose attention, " pore " is of obscure origin. 
It would seem to be connected with " peer," to look closely 
into, and would point to an O. Eng. purian or Syrian. There 
is no similar word in Old French. 

PORnBIUS, PUBUUUS OPTATIANUS. Latin poet, possibly 
a native of Africa, flourished during the 4th century aj>. He 
has been identified with Publilius OpUtianus, who was prae- 
ftam «rN (339 and 333), and is by some authorities induded 
amongst the Christian poets. For some reason he had been 
banished, but having addressed a panegyric to the Emperor 
Constantine the Great, be was allowed to return. Twenty- 
eight poems are extant under his name, of which twenty were 
induded in the panegyric. They have no value except as 
curiosities and spfdmms of perverted ingenuity. Some of 
them are squares (the number of letters in eadi line bdng equal), 
certain letters bdng rubricated so as to form a pattern or figure, 
and at the same time special verses or maxims; othen represent 
various objects, (a syrinx, an organ, an altar); others have 
special peculiarities in each line (number of words or letters) ; 
while the s8th poem (the versut atMeyclici) may be read back- 


wards without any etfect upon sense or metre. A oompUnientary 
letter from the emperor and letter of thanks from the author are 
also extant. The best edition of the poem is by L. Mailer (1877). 
See also O. Seeck, '* Das Leben des Dichten Porphyrins '* in 
RJuimisckes Museum (1908), bdii. 267. 

P0RI81I. The subject of porisms is perplexed by the 
multitude of different views which have been hdd by geometers 
as to what a porism really was and is. The treatise which has 
given rise to the controversies on this subject is the Poritms of 
Euclid, the author of the EUtuenls. For as much as we know 
of this lost treatise we are indebted to the CoUeetion of Pappus 
of Alexandria, who mentions it along with other geomet^cal 
treatises, and gives a number of lemmas necessary for under- 
standing it. Pappus sutes that the porisms of Eudid are 
ndther theorems nor problems, but are in some sort intermediate, 
so that they may be presented other as theorems or as problems; 
and they were regarded accordingly by many geometers, who 
looked mody at the form of the enunciation, as being actually 
theorems or problems, though the definitions given by the 
older writers showed that they better understood die distinction 
between the three classes of propositions. The older geometers 
regarded a theorem as directed to proving what is proposed, 
a problem as directed to corutruding what is propwed, and 
finally a porism as direaed to finding what is proposed (eft 
vefM^idr ajbrdb roO Tporwfoiikvoo). Pappus goes on to say that 
this last definition was changed by certain later geometers, who 
defined a porism on the ground of an accident J charaaeristic 
as r6 ^MW (rvoOl^cc ronnO B^u^itarot, that which falls short 
of a locus-theorem by a (or in its) hypothesis. 

Produs points out that the word was used in two senses. 
One sense is that of " corollary," as a result unsought, as it were, 
but seen to follow from a theorem. On the '* porism " in the 
other sense he adds nothing to the definition of " the older 
geometers" except to say (what does not really help) that 
the finding of the center of a drde and the finding of the 
greatest common measure are porisms (Produs, ed. Fricdidn, 
p. 301).. 

Pappus gives a complete enunciation of a porism derived 
from Euclid, and an extension of it to a more general case. 
This porism, expressed in modem language, aaseru that— given 
four straight lines of which three turn about the poinu in which 
they meet the fourth, if two of the poinu of intersection of these 
lines lie each on a fixed straight Une, the remaining point of inter- 
section will also lie on another straight line. The general enunda- 
tion applies to any number of straight lines, say («-f- 1), of which 
fi can turn about as many points fixed on the (n-f- 1 )th. These n 
straight lines cut, two and two, in kn^n-i) points, \n{n-i) 
being a triangular number whose side is (»~i). If, then, they 
are made to turn about the n fixed points so that any (it-i) of 
their }« (f»-i) points of intersection, chosen subject to a certain 
limitation, lie on (»-i) given fixed straight lines, then each of 
the remaining poinu of intersection, \ (it-i) (»-2) in number, 
describes a straight Une. Pappus gives also a complete enuncia- 
tion of one poiism of the first book of Eudid 's treatise. .This 
may be expressed thus: If about two fixed poinu P, Q we make 
turn two straight lines meeting on a given straight line L, and 
if one of them cut off a segment AM from a fixed straight line AX/ 
given in position, we can determine another fixed straight line 
BY, and a point B fixed on it, such that the segment BM' made by 
the second moving line on this second fixed line measured from 
B has a given ratio X to the first segment AM. The rest of the 
enunciations given by Pappus are incomplete, and be merely 
says thet he gives thirty-dght lemmas for the three books of 
porisms; and these indude 171 theorems. 

The lemmas which Pappus gives in connexion with the 
porisms are interesting historically, because he gives (1) the 
fundamental theorem that the cross or an harmonic ratio of a 
pencil of four straight lines meeting in a point is constant for all 
transversals; (s) the proof of the harmonic properties of a com- 
plete quadrilateral; (3) the theorem that, if the six vertices of a 
hexagon lie three and three on two straight lines, the three points 
of concourse of opposite ddes lie on a straight line. 


POROS— PORPHYRY 


103 


During the bat three oentnries this nbjcct seems to have had 
great faadnation for mathematidans, and many geometers have 
attempted to restore the lost porisms. Thus Albert Gtrard says in 
his TniU dt inimtvmitne (1636) that be hopes to publish a lestora- 
tioo. About the same time P. de Fermat wrote a short work under 
the title Parismalwm euclidaecrum retuvata dceirina tt sub forma 
isogeers rtceiUwibus g^ometris txkibUa (see Oeimes d$ F^nuat, i., 
Paris, itei) : but two at least of the 6ve examples of porisms which 
he gives do not fall within tHe classes indicatea by Pappus. Robert 
Sunson was the first to throw real light upon the subject. He first 
suc c eeded in explaining the only three proporitions which Pappus 
indicates with an^ compleuness. This explanation was published 
in the PkOosoplncal Tronsaaums in 1733. Later he investigated 
the subject of porisms generally in a work entitled Us porismatibMS 
tractahu; qua doctrinam porismaUtm utHs txplicatamt d tn ^atUrmn 
ab Mimone lutam fore sperat ametor, and published after his death 
in a volume. RoberH Simsan Optra quasdamrdigtui (Glasgow, 1776). 
Stmaoa's treatise, Do forismaliius, begins with definitions of theorem, 
problem, datum, ponsm and locus. Respecting the porism Stmson 
savs that Pappus's definition is too genersi, and therefore he will 
substitute for it the followins: " Porisroa est propositio in qua 
prmooitor demonstrare rem aliquam vel pluree dates esse, cui vel 
quibus, ttt et cuilibet ex rebus innumeris non quidem datis, sed 
quae ad ea quae data sunt eandem habent relationem, oonvcnire 
oscendeodum est affectionem quandam oommuoem in propoeitione 
descriptam. Porisma etiam in forma problematis enuntiari potest, 
si nimirum ex quibus data deroonstranoa sunt, tnvenienda proponan* 
tur." ^ A locus (says Simeon) is a species of porism. Then follows 
a Latin tiansbtion of Pappus's note on the porisms, and theproposi' 
tioos which form the bulk of the treatise. These are Pappus's 
thirty-eight lemmas relating to the porisms, ten cases of the proposi* 
tion cooceming four straight lines, twenty-nine porisms, twojpro- 
bieffla to illustration and some neliminary lemmas. John Flay- 
fair's memoir (Frafts. Ror. Soc. Etfiii., 1794, vol. iiL). a sort of sequel 
to Simeon's treatise, had for its speoal object the inquiry into the 
probable orig^ of po rism s t hat is, into the steps whidi led the 
andent seometen to the discovery of them. Playfair remarked that 
the caraul investigation of all possible particular cases of a proposi- 
k» would show that (1) under ceruin conditkms a problem becomes 


^ (2) under certain other conditions, indeterminate or 

capable of an infinite number of sdutions. These cases oould be 
ennndated separatdy. were in a manner intermediate between 
theorems and noblenis, and were called " porisms." Playfair 
accordingly denned a porism thus: " A proposition affirming the 
possibility of finding such conditions as will render a certain problem 
mdetcrminate or capable of mnumerable solutions.** Though this 
definitioa of a porism appean to be most favoured in England. 
Simsoo's view has been most genenllv accepted abroad, and has 
the support of the great authority of Michael Chasles. However, 
in LuratnUr*! Journal do matkimaUguos puros ot appliquios {ytA. lat., 
July. i855)* P> Breton published Reckerekts nouoelUs sur Us porismos 
d'&ididi, in which he gave a new translation of the text of Pappus, 
and sought to base thereon a view of the nature of a porism more 
doaely informing to the definitions In Pappus. This was followed 
in the *ame journal and b La Scteneo by a controversy betwee n 
Breton and A. 1. H. Vincent, who disputed the interpretation given 
by the former en the text of Fappus.-and declared himsdf in favour 
of the idea of Schooten, put forward in his Mathematicao osercitO' 
Homos (1657), in which he gives the name of "porism " to one section. 
Acoordifw to F. van Schooten, if the various relations between 
straight unes in a figure are written down in the form of equatkras 
or proportioas, then the combinatHM of these equations in all possible 
ways, and of new equatkms thus deriyed from them leads to the 
d iscu v er y of innumerable new properties of the figure, and htrt 
we bave ** porisms." The discussions, however, between Breton 
and Vincent, in whkh C. Housd also joined, did not carry forward 
the work of restoring Euclid's Porisms, which was left for Chasles. 
Hb work (Los Troislioros do porismos d^Eudidot Pub, i860) makes 
foil use of all the materbl found in Plippus. But we may doubt its 
bring a successful reproduction of Euclid's actual work. Thus, in 
vkw of the andlbry rebtion in which Pappus's lemmas generally 
stand to the works to which they refer, it seems incredibb that the 
first seven out of thirty-eight bmmas should be really equivabnt 


(as Chasles makes them) to Euclid's first seven Porisms. 
Charies seems to have been wrong in maldnK the ten cast 
four-line Porism begin the book, instead of the interoept-Porism 


Again, 
s of the 


folly enundated by Psppus, to which the "bmma to the first 
Ponsm '* lebtes intdligibiy, being^a particubr case of it. An inter- 
estiM faypothesb as to the Portsnu was put forward by H. G. 
Zeutben {pi* Lehnvou den KoidsckniUen im Ahertum, i886.ch. viii.). 
O b servi ng , e.g., that the interoept-Porism b still true if the two 
fixed points are points on a conic, and the straight lines drawn 
thnNMh them intersect on the conic instead of on a fixed straight 
fiiK. Zenthcn conjectures that the Porisms were a by-product m a 
fuOy developed proiective geometry of conies. It b a fact that 
Lemma 31 (though it makes no mention of a conic) corresponds 
exactly to Apollonius's method of determining the fod of a central 
conic {Comes, m. 45-47 with 42). 
The three porisms sUtcd by Diophantut in hb ArilkmeHca are 


propositkms m the theoiy of nambere which oan aU be ennndated 
in the form " »e can find numben satisfying such and such condi- 
tions "; they are suffidently analocpus therefore to the geometrical 
porism as defined in Pappus and Produs. 

A valuabb chapter on porbms (from a philological standpdnt) 
b induded in J. L. Hdbers's iMlerarguckickaicko Studion iter 
EuUid (Ldpdg, i88a); and the following books or tractt may also 
be mentioned: Aug. Richter, Porismen naek Simson boarboitei 
(Elbing, 1837); M. Cantor, *' Ueber db Porbmen dee EukUd und 
deren Divinatoren,'* in ScU&mitch's Zeils€h.f. Math, u, Phy. (1857), 
and LUeratursoiiuui (1861) j>. ^aeq.; Th. Leidenfrast, IK* Porismm 
des EuUid (Prosramm der Realschub zu Weimar, t86i) ; Fr. Bach- 
binder, Eudids Porismen und Data (Programm der kgL Landesschub 
Pforu, 1866). (T. U H.) 

POROS. or PORO (" the Ford **), an island off the east coast of 
the Morea, sqMxated at its westenx extremity by only a narrow 
channd from the mainland at TYoeEen, and consisting of a masa 
of limestone rock and of a mass of txachsrte connected by a slight 
sandy bthmus. The town looks down on the beautiful harbour 
between the island and the mainland on the south. 

The andent Cabuxia, with which F6roa b identified, was given, 
according to the myth, by Apollo to Poseidon in exchange for 
Ddos; and it became in historic times famous for a temple of the 
sea-god, which formed the centre of an amphictyony of seven 
maritime states— Hermione, Epidaurus, Aegina, Athens, Prasiae, 
Nauplia, and Ordiomenus. Here Deinosthenes took sanctuaxy 
with " gradous Posddon," and, when thb threatened to fail 
him, sought death. The buildiog was of Doric architecture and 
lay on a ridge of the hiU commanding a fine view of Athens and 
the Saronic Gulf, near the middb of the limestone part of the 
island. The site was excavated in 1894,. and traces of a sacred 
agora with porticoes and other buildiiigs, as well as the temple, 
have been found. In the neighbourhood of Poros-Caburia 
are two small islands, the more westerly of which contains the 
ruins of a small temple, and b probably the andent Sphaeria or 
Hiera mentioned by Pausanias as the seat of a tempb of Athena 
Apaturia. The English, French, and Russian pleiupotentiaries 
met at Poros in 1828 to discuss the basb of the Greek government. 

See Chandler, Traoels; Leake, lioroa: Le Bas, Voyats ardU- 
oi^pquo; Curtius. Pehpounosos; Pouillon-Bobbye.. Rtdterdies; 
Bursian, Ceorrapkio von Griodionland; Rangabi "Ein Ausflug 
nach Poros." in Deutsdie Reoue (1883) ; and S. Wkb, hi ItitkUungtn 
4. deutsch. insi. Aiken, (1895), voL zz. 

PORPHTRIO, POHPOHIUS. Latin grammarian ' and com- 
mentator on Horace, possibly a native of Africa, flourished 
during the and century a.d. (according to others, much bter). 
Hb schoUa on Horace, which are still extant, mainly consbt of 
rhetorical and grammatical explanations. It b not probable 
that we possess the original work, which must have suffered 
from alterations and interpobtions at the hands of the copybts 
of the middle ages, but on the whob the scholb form a valuable 
aid to the student of Horace. 

Ed. W.Meyer (1874): A. Holder (1894) : see abo C. F. Urba, 
MdeUmataporpkyrionea{i889);KSchwtikext,DePorpkyrionis. . . 
sduUis HoraHams (1865) ; F.PSuly, Quatstionos criHcae de . . . Per- 
pkyrionis eomrnontariis Horatianis (1858). 

PORPHTBT (Ilop^ipcot) (aj>. a33-c. 304), Greek schobr, 
historian, and Neoplatonist, was bom at Tyre, or Batanaea in 
Syria. He studied grammar and rhetoric under Cassius Long- 
inus (g.v.), Hb ori^nal name was Malchus (king), which was 
changed by hb tutor into Porphyrins (dad in purple), a 
jesting allusion to the colour of the imperial robes (d. porphyro- 
genitus, bom in the purple). In 262 he went to Rome, 
attracted by the repuUtion of Plotinus, and for six years 
devoted hinudf to the study of Nec^Iatonism. Having injured 
hb health by overwork, he went to live in Sidly for five years. 
On hb retum to Rome, be lectured on philosophy and endea- 
voured to render the obscure doctrines of Plotinus (who had died 
in the meantime) intelligible to the ordinary understanding. 
Hb most distinguished pupil was lamblichus. When advanced 
in years he married Marcdb, a widow with seven chDdren and 
an enthusiastic student of pUlosophy. Nothing more b known 
of hb life, and the date of hb death b uncertain. 

Of hb numerous works on a great variety of sul^ects the foOowing 
are exunt : Ufe rf PloHnns and an exposition of hb teaching in the 


I04 


PORPHYRY 


, MfA (StnlitUiat ad imkaitibaia imeenies. Aids 
to tbe study of the IntdUgibles). The l^e ^ Pytiagarcs^ which i» 
incomplete, probably formed part of a Ui^er history of philosophy 
UikbQo6ot Uroplm, m four books) down to Plato. His work on 
Aristotle is r ep r es en ted by the IntroducHem (tUaytni) to and 
CommtHtary (IHrwris, in tne form of questions and answers) on 
the CaUiones. The first, translated into Latin by Bofttius, was 
extensivdy used in the middle ages as a compendium of Aristotelian 
logic; of